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Full text of "Endangered Species Technical Bulletin"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/endangeredspecie1214usfi 



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January 1987 






Vol. XII No. 1 





Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Pr °g ram t ^^yj^fctRrfE^^ 10 



PEPOSITORY ITEM 



Two Animals Proposed for Listing 



MAR 16 1987 



During December 1986, the Fish and 
Wildlife Service (FWS) proposed to add 
two animals — a bird and a toad — to the 
U.S. list of Endangered and Threatened 
species. If the proposals are later made fi- 
nal, protection under the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act will be extended to these taxa: 

Black-capped Vireo 
(Vireo atricapillus) 

Once a widely distributed bird, the black- 
capped vireo bred from north-central 
Kansas through Oklahoma and Texas to 
central Coahuila, Mexico (with an outlying, 
possibly temporary, colony in Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico). Its wintering range was from 
Sonora to Oaxaca, with most activity in 
Sinaloa and Nayarit. Unfortunately, 
however, this small but attractive songbird 
is disappearing. Habitat loss and the 
spread of a competing bird species have 
eliminated the black-capped vireo from 
most of its breeding territories in the U.S., 
and it likely faces similar problems in Mex- 
ico. In an effort to prevent its extinction, the 
FWS has proposed to list this species as 
Endangered (F.R. 12/12/86). 

Black-capped vireos require a specific 
type of habitat consisting of a few small 
trees scattered among separated clumps 
of many shrubs or bushes. The clumps of 
bushes are in the open, surrounded by 
bare ground, rocks, grasses, or wild- 
flowers. Bushes with low-reaching foliage 
are particularly important for breeding be- 
cause the nests are usually only 18 to 40 
inches (0.5 to 1 .0 meter) above ground 
and need to be screened from view. 

These specific habitat characteristics 
have proved to be highly vulnerable to 
damage or destruction from certain land 
use practices. Urbanization has com- 
pletely eliminated many former vireo 
breeding areas. Elsewhere, grazing 
sheep, goats, and other exotic herbivores 
remove the vegetation cover near ground 
level that is necessary for vireo nesting. 
Range management also can be a factor 
when it involves the removal of low, broad- 
leaved bushes. On the other hand, natural 
vegetational succession can overwhelm 
the clumped habitat needed by the vireo. 
In the past, overgrown areas periodically 



would be opened by such events as wild- 
fires; now, however, the amount of avail- 
able habitat has been drastically reduced. 
Competition is another big problem for 
the black-capped vireo. The extensive 
human-related changes in the landscape 
and land-use patterns — in particular, the 
opening up of forested areas and the 
spread of cattle and grain fields in North 
America over the past 1 50 years — appear 
to have favored the spread of the brown- 
headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). This 
more adaptable bird seems to be increas- 
ing in numbers as well as in range. (It 
threatens not only the black-capped vireo 
but also a related subspecies in California, 
the Endangered least Bell's vireo, Vireo 
bellii pusillus.) Cowbirds parasitize vireo 
nests, laying their eggs before the vireo 
clutches are completed. The cowbirds 
eggs hatch 2 to 4 days before the vireos 
and, by the time the vireos do hatch, the 
cowbird nestlings outweigh them tenfold. A 
1961 study found that in all places where a 
cowbird nestling occupied the nest, no 
black-capped vireo chicks survived. 



Based on extenmecfJfljWgi^veys over 
the past decade, me EWS .believes that 
the black-capped viWe^fs ^'candidate for 
extinction. Trends in all parts of the spe- 
cies' range are downward; the vireo has 
disappeared from Kansas, is gravely en- 
dangered in Oklahoma, and no longer oc- 
curs in several parts of its former range in 
Texas. Its current breeding range is from 
central Oklahoma (Blaine County) south 
through Texas (Dallas, the Edwards 
Plateau, and Big Bend National Park), to at 
least the Sierra Madera in central 
Coahuila, Mexico. The largest remaining 
breeding population, which occurs near 
Austin, Texas, could lose its breeding hab- 
itat as a result of proposed development 
and road construction projects. The city of 
Austin, which endorses listing the vireo, is 
considering ways to protect this habitat. 

A proposed designation of Critical Hab- 
itat was not included in the listing proposal 
for the black-capped vireo because this 
bird occurs in scattered, small areas that 
can vary over time due to vegetational suc- 
(continued on page 9) 




Adult male black-capped vireos are olive green on the upper surface and white un- 
derneath, with faintly yellowish-green flanks. Their crown and the upper half of the 
head is black with a partial white eye ring and lores. Adult females are duller in 
color, with a slate gray crown and underparts washed in green jsfoyeHo/w- 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) PUBLIC DOCUMENTS DEPT. 




Endangered Species Program re- 
gional staff members have reported the 
following activities for the month of De- 
cember: 

Region 1 — The Regional Director an- 
nounced on December 4, 1986, that an 



agreement was signed for the purchase of 
the 1 1 ,360-acre Hudson Ranch by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Hudson 
Ranch is considered one of the most im- 
portant California condor (Gymnogyps 
califomianus) use areas in the species' 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Marvin E. Moriarty, Chief, 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Earl B. Baysinger, Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-61 18); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Spelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director, John S. 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M. Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331 -3580); James W. Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director; John I. Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 021 58 (61 7-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W. Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D. Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director; Dennis 
Money. Endangered Species Special- 
ist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada. Oregon, Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota. Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi. North Carolina. South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware. Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia Region.6: Colorado, 
Kansas. Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



current range. Along with several other 
smaller parcels, the ranch will make up the 
Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge, 
which is being established for this highly 
Endangered bird. 

On December 13, 1986, a male condor, 
one of the last three wild birds, was cap- 
tured with a cannon net on Hudson Ranch 
by biologists from the Condor Research 
Center. It was subsequently transported to 
the San Diego Wild Animal Park to join the 
1 1 other condors there as part of the cap- 
tive breeding program. Trapping opera- 
tions will continue in an effort to bring the 
two remaining wild male condors into cap- 
tivity for propagation. 

The California Condor Recovery Team 
has recommended a limited experimental 
release of Andean condors (Vultur 
gryphus) in California to test the suitability 
of release sites and methods for future re- 
leases of California condors, and to train a 
team in effective release techniques. The 
proposed experiment would involve 1 0-1 5 
fledgling Andean condors of the same sex 
from various captive flocks. They would 
be released at two sites and monitoring 
would be conducted for 1-2 years. These 
experimental releases of Andean condors 
will ensure that future releases of Califor- 
nia condors are accomplished as smoothly 
as possible. 

At the conclusion of the experiment, all 
of the released Andean condors will be 
captured and returned to captivity. Be- 
cause all of the Andean condors to be 
used will be young birds of a single sex 
and will be radio-tagged to facilitate close 
monitoring, no problems of escape and/or 
expansion of the released group are ex- 
pected. No overlapping release of Califor- 
nia condors is planned. 

For a current breakdown on the condor 
population, see table on page 3. 

Region 2— A prolonged period of bad 
weather prevented an aerial survey of 
whooping cranes (Grus americana) at 
Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (Texas) 
in late December. However, subsequent 
surveys have identified 107 birds on the 
refuge (as of January 7, 1987). Birds that 
had not yet been seen include one of the 
oldest pairs and six color-marked 
subadults. 

The wintering flock exceeded the 100- 
bird mark for the first time since early this 
century, in time for the 50th anniversary 
(1987) of Aransas National Wildlife Ref- 
uge. This good news was tempered by the 
death of Frank Johnson, manager of the 
refuge since 1973. Frank died in his sleep, 
apparently from a heart attack. 

In October, Dr. Rod Drewien confirmed 
that 26 whooping cranes were surviving in 
the Rocky Mountain population. Another 
three might still be alive but have not been 
seen since the spring migration. However, 
during December, project personnel have 
only been able to find 20 whooping cranes 
in the middle Rio Grande Valley. Further 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



1 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 

work is planned in January to search for 
the missing cranes. 

The attempt to reestablish thick-billed 
parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) 
into southeast Arizona's Chiricahua Moun- 
tians has been a conditional success. A to- 
tal of 29 birds were released during Sep- 
tember and October. (See BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 10-1 1 for details.) The original flock 
separated into two groups. A large group 
of 14-15 birds left the Chiricahuas and are 
now residing in the Graham Mountains, 
about 68 miles northwest of the Chi- 
ricahuas. Difficult access and poor 
weather conditions have precluded any 
monitoring of this group since December 
5th. A second group containing 8 birds left 
the Chiricahuas in early November, but 
their current location remains unknown. 
Future aerial searches in northern Mexico 
and southeastern Arizona may help us to 
relocate these wide-ranging birds, some of 
which were radio-tagged. 

Observations of the parrots during their 
short stay in the Chiricahua Mountains 
provided some interesting ecological infor- 
mation. The birds feasted on a variety of 
foods that seemed to be in abundance in 
the Chiricahuas. They ate (in decreasing 
order of preference) Chiricahua pine 
seeds, Douglas fir seeds and terminal 
buds, ponderosa pine seeds, and Arizona 
white oak acorns. Although running water 
is available for drinking, the birds preferred 
water-filled potholes atop cliffs. Nine dif- 
ferent overnight roosting sites were docu- 
mented; all were in densely-crowned pines 
or firs and were usually at relatively high 
elevations on north-facing slopes. Appar- 
ently, seven of the 29 parrots released 
have died. Only two of these were radio- 
collared, indicating that the radios were not 
detrimental to the parrot's survival. Only 
one dead parrot was recovered. The prob- 
able cause of death was raptor predation. 



According to the California Department of Fish and Game, the tally of California 
condors as of December 13, 1986, was as follows: 

Total population size — 27 birds (13 males, 14 females) 

Captive population size — 25 birds (1 1 males, 14 females) 

Wild population size — 2 birds (2 males, both radio-tagged) 



Captive California Condor Population (current distribution): 
San Diego Wild Animal Park Los Angeles Zoo 



2 adult males 

2 adult females 

3 immature males 

6 immature females 



2 adult males 
1 adult female 

3 immature males 
5 immature females 
1 nestling (male) 

Sources of captive birds: 

Captured wild bird (1967) 

Captured wild birds (1981-1986) 

Removed as nestlings from the wild (1982-1984) 

Hatched in captivity from 16 eggs removed from the wild (1983-1986) 



1 

7 

4 

13 



The reestablishment of the thick-billed 
parrot is being conducted cooperatively by 
the Arizona Game and Fish Department, 
the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the San 
Diego Zoo, and the FWS. 

A Turtle Excluder Device or Trawling 
Efficiency Device (TED) mediation meet- 
ing between representatives of environ- 
mental groups and the shrimping industry 
was held in Houston, Texas, during the 
week of December 1 . This final meeting 
marked the end of lengthy discussions 
between the two parties and produced a 
tentative agreement that provides sugges- 
tions for the draft regulations for manda- 
tory TED use by shrimp trawlers. The Na- 
tional Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS) 
draft regulations will incorporate the sug- 
gestions of the mediation board and are 
scheduled to be published in the Federal 
Register by the end of January 1 987. 

The phase-in procedure agreed to by 
the mediation panel will not only allow 
manufacturing time for the TED's required 



and allow shrimpers to learn to use TED's 
properly, but will afford immediate protec- 
tion for sea turtles. During Phase One 
(effective July 15, 1987), shrimpers fishing 
in 10 fathoms or less in the Gulf of Mexico 
from Mobile Bay to Mexico will have to use 
TED's during the spring, summer, and fall. 
Phase Two begins July 15, 1988, when all 
inshore bay and estuary shrimpers will be 
required to use TED's. By Phase Three, in 
1990, NMFS expects to mandate TED use 
by more than 80 percent of the Gulf 
shrimping fleet. 

The southeast Atlantic shrimping fleet 
will experience a similar phase-in. In the 
Canaveral area (east coast of Florida), 
TED's will be required year-round. From 
Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to north 
Florida, shrimpers will have to use TED's 
from May through August. 

Provisions were incorporated into the 
agreement to monitor the effectiveness of 
the program and to adjust the regulations 
accordingly. Mandatory use of TED's will 

(continued on page 7) 



Final Listing Actions for Two Species 



The following species were added to the 
U.S. list of Endangered and Threatened 
species during December 1986: 

Loch Lomond Coyote Thistle 

(Eryngium constancei) 

Despite its common name, this plant is 
not a thistle but an herb in the parsley fam- 
ily (Apiaceae). It occurs only on the bed of 
a 7-acre vernal lake in southern Lake 
County, California. Potential dredging and 
filling of this seasonal wetland are the main 
threats to the survival of E. constancei, 
and the species was proposed March 26, 
1986, for listing as Endangered (see story 



in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 4). The final list- 
ing rule was published in the December 23 
Federal Register. 

Ringed Sawback Turtle 
(Graptemys oculifera) 

This small basking turtle is found only in 
the Pearl River system of Mississippi and 
Louisiana. It apparently needs riverine 
habitat with a moderate current, numerous 
logs for basking, and high sand and gravel 
bars for nesting. Some of its former habitat 
has been modified by reservoir con- 
struction and flood control projects, while 
other areas are now marginal habitat due 



to water quality degradation and a corre- 
sponding reduction in the turtle's mollus- 
can food supply. Because of these threats, 
the FWS proposed on January 21, 1986, 
to list the ringed sawback turtle as a 
Threatened species (see BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 2). The final listing rule was pub- 
lished in the December 23 Federal Regis- 
ter. 

* * * 

Both of these newly listed species now 
are protected under the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act, the terms of which are sum- 
marized in this BULLETIN at the end of the 
story on species newly proposed for list- 
ing. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 




Endangered Species Program re- 
gional staff members have reported the 
following activities for the month of De- 
cember: 

Region 1 — The Regional Director an- 
nounced on December 4, 1986, that an 



agreement was signed for the purchase of 
the 1 1 ,360-acre Hudson Ranch by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Hudson 
Ranch is considered one of the most im- 
portant California condor (Gymnogyps 
californianus) use areas in the species' 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Marvin E. Moriarty, Chief, 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Earl B. Baysinger, Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Ed/for 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1 , Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1 692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director; John S. 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M. Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director; John I. Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W. Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D. Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 101 1 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director; Dennis 
Money, Endangered Species Special- 
ist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California. Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories. Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama. Arkansas. Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware. Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire. New Jersey. New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia. Region-6: Colorado, 
Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: Alaska. Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



current range. Along with several other 
smaller parcels, the ranch will make up the 
Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge, 
which is being established for this highly 
Endangered bird. 

On December 13, 1986, a male condor, 
one of the last three wild birds, was cap- 
tured with a cannon net on Hudson Ranch 
by biologists from the Condor Research 
Center. It was subsequently transported to 
the San Diego Wild Animal Park to join the 
1 1 other condors there as part of the cap- 
tive breeding program. Trapping opera- 
tions will continue in an effort to bring the 
two remaining wild male condors into cap- 
tivity for propagation. 

The California Condor Recovery Team 
has recommended a limited experimental 
release of Andean condors (Vultur 
gryphus) in California to test the suitability 
of release sites and methods for future re- 
leases of California condors, and to train a 
team in effective release techniques. The 
proposed experiment would involve 10-15 
fledgling Andean condors of the same sex 
from various captive flocks. They would 
be released at two sites and monitoring 
would be conducted for 1-2 years. These 
experimental releases of Andean condors 
will ensure that future releases of Califor- 
nia condors are accomplished as smoothly 
as possible. 

At the conclusion of the experiment, all 
of the released Andean condors will be 
captured and returned to captivity. Be- 
cause all of the Andean condors to be 
used will be young birds of a single sex 
and will be radio-tagged to facilitate close 
monitoring, no problems of escape and/or 
expansion of the released group are ex- 
pected. No overlapping release of Califor- 
nia condors is planned. 

For a current breakdown on the condor 
population, see table on page 3. 

Region 2— A prolonged period of bad 
weather prevented an aerial survey of 
whooping cranes (Grus americana) at 
Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (Texas) 
in late December. However, subsequent 
surveys have identified 107 birds on the 
refuge (as of January 7, 1987). Birds that 
had not yet been seen include one of the 
oldest pairs and six color-marked 
subadults. 

The wintering flock exceeded the 100- 
bird mark for the first time since early this 
century, in time for the 50th anniversary 
(1987) of Aransas National Wildlife Ref- 
uge. This good news was tempered by the 
death of Frank Johnson, manager of the 
refuge since 1973. Frank died in his sleep, 
apparently from a heart attack. 

In October, Dr. Rod Drewien confirmed 
that 26 whooping cranes were surviving in 
the Rocky Mountain population. Another 
three might still be alive but have not been 
seen since the spring migration. However, 
during December, project personnel have 
only been able to find 20 whooping cranes 
in the middle Rio Grande Valley. Further 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 

work is planned in January to search for 
the missing cranes. 

The attempt to reestablish thick-billed 
parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) 
into southeast Arizona's Chiricahua Moun- 
tians has been a conditional success. A to- 
tal of 29 birds were released during Sep- 
tember and October. (See BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 10-11 for details.) The original flock 
separated into two groups. A large group 
of 14-15 birds left the Chiricahuas and are 
now residing in the Graham Mountains, 
about 68 miles northwest of the Chi- 
ricahuas. Difficult access and poor 
weather conditions have precluded any 
monitoring of this group since December 
5th. A second group containing 8 birds left 
the Chiricahuas in early November, but 
their current location remains unknown. 
Future aerial searches in northern Mexico 
and southeastern Arizona may help us to 
relocate these wide-ranging birds, some of 
which were radio-tagged. 

Observations of the parrots during their 
short stay in the Chiricahua Mountains 
provided some interesting ecological infor- 
mation. The birds feasted on a variety of 
foods that seemed to be in abundance in 
the Chiricahuas. They ate (in decreasing 
order of preference) Chiricahua pine 
seeds, Douglas fir seeds and terminal 
buds, ponderosa pine seeds, and Arizona 
white oak acorns. Although running water 
is available for drinking, the birds preferred 
water-filled potholes atop cliffs. Nine dif- 
ferent overnight roosting sites were docu- 
mented; all were in densely-crowned pines 
or firs and were usually at relatively high 
elevations on north-facing slopes. Appar- 
ently, seven of the 29 parrots released 
have died. Only two of these were radio- 
collared, indicating that the radios were not 
detrimental to the parrot's survival. Only 
one dead parrot was recovered. The prob- 
able cause of death was raptor predation. 



According to the California Department of Fish and Game, the tally of California 
condors as of December 13, 1986, was as follows: 

Total population size — 27 birds (13 males, 14 females) 

Captive population size — 25 birds (1 1 males, 14 females) 

Wild population size — 2 birds (2 males, both radio-tagged) 



Captive California Condor Population (current distribution): 
San Diego Wild Animal Park Los Angeles Zoo 



2 adult males 

2 adult females 

3 immature males 

6 immature females 



2 adult males 
1 adult female 

3 immature males 
5 immature females 
1 nestling (male) 

Sources of captive birds: 

Captured wild bird (1967) 

Captured wild birds (1981-1986) 

Removed as nestlings from the wild (1982-1984) 

Hatched in captivity from 16 eggs removed from the wild (1983-1986) 



1 

7 

4 

13 



The reestablishment of the thick-billed 
parrot is being conducted cooperatively by 
the Arizona Game and Fish Department, 
the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the San 
Diego Zoo, and the FWS. 

* # * 

A Turtle Excluder Device or Trawling 
Efficiency Device (TED) mediation meet- 
ing between representatives of environ- 
mental groups and the shrimping industry 
was held in Houston, Texas, during the 
week of December 1 . This final meeting 
marked the end of lengthy discussions 
between the two parties and produced a 
tentative agreement that provides sugges- 
tions for the draft regulations for manda- 
tory TED use by shrimp trawlers. The Na- 
tional Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS) 
draft regulations will incorporate the sug- 
gestions of the mediation board and are 
scheduled to be published in the Federal 
Register by the end of January 1 987. 

The phase-in procedure agreed to by 
the mediation panel will not only allow 
manufacturing time for the TED's required 



and allow shrimpers to learn to use TED's 
properly, but will afford immediate protec- 
tion for sea turtles. During Phase One 
(effective July 15, 1987), shrimpers fishing 
in 10 fathoms or less in the Gulf of Mexico 
from Mobile Bay to Mexico will have to use 
TED's during the spring, summer, and fall. 
Phase Two begins July 15, 1988, when all 
inshore bay and estuary shrimpers will be 
required to use TED's. By Phase Three, in 
1990, NMFS expects to mandate TED use 
by more than 80 percent of the Gulf 
shrimping fleet. 

The southeast Atlantic shrimping fleet 
will experience a similar phase-in. In the 
Canaveral area (east coast of Florida), 
TED's will be required year-round. From 
Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to north 
Florida, shrimpers will have to use TED's 
from May through August. 

Provisions were incorporated into the 
agreement to monitor the effectiveness of 
the program and to adjust the regulations 
accordingly. Mandatory use of TED's will 

(continued on page 7) 



Final Listing Actions for Two Species 



The following species were added to the 
U.S. list of Endangered and Threatened 
species during December 1986: 

Loch Lomond Coyote Thistle 

{Eryngium constancei) 

Despite its common name, this plant is 
not a thistle but an herb in the parsley fam- 
ily (Apiaceae). It occurs only on the bed of 
a 7-acre vernal lake in southern Lake 
County, California. Potential dredging and 
filling of this seasonal wetland are the main 
threats to the survival of E. constancei, 
and the species was proposed March 26, 
1986, for listing as Endangered (see story 



in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 4). The final list- 
ing rule was published in the December 23 
Federal Register. 

Ringed Sawback Turtle 
(Graptemys oculifera) 

This small basking turtle is found only in 
the Pearl River system of Mississippi and 
Louisiana. It apparently needs riverine 
habitat with a moderate current, numerous 
logs for basking, and high sand and gravel 
bars for nesting. Some of its former habitat 
has been modified by reservoir con- 
struction and flood control projects, while 
other areas are now marginal habitat due 



to water quality degradation and a corre- 
sponding reduction in the turtle's mollus- 
can food supply. Because of these threats, 
the FWS proposed on January 21, 1986, 
to list the ringed sawback turtle as a 
Threatened species (see BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 2). The final listing rule was pub- 
lished in the December 23 Federal Regis- 
ter. 

* * * 

Both of these newly listed species now 
are protected under the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act, the terms of which are sum- 
marized in this BULLETIN at the end of the 
story on species newly proposed for list- 
ing. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Creation of Artificial Foraging Habitat 
for Wood Storks 



Nora A. Murdock 

Asheville, North Carolina, 

Endangered Species Field Office 

The southeastern U.S. population of the 
wood stork (Mycteria americana) was 
listed as Endangered after several de- 
cades of steady decline had reduced the 
population from approximately 60,000 indi- 
viduals in the early 1930's to 10,000 
breeding birds in 1984. The principal 
cause of this decline was the loss or deteri- 
oration of the wetlands that, with their nat- 
urally fluctuating water levels, provided the 
required foraging habitat for the storks. Al- 
though many of the large traditional rook- 
ery sites in south Florida have remained 
essentially undisturbed, nesting attempts 
by the species in those areas have met 
with repeated failures in recent decades 
due to inadequate foraging habitat. 

The first formal interagency consultation 
under Section 7 of the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act involving the wood stork began af- 
ter the bird was officially added to the En- 
dangered Species List in February 1984. 
This consultation, which was between the 
Fish and Wildlife Service and the Depart- 
ment of Energy (DOE), involved restarting 
an old nuclear reactor at the DOE's Savan- 
nah River Plant in South Carolina. Down- 
stream of the reactor, and in the path of its 
thermal effluent, was the rich Steel Creek 
delta area, which served as one of the 
most important foraging sites for a nearby 
colony of wood storks. The colony, appro- 
priately located near the community of 
Birdsville, Georgia, had been formed only 
recently; however, nesting success at this 
rookery, measured in terms of young 
fledged per nest, ranked consistently 
higher than most of the other known wood 
stork rookeries. In addition, this rookery, 
being the farthest north and farthest inland 
ever recorded for the species, was be- 
lieved by some biologists to represent a re- 
sponse by the birds to repeated nesting 
failures in the traditional south Florida hab- 
itat. In essence, this rookery was ex- 
tremely important to survival and recovery 
of the species because it represented a 
potential "pioneering" adaptation. 

Work on the Savannah River Plant's "L- 
Reactor" was already proceeding when 
the wood stork was listed as Endangered. 
The DOE had been advised a year earlier 
of the intent to list the stork and of the po- 
tential conflict with the reactor. Eventually, 
the DOE abandoned its original plan for 
discharging hot effluent directly into a trib- 
utary of the Savannah River and con- 
structed a 1 ,000-acre cooling reservoir in- 
stead. (These decisions were based on 
issues other than endangered species 
concerns.) Despite the elimination of ther- 
mal impacts on the stork foraging habitat, 
the increased water levels produced by re- 
actor operations would have increased the 







dry bed of old Kathwood Lake at the Silverbluff Sanctuary before (above) and after 
(below) the creation of wood stork foraging habitat 




depth of water in the foraging habitat to the 
point that it could not be used for feeding 
by storks. After evaluating several alterna- 
tives, the DOE agreed to attempt the con- 
struction of artificial stork foraging habitat 
to replace that habitat lost due to reactor 
operation. Such a habitat creation experi- 
ment had been carried out several years 



earlier by the National Audubon Society 
(NAS) at its Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary 
in Florida, where one of the last large stork 
rookeries was experiencing repeated nest- 
ing failure. The NAS effort indicated that 
the idea was feasible, but work was dis- 
continued due to lack of funds. 

(continued on page 16) 




wood storks at newly created foraging habitat at the Silverbluff Sanctuary, South 
Carolina 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Captive 'Alala Moved to 
New Breeding Facilities 



Peter A. Stine 
Honolulu, Hawaii, Field Office 

Efforts to breed the critically Endan- 
gered alala or Hawaiian crow (Corvus 
hawaiiensis) in captivity were given a ma- 
jor boost recently when the nine birds ex- 
isting in captivity were moved to a new 
home. The anxiously awaited transfer of 
these birds from an old facility on the is- 
land of Hawaii to the State's new captive 
breeding facilities on the island of Maui 
took place on November 20, 1986. It is 
hoped that these new facilities and their 
surroundings will provide a favorable en- 
vironment for successful reproduction in 
this captive flock. 

The production of birds from the captive 
flock for eventual reintroduction into the 
wild is currently the top priority of the 'alala 
recovery program. There are probably 
fewer than 10 individuals of this critically 
Endangered and unique relative of the 
common crow (C. brachyrhynchos) surviv- 
ing in their native habitat. The few remain- 
ing birds are located in remnants of native 
forest on the island of Hawai'i's Kona 
coast. Habitat loss, avian diseases, preda- 
tion by mongoose and feral cats, and a 
lack of the necessary social stimuli in the 
relict population all have been implicated 
to some extent in the decline of this spe- 
cies. Because of its extremely precarious 
status, captive propagation and reintro- 
duction into protected, managed habitat is 








i 



new Olinda captive breeding facility for Hawaiian birds on the island of Maui 



the only hope for preventing the extinction 
of the 'alala. 

There currently are nine Hawiian crows 
in captivity, and it is hoped that additional 
birds can be brought into captivity from the 
remnant wild population. Unfortunately, 
there has been no reproduction in the cap- 
tive flock in the last 5 years. This captive 




native 'alala habitat on the slopes of Hualalai, a volcano on the island of Hawaii 



breeding program has been housed at 
several different locations, but since 1976 
it was located in modified goose breeding 
pens at the Pohakuloa Endangered Spe- 
cies Breeding Facility. This facility, located 
on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea on the 
island of Hawai'i, was originally developed 
37 years ago to breed the Endangered 
nene or Hawaiian goose (Nesochen sand- 
vicensis) and was never well suited for the 
'alala. It is not clear why the captive 'alala 
have not bred successfully there, but the 
dry, higher elevation environment (which 
differs considerably from the normal 'alala 
habitat) and the diverse, high-intensity mil- 
itary training activities on the U.S. Army's 
adjacent Pohakuloa Training Area likely 
had a significant negative impact on these 
sensitive birds. Despite the efforts of the 
Army to limit the disruptive impact of its 
training, it was clear that these activities 
were affecting the captive 'alala flock. For 
these reasons, it became necessary to 
move the captive 'alalas to a better facility. 
Providing the proper environment and 
facilities for captive 'alala was no easy 
task. However, a major commitment of 
funds and effort from the State of Hawaii's 
Department of Land and Natural Re- 
sources (DLNR), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service (FWS), and the invaluable assist- 
ance of the U.S. Army-Western Command 
made it possible. The State dedicated the 
abandoned Olinda minimum security 
prison, located in a fairly secluded area on 
the mid-elevation slopes of east Maui, for 
developing a captive breeding facility for 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



'Alala 

(continued from previous page) 

Endangered Hawaiian birds. The 45-acre 
site had all the basic requirements needed 
for such a program, but the buildings and 
grounds needed major renovation and ad- 
ditional construction before they would be 
suitable. Entirely new buildings were de- 
signed specifically to house the 'alala. The 
FWS provided some of the needed funds 
under Section 6 of the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act to assist in this renovation. Tech- 
nical support from the FWS Patuxent Wild- 
life Research Center was provided to 
DLNR engineers regarding the design of 
the cages and support facilities needed. 

The Army, recognizing the conflict at 
Pohakuloa and the need to relocate the 
birds as soon as possible, stepped in and 
provided manpower from B Company of 
the 84th Engineer Battalion to do much of 
the construction and renovation work. 
Their tireless effort resulted in the con- 
struction of two large, house-sized cages, 
each containing four interconnecting pens, 
within four months. Each pen is intended 
to hold one breeding 'alala pair and its off- 
spring. The two cages thus can accommo- 
date a maximum of eight adult pairs plus 
young offspring. 

These buildings were carefully designed 
to accommodate the species' needs, in- 
cluding the need to have social contact 
with neighboring birds. The pens were 
completed in July 1986, and the State 
DLNR has since taken care of the lengthy 




list of small details necessary to make 
them and the support facilities fully opera- 
tional. 

Transport of the nine birds to the new 
breeding facility was accomplished on 
November 20, 1986, without any signifi- 
cant problems. The birds appeared to 
have adapted very well to their new sur- 
roundings, and there is renewed hope for 
the next breeding season (spring 1987). 

Under the guidance of Dr. Fern Duvall 
and the veterinary care of Dr. Renate 
Gassman-Duvall, the 'alala captive breed- 
ing program now holds new promise. The 
Olinda Captive Breeding Center will con- 
tinue to be upgraded with the anticipation 
that eventually it will become a fully 
equipped, first-rate facility housing captive 
breeding flocks of a number of Hawaii's 
Endangered birds, including the nene and 
some endemic forest birds. 

Although the new captive breeding facil- 
ity is a significant recovery action, much 
more needs to be done. The first priority is 
to add more birds to the captive flock, if at 
all possible. The vitality of the existing nine 
birds as future breeders is uncertain and 
cannot be depended upon. Also, the lim- 
ited genetic diversity of the "founder" (cap- 
tive) population must be enhanced. Other 
vital recovery actions include protection 
and management of remnant native forest 
habitats to provide suitable areas for even- 
tual reintroduction of captive offspring into 
the wild. The 'alala is a fascinating and 
unique component of Hawai'i's natural 
heritage. Hopefully, it is not too late to pre- 
vent the loss of this species. 





The 'alala is an important part of the native Hawaiian heritage. According to leg- 
end, these birds are spirits that were protected by the ancient Hawaiians. 'Alala 
were quite common before the turn of this century, but today they are on the verge 
of extinction. 



Florida Panther 
Recovery Program 

David J. Wesley 

Field Supervisor 

Jacksonville, Florida, 

Endangered Species Field Office 

An active, well coordinated effort to re- 
cover the Endangered Florida panther 
{Felis concolor coryi), Florida's official 
State mammal, is under way. 

In May 1986, the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice (FWS), National Park Service, Florida 
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 
and Florida Department of Natural Re- 
sources entered into a Memorandum of 
Agreement to establish a Florida Panther 
Interagency Committee. The long-term 
goal of the committee is to promote a coor- 
dinated effort to restore the Florida panther 
to a secure status in the wild. Initial com- 
mittee objectives are to: 

1 . provide a forum for exchange of infor- 
mation among the agencies on their 
continuing conservation efforts; 

2. minimize duplication of efforts; 

3. review and evaluate new conserva- 
tion alternatives and their likely 
effects on the panther and other re- 
sources; and 

4. coordinate decisions about which re- 
covery measures should be imple- 
mented by each agency. 

The impetus behind the establishment 
of this committee was to bring together the 
directors and administrators of those 
agencies most responsible for activities af- 
fecting the panther in Florida. As other 
agencies are identified, they will be asked 
to participate on an ad hoc basis. Mr. 
James W. Pulliam, Jr., Regional Director 
of the FWS Southeast Region, is serving 
as committee chairman. 

One of the first tasks of the committee 
has been to revise the existing recovery 
plan. A technical subcommittee worked dil- 
igently for months, completely rewriting the 
existing plan, and a draft revision was re- 
leased on October 31 , 1986, for comment. 
This document represents a cooperative 
effort of many agencies, and incorporates 
all of the new information that has become 
available during the past few years of pan- 
ther research. 

The draft recovery plan revision empha- 
sizes interagency coordination and public 
participation, and is divided into three ma- 
jor sections. Part one is an introduction de- 
scribing the basic biology of the panther 
(its distribution, taxonomy, food and hab- 
itat needs, movements, reproduction, 
health status, etc.), reasons for its decline, 
and current threats to the species. The 
purpose of this section is to present a more 
complete biological picture of the panther. 

Part two states the recovery goals and 
identifies, in an outline format, the neces- 
sary steps to be taken. This outline is fol- 
lowed by a narrative providing details and 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 




Florida panther 

Florida Panther 

(continued from previous page) 

describing the projects and studies listed 
in the outline. Agencies responsible for 
each action also are identified. The revised 
Florida panther plan establishes a recov- 
ery goal of three viable, self-sustaining 
populations within the historic range of the 
panther, which extends from Arkansas 
south to Louisiana and east to South Car- 
olina and into Florida. Major objectives of 
the plan include: (1) identifying, protecting, 
and enhancing existing populations of 
Florida panthers and protecting and man- 
aging their habitat; (2) establishing positive 
public support for the management of the 
Florida panther; and (3) reintroducing pan- 
thers into areas of suitable habitat. 

Part three of the recovery plan is the 
implementation schedule. This section 
identifies tasks described in the recovery 
section as research, management, or ad- 
ministrative in nature and assigns specific 
responsibilities. It also establishes pri- 
orities for specific actions and identifies an 
estimated cost and duration for each ac- 
tion. Cost figures are not included in the re- 
vised draft, but will be added by the agen- 
cies during the review process for 
inclusion in the final revision. 

Copies of the draft revised Florida Pan- 
ther Recovery Plan are available by writing 
to the Public Affairs Office, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 75 Spring Street, SW, At- 
lanta, Georgia 30303. 

* * * 

In addition to the progress being made 
on the recovery plan, other critical tasks 
necessary for panther recovery are under 
way. Research on the panther has been 
conducted for a number of years. In 
November 1986, the National Park Service 
began efforts to capture and radio tag pan- 
thers in Everglades National Park, with the 
assistance of the Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission. In January 1987, 



the Game Commission will resume its pan- 
ther capture and radio telemetry work in 
the Big Cypress National Preserve. Re- 
search on deer also will be conducted in 
both places. Plans are to expand research 
and management actions in all State and 
Federal lands and to study panthers on pri- 
vate lands. 

Progress on captive breeding efforts 
also has been made. A male panther that 
was struck and injured by an automobile in 
1984 has been obtained by the Game 
Commission. This animal was rehabili- 
tated at the University of Florida Veterinary 
School and will become part of a captive 
breeding program, since it has been deter- 
mined that he could not survive if returned 
to the wild. A captive breeding facility has 
been developed by the Gilman Paper 
Company, and the company has gener- 
ously offered to finance the captive breed- 
ing program. Two female panthers from 
Texas have been brought to the captive 
breeding facility to be used in evaluating 
the fertility of the male and the effective- 
ness of introducing captive-bred cats to 
the wild, although these hybrid cats would 
be sterilized and therefore would not be- 
come part of the permanent Florida pan- 
ther population. 

In the area of land acquisition, the FWS 
is in the process of completing purchase 
agreements for 1 5,000 acres of the pro- 
posed 32,000-acre Fakahatchee Strand 
National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). The ref- 
uge will be located immediately to the 
north and west of the intersection of SR-29 
and Alligator Alley in south Florida. Mr. 
Steve Gard, currently assistant manager 
of the Merritt Island NWR, has been se- 
lected as the first manager for the new ref- 
uge. Mr. Gard will be establishing a tempo- 
rary office in the Naples area to administer 
the new refuge. His first efforts will be to 
develop a comprehensive management 
plan for the refuge lands and facilities. The 
FWS is hopeful of completing the acquisi- 
tion process by the end of 1 987. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

be an important step toward the protection 
of endangered sea turtles. TED's are ex- 
pected to substantially reduce trawl- 
related mortality of sea turtles, estimated 
at over 1 1 ,000 turtle deaths per year. 

On December 23, 1986, a jeopardy bio- 
logical opinion on the Stacy Dam was 
signed by the Regional Director. The Colo- 
rado River Metropolitan Water District 
(CRMWD) has proposed to build the Stacy 
Dam, which would impound the Colorado 
and Concho Rivers in west-central Texas. 
The dam will impact 26 percent of the 
Threatened Concho water snake's (Nero- 
dia harteri paucimaculata) proposed Crit- 
ical Habitat. Section 7 of the Endangered 
Species Act (ESA) was involved when the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers received an 
application from the CRMWD for permits 
under Sections 404 of the Clean Water Act 
and Section 1 of the Rivers and Harbors 
Act. 

Reasonable and prudent alternatives 
will remove the jeopardy by reviving over 
30 miles of the Colorado River above 
Stacy Reservoir and creating up to 49 
miles of new Concho water snake habitat 
downstream from the Stacy Dam. The up- 
stream habitat was lost when another 
dam, Robert Lee, was built in 1968 without 
provisions for minimum or channel-forming 
flows. Reaches below Stacy lack sufficient 
riffle habitat to sustain large numbers of 
snakes. Minimum and channel-forming 
(flushing) flows from Robert Lee and Stacy 
Dams, and the addition and maintenance 
of rocky shoals, will provide the habitat the 
juvenile snakes need to survive. Although 
there will be some loss of habitat, newly 
created habitat will approximately equal 
the amount of habitat loss. In addition, 
tributary habitats known to support Con- 
cho water snakes will be protected, rocky 
areas within Stacy Reservoir will be cre- 
ated, numerous monitoring and research 
efforts will be initiated, and snakes will be 
transferred above and below Stacy Dam to 
maintain genetic heterogeneity of the iso- 
lated populations. 

Juvenile Concho water snakes need 
shallow shoals (riffles) where they hunt for 
fish, and sun-warmed rocky flats near the 
water edge for thermoregulation and 
cover. Adults are more wide-ranging and 
occupy pools as well as shoals. Concho 
water snakes do not occupy reservoirs in 
either the Concho or the Colorado River, 
but the Brazos water snake (N. h. harteri) 
has been found in reservoirs on the Brazos 
River. Reservoirs inundate preferred Con- 
cho water snake habitat, and the reduced 
stream flows cause downstream habitats 
to become clogged with silt and vegeta- 
tion. 

The Texas Nature Conservancy and the 
FWS have entered into a cooperative 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 7) 

agreement for the recovery of the Texas 
poppy-mallow (Callirhoe scabriuscula), a 
rare plant restricted to Runnels County. 
The agreement will promote landowner 
awareness and involvement, an essential 
aspect for the species' recovery because 
the poppy-mallow occurs exclusively on 
private land. 

* * * 

A proposed road into the Gila National 
Forest of New Mexico prompted concern 
over the possible impact the road would 
have on two snail species that are candi- 
dates for future Federal listing: the Gila 
spring snail and the New Mexico hot spring 
snail, both undescribed species of the 
genus Fontelicella. These two snails, 
which have been petitioned for listing, 
were previously known from two springs 
along the East Fork of the Gila River and 
from a third spring on the main Gila River 
near its confluence with the East Fork. A 
brief survey of the road impact area was 
conducted by personnel from the FWS, 
USFS, and New Mexico Department of 
Game and Fish. The snail species were 
found in four springs along 1 .5 miles of the 
East Fork. Three of the springs may be 
threatened by the road because of ex- 
pected increased recreational or vehicular 
use. Restrictions and requirements on 
road construction, maintenance, and use, 
along with rigorous enforcement of the 
restrictions, may alleviate some of the 
threats to the snails' survival. 

* * * 

Region 4 — The Memphis, Tennessee, 
District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
neers contracted with the Tennessee Val- 
ley Authority (TVA) to survey certain 
reaches of the St. Francis River drainage 
for the presence of an Endangered clam, 
the fat pocketbook {Potamilus capax). 
This survey is one provision of a conserva- 
tion plan contained in a biological opinion 
issued by the Jackson, Mississippi, En- 
dangered Species Field Office. The search 
included intermittent 5-mile reaches from 
the mouth of the St. Francis River up to 
Wappapello Lake and in several tributaries 
and ditches. Information indicates that the 
fat pocketbook occurs in two ditches in 
Straight Slough; ditches within Oak Don- 
nick Floodway up to the St. Francis Sunk 
Lands; Iron Mines Creek at Marked Tree 
siphon, and the St. Francis River below 
Marked Tree siphon. The clam also occurs 
at the mouth of the St. Francis River. 

The TVA survey expands the known 
range of the species from 43.2 miles to 
over 80 miles of the St. Francis floodway, 
up to 30 miles of drainage west of the 
floodway, and a short reach of the St. 
Francis River near Marked Tree, Arkan- 
sas. Quantitative estimates for an assess- 
ment of the density of these additional 
populations were made but are not yet 
available. The species was found in 



gravel, sand, and mud where there was 
flowing water. Many of the tributaries and 
ditches were very small. The TVA survey 
was designed to expand the area that was 
surveyed in 1985. The Memphis Office of 
the Corps of Engineers and the FWS Jack- 
son, Mississippi, Endangered Species 
Field Office will continue to implement the 
conservation plan over the next few years. 

The 1986 annual Gopher Tortoise 
Council meeting was held at Wekiwa 
Springs State Park in Apopka, Florida, on 
November 7-9, 1986. At this meeting, talks 
were given by three biologists on the 
Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomargi- 
natus), an Endangered resident of the 
highlands of northern Mexico. This animal 
digs lengthy burrows that serve as homes 
to dozens of other small creatures and is 
the nearest living relative of the south- 
eastern gopher tortoise (G. polyphemus). 
The focus of the meeting was non-sandhill 
habitats in which gopher tortoises are 
found and the management techniques 
used to maintain these habitats. 

* * * 

Citrus groves and housing develop- 
ments are rapidly displacing the remaining 
tracts of sand pine-evergreen oak vegeta- 
tion in Polk and Highlands Counties of 
central Florida. This vegetation has a 
large endemic flora, and one of the en- 
demics, the scrub mint (Dicerandra fru- 
tescens), is already listed as Endangered. 
Nine other scrub plants in the two counties 
are currently listed or proposed for listing 
as Endangered or Threatened. 

Fragmentation of the remaining tracts of 
scrub is so great that only a very few large 
tracts are available for acquisition. One is 
an 800-acre tract at Saddle Blanket Lakes, 
where The Nature Conservancy (TNC) re- 
cently bought 77 acres. The State is plan- 
ning to purchase the rest under its Conser- 
vation and Recreation Lands Program. 

A landowner adjoining TNC's preserve 
recently proposed a zoning change to al- 
low development of a large recreational 
vehicle park. The county zoning board ap- 
proved the change, but TNC, acting as an 
adversely affected landowner, appealed to 
the Polk County Commission. TNC main- 
tained that the proposed development 
would make prescribed burning in the pre- 
serve impossible, and that it would proba- 
bly lead to further residential development 
in the area, making the proposed State 
land purchase impossible. The FWS, State 
agencies, the Regional Planning Council, 
and local private organizations, including 
Bok Tower Gardens and Archbold Biolog- 
ical Station, submitted comments support- 
ing TNC. The county commission voted to 
deny the proposed zoning change. 

* * * 

The Jacksonville, Florida, Endangered 
Species Field Station convened a meeting 
in December for Federal agencies that 
manage lands on Cape Canaveral to re- 
view and discuss sea turtle conservation 



programs. Forty-two miles of Cape Ca- 
naveral beaches are jointly managed by 
the National Park Service (Canaveral Na- 
tional Seashore), FWS (Merritt Island Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge), and U.S. Air Force 
(Canaveral Air Force Station). Over 6,000 
sea turtle nests were made there in 1986, 
most by loggerheads (Caretta caretta), but 
there also were 37 green (Chelonia 
mydas) and 5 leatherback (Dermochelys 
coriacea) nests. 

Overall nesting success was 55 percent. 
This represents a dramatic increase in 
successful nests compared to two or three 
years ago when at least 85-90 percent of 
all nests were destroyed by predators. The 
increase is due to nest screen efforts at the 
National Seashore and raccoon and hog 
removal on refuge and Air Force beaches. 
In spite of these efforts, hogs destroyed 
646 nests at the Air Force Station, while 
raccoons destroyed over 95 percent of all 
unscreened nests (1,857) at the National 
Seashore. Efforts to further increase nest- 
ing success are planned for next year. 

Recovery plans for two Florida plants, 
the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) and 
Key tree-cactus (Cereus robinii), have 
been issued. The Florida Torreya Recov- 
ery Plan is unusually complex because the 
decline of the tree in its native habitat is 
poorly understood. The trees are killed by 
stem and needle blight, cankers, and per- 
haps other diseases that are probably 
caused by opportunistic infections by com- 
mon fungi. 

Attempts to keep cultivated torreya trees 
healthy in the Tallahassee, Florida, area 
have failed, but cultivated trees in the 
southern Appalachians and the Pacific 
Northwest are thriving. Gene pool conser- 
vation may be possible by establishing 
garden collections from cuttings taken 
from the wild. For persons wishing to see 
the Florida torreya, the best group of spec- 
imens is at Biltmore House and Gardens in 
Asheville, North Carolina. 

The recovery plan for the Key tree- 
cactus focuses on conservation of its hab- 
itat, tropical hardwood hammocks in the 
lower Florida Keys. These hammocks can 
appropriately be called thorn scrub or 
thorn forest because of their low (15 to 25 
feet tall) tree canopies and abundant cacti. 

* * # 

Region 5 — The FWS regional endan- 
gered species office recently completed a 
2-year project with the eastern regional of- 
fice of TNC to determine the status of 32 
plant candidates that are under review for 
possible Federal listing. Using the exper- 
tise in the eastern States' Natural Heritage 
Programs, intensive field surveys were 
conducted throughout the species' range. 
The heritage program network provided 
the opportunity to assess the status of sev- 
eral wide-ranging plants in a systematic 
and cost effective manner. The FWS/TNC/ 
State project was particularly beneficial 

(continued on page 14) 



8 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 




Puerto Rican crested toads are yellowish-olive to blackish-brown in color, with 
prominent crests above the eyes and a long, upturned snout. 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 1) 

cession. Further, pinpointing the breeding 
areas with the detailed habitat descriptions 
and maps required for a Critical Habitat 
designation could expose the bird to more 
harassment. Nevertheless, if the vireo is 
listed, this bird and its habitat will receive 
protection from jeopardy that might result 
from Federal actions. Federal agencies 
with lands from which the bird has been re- 
ported recently include the National Park 
Service (Big Bend National Park, Texas), 
the U.S. Army (Fort Hood, Texas), and the 
FWS (Wichita Mountains National Wildlife 
Refuge, Oklahoma). Fort Hood officials al- 
ready have expressed interest in protect- 
ing the species, and therefore few adverse 
Federal impacts are expected. No Federal 
activities are known to occur on the State 
and private lands that contain black- 
capped vireos. 

Comments on the listing proposal are 
welcome, and should be sent to the Re- 
gional Director, Region 2 (address on 
page 2 of the BULLETIN), by March 12, 
1987. 

Puerto Rican Crested Toad 
{Peltophryne lemur) 

Historically, this amphibian was known 
from only two islands, and it may already 
be extirpated from one. No P. lemur have 
been seen on Virgin Gorda (one of the Brit- 
ish Virgin Islands) for at least 20 years. It 



evidently is now restricted to a few coastal 
lowland areas in northern and southern 
Puerto Rico. One sizeable breeding popu- 
lation is known to remain, and its largest 
breeding site is threatened by develop- 
ment. To help prevent the extinction of the 
Puerto Rican crested toad, the FWS has 
proposed to list it as a Threatened species 
(F.R. 12/23/86). 

P. lemur occurs at low elevations where 
there is exposed limestone or porous, well- 
drained soil offering an abundance of fis- 
sures and cavities. Like most bufonids 
(true toads), adults of this species spend 
most of their time in burrows, surfacing 
mainly to feed and breed. They are widely 
dispersed except at breeding time, when 
the adults concentrate. Although not com- 
pletely understood, P. lemur breeding ap- 
pears to be sporadic and highly dependent 
on occasional heavy rains. The species 
shows a high fidelity to breeding sites. 

Many breeding sites are known to have 
been eliminated as wet areas were filled or 
drained for construction, cultivation, and 
mosquito control. The only known remain- 
ing breeding sites are within Guanica 
Commonwealth Forest on the south- 
western coast of Puerto Rico. The largest 
of these sites is being used as an unim- 
proved parking lot. There have been pro- 
posals to pave it over, which would elimi- 
nate its value as a breeding site for the 
toad. A large resort development proposed 
for construction on private land adjacent to 
the site would likely add to the pressure on 
the breeding habitat. Discussions among 
Federal and Commonwealth of Puerto 



Rico agencies have begun in an effort to 
find acceptable alternatives that will avoid 
destruction of the critical breeding site. 

Critical Habitat was not proposed for the 
Puerto Rican crested toad because such a 
designation would make the species more 
vulnerable to collectors, especially when 
the toads congregate for breeding. Over- 
collection of other Puerto Rican herpto- 
fauna has been documented. However, 
the toad will, if listed, receive protection 
under other provisions of the Endangered 
Species Act. 

Comments on the proposed listing of the 
Puerto Rican crested toad as a Threat- 
ened species are welcome, and should be 
sent to the Field Supervisor, Caribbean 
Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, P.O. Box 491 , Boqueron, Puerto Rico 
00622, by February 23, 1987. 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act as Threatened or 
Endangered is approved are: protection 
from adverse effects of Federal activities; 
prohibitions against certain practices; the 
requirement for the FWS to develop and 
implement recovery plans; the authoriza- 
tion to seek land purchases or exchanges 
for important habitat; and the possibility of 
Federal aid to State or Commonwealth 
conservation departments that have 
signed Endangered Species Cooperative 
Agreements with the FWS. (Oklahoma 
and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
have such agreements.) Listing also lends 
greater recognition to a species' pre- 
carious status, which encourages further 
conservation efforts by State and local 
agencies, independent organizations, and 
individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their authorities to further 
the purposes of the Act by carrying out 
conservation programs for listed species. 
It also requires these agencies to ensure 
that any actions they authorize, fund, or 
carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
survival of a listed species. If an agency 
finds that one of its activities may affect a 
listed species, it is required to consult with 
the FWS on ways to avoid jeopardy. For 
species that are proposed for listing and 
for which jeopardy is found, Federal agen- 
cies are required to "confer" with the FWS, 
although the results of such a conference 
are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals, except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule is 
different; the prohibition against collecting 
applies only to listed plants found on lands 
under Federal jurisdiction. Some States, 
however, have their own laws against take 
of listed plants. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



9 



LIST OF APPROVED RECOVERY PLANS 

Restoring Endangered or Threatened animals and plants to the point where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of their 
ecosystems is one of the main goals of the Endangered Species Program. To help guide the recovery effort, the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice is working to develop plans for all listed species native to the United States. As of December 31 , 1 986, 209 recovery plans for 243 
species were completed and approved. Many others are in various stages of development. Recovery plans also may be revised, if and 
when appropriate; the dates given below are for the original plans. 

The amount of available funding and personnel resources affects the speed at which recovery plans can be implemented. Guidelines 
for setting priorities in preparing and carrying-out recovery plans were published in the September 21, 1983, Federal Register. (See 
story in BULLETIN Vol. VIII No. 10.) 

Copies of recovery plans are available for purchase from the Fish and Wildlife Reference Service about 6 months after they are ap- 
proved. Inquiries should be addressed to the Fish and Wildlife Reference Service, 601 1 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, Maryland 
20852, or call toll-free 800/582-3421 (in Maryland call 301/770-3000). Ask for any revisions. 



Endangered and Threatened Species With Approved Recovery Plans 

Common Name Scientific Name Date Plan Approved 



MAMMALS 23 species 

Big-eared bats 

Ozark big-eared bat 

Virginia big-eared bat 
Black-footed ferret 
Columbian white-tailed deer 
Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel 
Eastern cougar 
Eastern timber wolf 
Florida panther 
Gray bat 
Grizzly bear 
Hawaiian monk seal 
Indiana bat 
Key deer 
Mexican wolf 
Morro Bay kangaroo rat 
Northern Rocky Mountain wolf 
Red wolf 

Salt marsh harvest mouse 
San Joaquin kit fox 
Sonoran pronghorn 
Southern sea otter 
West Indian manatee 

Mainland U.S. Population Plan 

Puerto Rico Population Plan 
Woodland caribou 

BIRDS 55 species 

Aleutian Canada goose 

Attwater's greater prairie chicken 

Bald eagle 
Chesapeake Bay Region Plan 
Southwestern Population Plan 
Pacific States Population Plan 
Northern States Plan 
Southeastern States Plan 

California brown pelican 

California clapper rail 

California condor 

California least tern 

Cape Sable seaside sparrow 

Channel Islands species 
San Clemente loggerhead shrike 
San Clemente sage sparrow 

Dusky seaside sparrow 



Plecotus townsendii ingens 

Plecotus townsendii virginianus 

Mustela nigripes 

Odocoileus virginianus leucurus 

Sciurus niger cinereus 

Felis concolor couguar 

Canis lupus lycaon 

Felis concolor coryi 

Myotis grisescens 

Ursus arctos horribilis 

Monachus schauinslandi 

Myotis sodalis 

Odocoileus virginianus clavium 

Canis lupus baileyi 

Dipodomys heermanni morroensis 

Canis lupus irremotus 

Canis rufus 

Reithrodontomys raviventris 

Vulpes macrotis mutica 

Antilocapra americana sonoriensis 

Enhydra lutris nereis 

Trichechus manatus 



Rangifer tarandus caribou 



Branta canadensis leucopareia 
Tympanuchus cupido attwateri 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus 



Pelecanus occidentalis californicus 
Rallus longirostris obsoletus 
Gymnogyps californianus 
Sterna antillarum browni 
Ammospiza maritima mirabilis 

Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi 
Amphispiza belli clementeae 
Ammospiza maritima nigrescens 



05/08/84 



06/25/78 
10/21/76 
11/06/79 
08/02/82 
06/05/78 
12/16/81 
07/08/82 
01/29/82 
04/01/83 
06/01/76 
06/10/80 
08/09/82 
08/18/82 
05/28/80 
07/12/82 
11/16/84 
01/31/83 
12/30/82 
02/03/82 

04/15/80 
12/24/86 
04/12/85 



03/07/79 
12/16/83 

05/19/82 
09/08/82 
08/25/86 
07/29/83 
08/03/84 
02/03/83 
11/16/84 
04/09/75 
04/02/80 
04/06/83 
01/26/84 



04/26/79 



10 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Date Plan Approved 



Eastern brown pelican 

Mainland U.S. Population Plan 

Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Population Plan 
Everglade snail kite 
Hawaiian crow or 'alala 
Hawaiian forest birds 

'Akiapola'au 

Hawai'i akepa 

Hawai'i creeper 

'O'u 
Hawaiian hawk 
Hawaiian seabirds 

Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel 

Newell's Townsend's shearwater 
Hawaiian waterbirds 

Hawaiian coot 

Hawaiian duck or koloa 

Hawaiian gallinule 

Hawaiian stilt 
Kauai forest birds 

Kaua'i akialoa 

Kaua'i 'o'o 

Large Kaua'i thrush 

Nuku-pu'u 

'O'u 

Small Kaua'i thrush 
Kirtland's warbler 
Laysan duck 
Light-footed clapper rail 
Masked bobwhite 
Maui-Moloka'i forest birds 

Crested honeycreeper 

Maui 'akepa 

Maui parrotbill 

Moloka'i creeper 

Moloka'i thrush 

Nuku-pu'u 

Po'ouli 
Mississippi sandhill crane 
Nene or Hawaiian goose 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands passerine birds 

Laysan finch 

Nihoa finch 

Nihoa millerbird 
Palila 
Peregrine falcon 

Rocky Mountain/Southwest Plan 

Eastern Plan 

Alaska Population Plan 

Pacific Plan 
Puerto Rican plain pigeon 
Puerto Rican parrot 
Puerto Rican whip-poor-will 
Red-cockaded woodpecker 
Whooping crane 
Wood stork 

Yellow-shouldered blackbird 
Yuma clapper rail 

REPTILES 21 species 

American crocodile 

Blunt-nosed leopard lizard 

Culebra Island giant anole 

Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard 

Eastern indigo snake 

Island night lizard (Channel Islands Plan) 

Leatherback sea turtle 



Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis 



Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus 
Corvus hawaiiensis 

Hemignathus munroi 
Loxops coccineus coccineus 
Oreomystis mana 
Psittirostra psittacea 
Buteo solitarius 

Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis 
Puffinus auricularis newelli 

Fulica americana alai 

Anas wyvilliana 

Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis 

Himantopus himantopus knudseni 

Hemignathus procerus 
Moho braccatus 
Phaeornis obscurus myadestina 
Hemignathus lucidus 
Psittirostra psittacea 
Phaeornis palmeri 
Dendroica kirtlandii 
Anas laysanensis 
Rallus longirostris levipes 
Colinus virginianus ridgwayi 

Palmeria dolei 

Loxops coccineus ochraceus 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys 
Oreomystis flammea 
Phaeornis obscurus rutha 
Hemignathus lucidus 
Melamprosops phaeosoma 
Grus canadensis pulla 
Nesochen sandvicensis 

Telespyza cantans 
Telespyza ultima 
Acrocephalus familiaris kingi 
Loxioides bailleui 
Falco peregrinus 



Columba inornata wetmorei 
Amazona vittata 
Caprimulgus noctitherus 
Picoides borealis 
Grus americana 
Mycteria americana 
Agelaius xanthomus 
Rallus longirostris yumanensis 



Crocodylus acutus 
Gambelia silus 
Anolis roosevelti 
Uma inornata 

Drymarchon corais couperi 
Xantusia riversiana 
Dermochelys coriacea 



07/19/79 
12/24/86 
03/11/83 
10/28/82 
02/03/83 



05/09/84 
04/25/83 



06/19/78 



07/29/83 



10/22/76 
12/17/82 
07/03/79 
02/15/78 
05/30/84 



10/24/79 
02/14/83 
10/04/84 



01/23/78 

08/03/77 
08/20/79 
10/04/82 
10/12/82 
10/14/82 
11/30/82 
04/19/84 
08/24/79 
01/23/83 
09/09/86 
05/25/83 
02/04/83 



02/13/79 
04/18/80 
01/28/83 
9/11/85 
04/22/82 
01/26/84 
10/23/81 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



11 



Common Name 

Marine turtles 

Green sea turtle 

Hawskbill sea turtle 

Kemp's Ridley sea turtle 

Leatherback sea turtle 

Loggerhead sea turtle 

Olive Ridley sea turtle 
Mona boa 

Mona ground iguana 
Monito gecko 

New Mexico ridge-nosed rattlesnake 
Plymouth red-bellied turtle 
Puerto Rico boa 
St. Croix ground lizard 
San Francisco garter snake 
Virgin Islands tree boa 

AMPHIBIANS 6 species 

Desert slender salamander 

Golden coqui 

Houston toad 

Red Hills salamander 

San Marcos salamander 

(San Marcos River Plan) 
Santa Cruz long-toed salamander 

FISHES 43 species 

Alabama cavefish 

Amber darter 

Arizona trout 

Bayou darter 

Big Bend gambusia 

Blue pike* 

Bonytail chub 

Chihuahua chub 

Clear Creek gambusia 

Colorado River squawfish 

Comanche Springs pupfish 

Conasauga logperch 

Cui-ui 

Devils Hole pupfish 

Gila trout 

Greenback cutthroat trout 

Humpback chub 

Kendall Warm Springs dace 

Leon Springs pupfish 

Leopard darter 

Maryland darter 

Moapa dace 

Mohave tui chub 

Okaloosa darter 

Owens River pupfish 

Pahranagat roundtail chub 

Pahrump killifish 

Paiute cutthroat trout 

Pecos gambusia 

San Marcos River species 

Fountain darter 

San Marcos gambusia 
Slackwater darter 
Slender chub 
Smoky madtom 
Snail darter 
Spotfin chub 
Topminnows 

Gila topminnow 

Yaqui topminnow 
Unarmored threespine stickleback 
Warm Springs pupfish 



Scientific Name 



Chelonia mydas 
Eretmochelys imbricata 
Lepidochelys kempii 
Dermochelys coriacea 
Caretta caretta 
Lepidochelys olivacea 
Epicrates monensis monensis 
Cyclura stejnegeri 
Sphaerodactylus micropithecus 
Crotalus willardi obscurus 
Pseudemys rubriventris bangsi 
Epicrates inornatus 
Ameiva polops 

Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia 
Epicrates monensis granti 



Batrachoseps aridus 
Eleutherodactylus jasperi 
Bufo houstonensis 
Phaeognathus hubrichti 
Eurycea nana 

Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum 



Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni 
Percina antesella 
Salmo apache 
Etheostoma rubrum 
Gambusia gaigei 
Stizostedion vitreum glaucum 
Gila elegans 
Gila nigrescens 
Gambusia heterochir 
Ptychocheilus lucius 
Cyprinodon elegans 
Percina jenkinsi 
Chasmistes cujus 
Cyprinodon diabolis 
Salmo gilae 
Salmo clarki stomias 
Gila cypha 

Rhinichthys osculus thermalis 
Cyprinodon bovinus 
Percina pantherina 
Etheostoma sellare 
Moapa coriacea 
Gila bicolor mohavensis 
Etheostoma okaloosae 
Cyprinodon radiosus 
Gila robusta jordani 
Empetrichthys latos 
Salmo clarki seleniris 
Gambusia nobilis 

Etheostoma fonticola 
Gambusia georgei 
Etheostoma boschungi 
Hybopsis cahni 
Noturus baileyi 
Percina tanasi 
Hybopsis monacha 

Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis 
Poeciliopsis occidentalis sonoriensis 
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni 
Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis 



Date Plan Approved 

09/1 9/84 



04/19/84 
04/19/84 
03/27/86 
03/22/85 
03/26/81 
03/27/86 
03/29/84 
09/11/85 
03/27/86 



08/1 2/82 
04/19/84 
09/17/84 

11/23/83 
12/03/84 

09/28/77 



09/17/82 
06/20/86 
08/20/79 
09/08/83 
09/1 9/84 
06/29/76 
05/16/84 
04/14/86 
01/14/82 
03/16/78 
09/02/81 
06/20/86 
01/23/78 
07/1 5/80 
01/02/79 
11/11/77 
08/22/79 
07/12/82 
08/14/85 
09/20/84 
02/02/82 
02/14/83 
09/12/84 
10/23/81 
09/1 7/84 
03/28/86 
03/1 7/80 
01/25/85 
05/09/83 
12/03/84 



03/08/84 
07/29/83 
08/09/85 
05/05/83 
11/21/83 
03/15/84 



12/27/77 
11/10/76 



12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Date Plan Approved 



Watercress darter 
Woundfin 
Yellowfin madtom 

SNAILS 7 species 

Chittenango ovate amber snail 
Flat-spired three-toothed snail 
Iowa Pleistocene snail 
Noonday snail 

Painted snake coiled forest snail 
Stock Island tree snail 
Virginia fringed mountain snail 

CLAMS 21 species 

Alabama lamp pearly mussel 
Appalachian monkeyface pearly mussel 
Birdwing pearly mussel 
Cumberland bean pearly mussel 
Cumberland monkeyface pearly mussel 
Curtis' pearly mussel 
Dromedary pearly mussel 
Fat pocketbook pearly mussel 
Fine-rayed pigtoe pearly mussel 
Green-blossom pearly mussel 
Higgins' eye pearly mussel 
Orange-footed pearly mussel 
Pale lilliput pearly mussel 
Rough pigtoe pearly mussel 
Shiny pigtoe pearly mussel 
Tan riffle shell mussel 
Tubercled-blossom pearly mussel 
Turgid-blossom pearly mussel 
White wartyback pearly mussel 
Yellow-blossom pearly mussel 



CRUSTACEANS 

Soccoro isopod 



1 species 



INSECTS 12 species 

California butterflies 

San Bruno elfin butterfly 

Mission blue butterfly 
Delta green ground beetle 
El Segundo blue butterfly 
Kern primrose sphinx moth 
Lange's metalmark butterfly 

(Antioch Dunes Plan) 
Lotis blue butterfly 
Oregon silverspot butterfly 
Palos Verdes blue butterfly 
Schaus swallowtail butterfly 
Smith's blue butterfly 
Valley elderberry longhorn beetle 

PLANTS 54 species 

Antioch Dunes plants 
Contra Costa wallflower 
Antioch Dunes evening primrose 

Brady pincushion cactus 

Bunched arrowhead 

Channel Islands species 
San Clemente Island broom 
San Clemente Island bush-mallow 
San Clemente Island Indian paintbrush 
San Clemente Island larkspur 

Chapman rhododendron 

Clay phacelia 

Davis' green pitaya 

Dwarf bear-poppy 



Etheostoma nuchale 
Plagopterus argentissimus 
Noturus flavipinnis 



Succinea chittenangoensis 
Triodopsis platysayoides 
Discus macclintocki 
Mesodon clarki nantahala 
Anguispira picta 
Orthalicus reses 
Polygyriscus virginianus 



Lampsilis virescens 
Quadrula sparsa 
Conradilla caelata 
Villosa trabalis 
Quadrula intermedia 
Epioblasma florentina curtisi 
Dromus dromas 
Potamilus capax 
Fusconaia cuneolus 
Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum 
Lampsilis higginsi 
Plethobasus cooperianus 
Toxolasma cylindrella 
Pleurobema plenum 
Fusconaia edgariana 
Epioblasma walkeri 
Epioblasma torulosa torulosa 
Epioblasma turgidula 
Plethobasus cicatricosus 
Epioblasma florentina florentina 



Thermosphaeroma thermophilus 



Callophrys mossii bayensis 
Icaricia icarioides missionensis 
Elaphrus viridis 
Euphilotes battoides allyni 
Euproserpinus euterpe 
Apodemia mormo langei 

Lycaeides argyrognomon lotis 
Speyeria zerene hippolyta 
Glaucopsyche lygdamus palosverdesensis 
Papilio aristodemus ponceanus 
Euphilotes enoptes smithi 
Desmocerus californicus dimorphus 



Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum 
Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii 
Pediocactus bradyi 
Sagittaria fasciculata 

Lotus dendroideus ssp. traskiae 
Malacothamnus clementinus 
Castilleja grisea 
Delphinium kinkiense 
Rhododendron chapmanii 
Phacelia argillacea 
Echinocereus viridiflorus var. davisii 
Arctomecon humilis 



06/25/80 
07/09/79 
06/23/83 



03/24/83 
05/09/83 
03/22/84 
09/07/84 
10/14/82 
03/08/83 
05/09/83 



07/02/85 
07/09/84 
07/09/84 
08/22/84 
07/09/84 
02/04/86 
07/09/84 
10/04/85 
09/19/84 
07/09/84 
07/29/83 
08/30/84 
08/22/84 
08/06/84 
07/09/84 
10/22/84 
01/25/85 
01/25/85 
09/19/84 
01/25/85 



02/17/82 



10/10/84 



09/11/85 
01/22/86 
02/08/84 
03/21/80 

12/26/85 
09/22/82 
01/19/84 
11/17/82 
11/09/84 
08/01/84 



03/21/80 



03/28/85 
09/08/82 
01/26/84 



09/08/83 
04/12/82 
09/20/84 
12/31/85 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



13 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Date Plan Approved 



Eureka Valley Dunes plants 
Eureka Valley dunegrass 
Eureka Valley evening-primrose 

Florida torreya 

Furbish lousewort 

Green pitcher plant 

Gypsum wild buckwheat 

Hairy rattleweed 

Harper's beauty 

Hawaiian vetch 

Key tree-cactus 

Knowlton cactus 

Kuenzler hedgehog cactus 

Lee pincushion cactus 

MacFarlane's four-o'clock 

McDonald's rock-cress 

McKittrick pennyroyal 

Mesa Verde cactus 

Mountain golden heather 

Navasota ladies'-tresses 

Nellie cory cactus 

Nichol's Turk's head cactus 

North Park phacelia 

Northern monkshood 

Peebles Navajo cactus 

Persistent trillium 

Raven's manzanita 

Robbins' cinquefoil 

Salt marsh bird's-beak 

San Diego mesa mint 

Santa Barbara Island liveforever 

Siler pincushion cactus 

Small whorled pogonia 

Sneed pincushion cactus 

Solano grass 

Spineless hedgehog cactus 

Tennessee purple coneflower 

Texas poppy mallow 

Texas wild-rice (San Marcos River Plan) 

Todsen's pennyroyal 

Truckee barberry 

Virginia round-leaf birch 

Wright fishhook cactus 



Swallenia alexandrae 

Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis 

Torreya taxifolia 

Pedicularis furbishiae 

Sarracenia oreophila 

Eriogonum gypsophilum 

Baptisia arachnifera 

Harperocallis flava 

Vicia menziesii 

Cereus robinii 

Pediocactus knowltonii 

Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri 

Coryphantha sneedii var. leei 

Mirabilis macfarlanei 

Arabis mcdonaldiana 

Hedeoma apiculatum 

Sclerocactus mesae-verdae 

Hudsonia montana 

Spiranthes parksii 

Coryphantha minima 

Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii 

Phacelia formosula 

Aconitum noveboracense 

Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus 

Trillium persistens 

Arctostaphylos pungens var. ravenii 

Potentilla robbinsiana 

Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. maritimus 

Pogogyne abramsii 

Dudleya traskiae 

Pediocactus sileri 

Isotria medeoloides 

Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii 

Tuctoria mucronata 

Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. inermis 

Echinacea tennesseensis 

Callirhoe scabriuscula 

Zizania texana 

Hedeoma todsenii 

Mahonia sonnei 

Betula uber 

Sclerocactus wrightiae 



12/13/82 



09/09/86 
06/30/83 
05/11/83 
03/30/84 
03/19/84 
09/13/83 
05/18/84 
09/09/86 
03/29/85 
03/28/85 
03/21/86 
03/28/85 
02/28/84 
04/12/85 
03/30/84 
09/14/83 
09/21/84 
09/20/84 
04/1 4/86 
03/21/86 
09/23/83 
03/30/84 
03/27/84 
07/10/84 
07/22/83 
12/06/85 
07/10/84 
06/27/85 
04/14/86 
01/16/85 
03/21/86 
09/11/85 
04/02/86 
02/14/82 
03/29/85 
12/03/84 
03/22/85 
06/20/84 
03/03/82 
12/24/85 



(More than one species are covered by some plans, and some species have several plans covering different parts of their ranges.) 
* Recovery efforts did not come in time to save this fish; it was recognized by the FWS as extinct on September 2, 1983. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 8) 

since it provided to the FWS the necessary 
information to proceed with listing qualified 
candidate plants and aided TNC in estab- 
lishing its land protection priorities. Four- 
teen of the 32 species have been recom- 
mended for Federal listing. 

* * * 

On December 10, a meeting was held at 
Wye Mills, Maryland, to discuss the Mary- 
land Forest, Park, and Wildlife Service's 
nongame and endangered species pro- 
gram and the first draft of the revised 
Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Recovery 
Plan. Representing Maryland was Glenn 
Therres, who was recently hired as the 
head of the State's nongame and endan- 
gered species program. 



Region 6 — The new black-footed ferret 
(Mustela nigripes) captive breeding facility 
at the Sybille Wildlife Research Unit near 
Wheatland, Wyoming, has been com- 
pleted. The final inspection was made on 
December 16, 1986. Dr. Donald Kwiat- 
kowski, Wyoming Game and Fish Depart- 
ment, started work at the facility on De- 
cember 1 . He will be responsible for the 
day-to-day care and maintenance of the 
captive ferrets. 

Captive black-footed ferrets currently 
being held in Laramie, Wyoming, will be 
transferred to Sybille in their current 
cages, which will then be connected to 
new, larger cages using a pipe tunnel. The 
ferrets will be allowed to move into their 
new cages gradually, softening any 
trauma associated with being transported 
to their new building. With a total of 17 
black-footed ferrets now being held in 
captivity, all involved are hoping for a suc- 



cessful captive breeding effort within the 
next few months. 

The Upper Basin Colorado River Coor- 
dinating Committee, which has been in- 
volved in a 3-year process to resolve con- 
flicts between water developers and 
conservation of Endangered fishes, met in 
the FWS Denver Regional Office on De- 
cember 8 to discuss the final changes to 
the draft Endangered Species Recovery 
Implementation Plan for the Upper Colo- 
rado River Basin. A task group established 
under the Coordinating Committee has 
been developing the plan for the past year 
and a half. 

As a result of the meeting, the Coordi- 
nating Committee agreed to three final 
changes and directed the task group to 
complete this last revision of the imple- 
mentation plan for acceptance and signa- 

(continued on next page) 



14 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 



ture by committee members in January 
1 987. The task group met on December 1 5 
to make these final revisions, and a con- 
sensus was reached on most issues. 
Efforts will continue on the remaining is- 
sues to keep the plan on track, with the im- 
plementation of the cooperative agree- 
ment among the States of Colorado, Utah, 
and Wyoming and the Department of the 
Interior scheduled for February. If com- 
pleted, this plan will initiate a 15-year effort 
at recovering the listed fishes in the upper 
Colorado River basin. 

* * * 

The Interagency Grizzly Bear Commit- 
tee (IGBC) held its fall meeting in the FWS 
Denver Regional Office on December 2-3. 
Attendees included members of the IGBC 
(top level managers of the USFS; FWS; 
National Park Service; Bureau of Land 
Management; and the States of Wyoming, 
Montana, Idaho, and Washington), agency 
grizzly bear experts, Canadian biologists, 
representatives from environmental orga- 
nizations, the press, and private citizens. 
Some of the key highlights of the meeting 
follow: 

Revision of the Grizzly Bear Recovery 
Plan is under way. However, a partial in- 
terim revision is being prepared to provide 
updated information on grizzly bear recov- 
ery zones and recovery target levels for all 
grizzly bear ecosystems. The target date 
for completion of the interim draft is Febru- 
ary 1987. 

In 1986, six grizzlies were captured as 
nuisance bears in the Northern Conti- 
nental Divide Ecosystem in Montana, and 
33 were captured as nuisance animals in 
the Yellowstone Ecosystem. More than 60 
percent of the bear/human conflicts in the 
Yellowstone Ecosystem occurred on the 1 
percent of habitat that is in private owner- 
ship. Many problems occurred in towns 
bordering the park that resulted from incor- 
rect garbage disposal and storage, which 
attracted the bears. 

Results from the first year of a study on 
aversive conditioning of grizzly bears 
using rubber bullets are somewhat op- 
timistic. Only a few bears were actually 
"tested" in 1986. However, preliminary in- 
dications show that although bears "shot" 
once at a specific location did not avoid all 
areas with humans, after three hits they 
did begin to avoid areas associated with 
humans for up to a 1 -month period. A re- 
port on this study, which is being con- 
ducted by the Wyoming Game and Fish 
Department, should be available soon. 

A state-of-the-art compendium on the 
grizzly bear has been completed by the 
National Wildlife Federation. The 830- 
page document includes a list and abstract 
of all available information on the biology, 
research, and management of the grizzly 
bear in North America. 



A special task force report was sub- 
mitted to the IGBC on the availability and 
distribution of foods for grizzly bears in the 
Yellowstone Ecosystem. It provides details 
on the amounts of carrion and fish avail- 
able to bears, the distribution and annual 
abundance of these food sources, and the 
known feeding ecology of grizzly bears in 
relation to the foods available in this 
ecosystem. The report notes that signifi- 
cant amounts of carrion are available to 
bears in both spring and fall. The majority 
is available within Yellowstone National 
Park in the spring, while in the fall most is 
available outside the park as a result of big 
game sport hunting. Available data on 
grizzly bear foods and the population in the 
Yellowstone area indicate that sufficient 
foods are available to maintain a viable 
population in this ecosystem. Thus, con- 
cerns about the need to artificially feed 
grizzly bears are not supported by the 
available data. 

Current data for the Yellowstone Eco- 
system indicate that management efforts 
are resulting in fewer bear mortalities and, 
as a result, higher reproduction. Twenty- 
three adult females were seen with cubs in 
the Yellowstone Ecosystem in 1986. Al- 
though two of these bears are now dead 
due to human/bear conflicts, this is the 
highest number of unduplicated adult 
female sightings ever reported in the 
ecosystem. In comparison, the highest 
number of adult females with cubs counted 
from 1959 to 1967, when the garbage 
dumps in the park were open, was 19. It is 
important to note that approximately 2 mil- 
lion acres or 40 percent of the Yellowstone 
ecosystem have yet to be adequately cen- 
sused for adult females with cubs due to 
logistics and limitations on access. Thus, 
the number of sightings in 1 986 represents 
a minimum number known to be alive. At 
least one adult female at 4 years of age 
was known to have cubs in 1 986. This first 
documentation of breeding at such a 
young age in Yellowstone is a positive in- 
dication that grizzly bears are able to ob- 
tain sufficient foods. 

There also has been a reduction in the 
average number of human-induced bear 
mortalities, from 18.8 per year for the 
period 1959-1967 to 10.1 per year for the 
period 1981-1986. These data support a 
cautiously optimistic attitude about the fu- 
ture of the Yellowstone grizzly bear popu- 
lation. Continuing efforts to minimize 
human-induced mortality and reduce hu- 
man-related food sources will promote 
achievement of recovery goals for this im- 
portant grizzly bear population. 

Members of the press also attended the 
meeting. At the end of the meeting, an op- 
portunity was provided for them to inter- 
view key participants. Several local televi- 
sion stations carried a brief story on the 
event during their evening newscast. At 
the end of the meeting, Earth First!, an en- 
vironmental organization, staged a mock 
funeral for the Yellowstone grizzly bear to 



protest government bear management 

policies. 

* * * 

Region 7 — With the advent of autumn, 
Aleutian Canada geese (Branta cana- 
densis leucopareia) migrate from their 
Alaska breeding islands to the more favor- 
able environs of Oregon and California. 
They began arriving in the Crescent City, 
California, area in mid-October. Since Al- 
eutian geese commonly mix with other 
Canada geese that are similar in ap- 
pearance, a precise count of their numbers 
is difficult. However, preliminary estimates 
of the flock in California indicate a new 
population high for the Aleutian sub- 
species (4,500 - 5,000 birds). 

Another interesting report from the win- 
tering grounds is that all ten Aleutian birds 
banded from a population breeding in the 
Semidi Islands, Alaska, in 1980 and 1981 
have again been observed in the Pacific 
City, Oregon, area where this population 
winters. Such a high survival rate is re- 
markable. 



BULLETIN 
Available by 
Subscription 

Although we would like to send the 
BULLETIN to everyone interested in 
endangered species, budgetary con- 
straints make it necessary for us to 
limit general distribution to Federal 
and State agencies and official con- 
tacts of the Endangered Species Pro- 
gram. However, the BULLETIN is be- 
ing reprinted and distributed to all 
others, on a non-profit subscription 
basis, by the University of Michigan. 
To subscribe, write to the Endan- 
gered Species Technical Bulletin 
Reprint, School of Natural Re- 
sources, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48109-1115, or tele- 
phone 313/763-1312. The price for 
12 monthly issues is $15.00 (in Can- 
ada, $18 US). 



Reference Note 

All Fish and Wildlife Service no- 
tices and proposed and final rules 
are published in the Federal Register 
in full detail. The parenthetical refer- 
ences given in the BULLETIN — for 
example: (F.R. 9/3/85)— identify the 
month, day, and year on which the 
relevant notice or rule appeared in 
the Federal Register. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



15 



Wood Stork 

(continued from page 4) 



Several sites were considered for con- 
struction of the new artificial foraging hab- 
itat, with the final selection being Kath- 
wood Lake at the NAS Silverbluff Planta- 
tion Sanctuary near Jackson, South Car- 
olina. This site, approximately the same 
distance and direction from the rookery as 
the Steel Creek delta area on the Savan- 
nah River Plant, consisted of an old 
lakebed of approximately 35 acres that 
had been drained several years earlier 
when its dam collapsed. Through the co- 
operative efforts of the FWS, NAS, Soil 
Conservation Service, Auburn University, 
DOE, Savannah River Ecology Lab (Uni- 
versity of Georgia), and E.I. du Pont de 
Nemours and Company (major contractor 
for the DOE at the Savannah River Plant), 
a design for creating foraging habitat was 
developed, a management plan was 
drawn up, and construction began. 

Orangeburg National Fish Hatchery pro- 
vided fish for stocking the ponds initially, 
and on July 30, 1986, the first four storks 
from the Birdsville rookery discovered the 
artificial habitat. One week later, 72 wood 
storks were actively foraging in the ponds. 
The birds placed their stamp of approval 
on the design and concept by continuing to 
return to the ponds in large numbers until 
late September, when they began to move 
south for the winter. 

Part of the idea behind this project was 
to develop a detailed construction and 
management design that eventually would 
provide fish for the storks on a self-sustain- 
ing basis, eliminating the need for con- 
tinued fish stocking. The first year's results 
indicate that the fish population in Kath- 
wood Lake potentially may be self-sustain- 
ing by the second year of operation. The 
DOE, in addition to funding the con- 
struction and maintenance of this habitat, 
has provided funds to researchers at the 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

25 

61 

8 

5 

39 
3 

23 

4 

8 

107 

283 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



242 | 

141 I 
60 i 



I 

Foreign | U.S. 
Only | Only 
5 
3 
10 

8 ] 3 
11 21 

1 5 

2 

I 1 

I 5 

1 | 24 
466 I 77 



THREATENED 
U.S. & 
Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 
15 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


314 





223 


13 


101 





16 





81 





9 





25 





5 





13 


2 


143 


37 


930 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

43 

7 

21 

1 

12 

54 

243** 



'Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, American alliga- 
tor, green sea turtle, Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 209 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 26 animals 

38 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 96 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

26 plants 

December 31, 1986 



University of Georgia's Savannah River 
Ecology Lab to conduct detailed and inten- 
sive studies of the storks that occupy the 
Birdsville rookery and use the Savannah 
River Plant's wetlands for feeding. This 
ongoing research already has produced 
information on the breeding, foraging, and 
migratory habits of the stork, which will 
materially assist in recovery efforts for the 
species. 

Requests have been received by the 
FWS from private landowners and public 
land managers for directions on how to re- 



produce the design and management 
scheme used at Kathwood. Several Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuges also are evaluating 
these techniques for possible use in man- 
aging their own resident storks. The suc- 
cessful results of this first consultation on 
the species have already provided, and 
should continue to yield, invaluable knowl- 
edge and techniques for ensuring the sur- 
vival of the Birdsville colony as well as 
struggling wood stork rookeries in other 
areas of the Southeast. 



January 1987 



Vol. XII No. 1 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior us Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC 20240 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 (1987) 



119.77 -I^K 



February 1987 



Vol. XII No. 2 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, D.C. 20240 



Listing Protection Proposed foi^|Ji^^^^|gJ* 
Two Plants and Three Animals 



Five taxa were proposed by the Fish and 
Wildlife Service during January 1987 for 
listing as Threatened or Endangered. If fi- 
nal listings are approved, protection under 
the Endangered Species Act will be avail- 
able to the following: 

Relict Trillium (Trillium 
reliquum) 

The relict trillium, a rare herbaceous 
member of the lily family (Liliaceae), can 
be distinguished from other trillium species 
by its decumbent (s-curved) stems, dis- 
tinctively shaped anthers, and the color 
and shape of its leaves. Its flowers, which 
appear in early spring, are greenish to 
brownish-purple (or occasionally pure 
yellow) in color. A perennial, it dies back to 
a tuberous rhizome after the fruit matures. 
T. reliquum is found only in moist hard- 
wood forests that have experienced little or 
no disturbance within the recent past. 

There currently are nine known T. reli- 
quum populations: two in Alabama (Henry 
and Lee Counties); four in Georgia (Clay, 
Columbia, and Early Counties); and three 
in South Carolina (Aiken and Edgefield 
Counties). The Henry County population, 
which consists of approximately 1 50 plants 
on one-third of an acre, is on land man- 
aged by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
(COE) as a recreation area. Part of the 
largest population, located in Aiken and 
Edgefield Counties, has been purchased 
by the South Carolina Department of Ma- 
rine Resources for protection as a nature 
preserve, and another small segment is 
within a State highway right-of-way owned 
by South Carolina. The remainder of this 
population is privately owned, as are the 
six populations. 

Because most relict trillium populations 
are adjacent to rapidly expanding urban 
areas, the most serious threat to the spe- 
cies' survival is the loss of habitat resulting 
from residential development. Logging of 
lands occupied by the trillium, clearing of 
native habitat for agricultural purposes, 
and fires are other significant threats. All T. 
reliquum populations have been damaged 
(continued on page 5) 



CLEMSON 
LIBRARY 



1.5cm 




drawing by G. I Miller 



Relict trillium showing distinctive anthers (A) and mature flowering plant (D) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 




Endangered Species Program re- 
gional staff members have reported the 
following activities for the month of 
January: 

Region 2— In December 1986, 71 
caves were surveyed for Ozark big-eared 



bats (Plecotus townsendii ingens). Of the 
71 caves, only five (four in Oklahoma and 
one in Arkansas) contained these bats. A 
total of 258 Ozark big-eared bats were 
found in the five caves. Most of the bats 
occurred in one cave in Oklahoma, where 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Marvin E. Monarty, Chief, 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Earl B Bayslnger, Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark Ft Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director; John S. 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331 -3580); James W Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director; John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W. Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6. P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D. Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Barry S Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 101 1 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director; Dennis 
Money, Endangered Species Special- 
ist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California. Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories. Region 2: Arizona. New 
Mexico. Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana. Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky. Louisiana, Mississippi. North Carolina. South Carolina. Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut. Delaware. Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts. New 
Hampshire. New Jersey. New York. Pennsylvania, Rhode Island. Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia Region-6: Colorado. 
Kansas. Montana, Nebraska. North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 20240. 



Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom. Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director, 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 



the count increased from 216 bats in 1985 
to 242 bats in 1986. 



In January, a radio-collared ocelot (Felis 
pardalis) was killed when struck by a vehi- 
cle on a road south of Laguna Atascosa 
National Wildlife Refuge in southern 
Texas. The cat was an adult male that was 
originally collared in February 1984. The 
remains were found by a passerby and 
were turned over to the State game war- 
den. 



The Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra 
americana sonoriensis) recovery team 
met in January. The major topics of discus- 
sion included the Draft Final Report on 
Sonoran Pronghorn Status in Arizona, fu- 
ture research needs and recovery actions, 
and the Draft Master Plan for Buenos Aires 
National Wildlife Refuge. One of the objec- 
tives in the latter document is the re- 
introduction of pronghorn on the refuge. 
The subspecies to be used in such a re- 
introduction is undecided. It is not entirely 
clear which pronghorn subspecies is na- 
tive to the refuge; the area may be within 
the historical range of A. a. mexicana, a 
non-endangered subspecies. 

* * * 

Region 3 — Gene Gardner, of the Illinois 
Natural History Survey, has submitted the 
following note that corrects and slightly ex- 
pands upon a Regional News item in BUL- 
LETIN Vol. XI No. 10-11: 

Radio-tracking equipment and tech- 
niques were successfully applied to a juve- 
nile female Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) 
captured over a permanent stream in Pike 
County, Illinois. This juvenile was only one 
of 16 Indiana bats captured within the 
same 1 .75 kilometer segment of the creek. 
The juvenile, weighing 8.05 grams, ex- 
hibited some abnormal behavior during the 
first night of a four-night tracking period. 
The bat was tracked on four mornings to a 
dead cottonwood in a small area of bot- 
tomland woods bordering the stream. The 
juvenile, along with nine other bats (un- 
doubtedly Indiana bats), emerged from be- 
neath the same small area of loose bark 
on the tree during one night of observation. 
Preliminary data for the second, third, and 
fourth nights indicate movements over a 
larger range than previously reported for 
the species. In addition to foraging over 
the creek, the juvenile foraged in the can- 
opy of mature trees in an upland, intermit- 
tent S'de hollow of the permanent stream. 
The bat flew across the corner of a nearby 
soybean field, apparently to reach the up- 
land foraging area. Although she foraged 
along the edges of the soybean field and a 
nearby cornfield, she did not forage over 
the open fields themselves. A long-term 
cooperative research project among the Il- 
linois Natural History Survey, Illinois De- 



(continued on page 3) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 



Listings Approved for 12 Plants and One Animal 



During January 1987, the Fish and Wild- 
life Service (FWS) added the following 
taxa to the U.S. list of Endangered and 
Threatened plants and animals: 

Seven Florida Scrub Plants 

The sand pine/evergreen oak scrub 
ecosystem occupying the central Florida 
sand ridge includes a number of plants 
and animals that are found nowhere else. 
These endemic species are imperiled by 
conversion of native habitat to citrus 
groves, residential developments, and 
other uses. (See the story in this BUL- 
LETIN on the recent proposal to list two 
Florida lizards.) As part of a continuing 
effort to conserve these species and their 
habitat, the FWS proposed April 10, 1986, 
to give listing protection to seven Florida 
scrub plants. (See story in BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 5.) The January 21 , 1 987, final rule 



listed six scrub plants as Endangered — 
Eryngium cuneifolium (snake root), 
Chionanthus pygmaeus (pygmy fringe 
tree), Hypericum cumulicola (highlands 
scrub hypericum), Polygonella 
basiramia (wire weed), Prunus geni- 
culata (scrub plum), and Warea carter/ 
(Carter's mustard) — and one as Threat- 
ened, Paronychia chartacea (papery 
whitlow-wort). 

Two Puerto Rico Plants 

Peperomia wheeleri (Wheeler's 
peperomia) is an evergreen herb found on 
the slopes of Monte Resaca on Culebra Is- 
land. Deforestation and feral livestock 
have eliminated the plant from most of its 
former range. Most of the remaining popu- 
lation occurs within Culebra National Wild- 
life Refuge; however, until the continuing 
feral livestock problem is solved, the spe- 



cies will remain vulnerable. Banara van- 
derbiltii (known locally as Palo de 
Ramon), is an evergreen shrub or small 
tree that apparently survives at a single 
site in the karst region of northern Puerto 
Rico. Only six individuals of this species 
currently are known. Some historical popu- 
lations were lost to urbanization, and the 
remaining habitat is subject to continued 
development. Both species were proposed 
April 10, 1986, for listing as Endangered 
(see summary in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 5), 
and the final rule was published in the Jan- 
uary 14, 1987, Federal Register. 

Lesquerella filiformis 
(Missouri Bladderpod) 

This annual, endemic to the unglaciated 
prairie region of southwestern Missouri, is 

(continued on page 7) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

partment of Conservation, and Illinois De- 
partment of Transportation will include the 
use of 0.82-g superminiature transmitters 
in a telemetry study of an Indiana bat ma- 
ternity colony in this area during 1987. 

Region 4 — Two Endangered plant spe- 
cies have been found on a protected site in 
Miami, Florida. Euphorbia deltoidea ssp. 
deltoidea (deltoid spurge) and Poly gala 
smalli (tiny polygala) were located on the 
Deering Estate, a 300-acre tract recently 
acquired by Florida's Conservation and 
Recreation Lands Program and the Metro- 
politan Dade County Park and Recreation 
Department. The Deering Estate includes 
about 75 acres of pine rockland, a habitat 
type to which both species are restricted. 
Only one plant of E. d. ssp. deltoidea and 
four plants of P. smalli were found; how- 
ever, if controlled burning (a habitat man- 
agement technique to remedy overvegeta- 
tion) can be implemented, it is likely that 
the populations of both species will in- 
crease. 



Three male and three female (two preg- 
nant) Perdido Key beach mice (Per- 
omyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) have 
been trapped at Gulf State Park in Baldwin 
County, Alabama, and translocated ap- 
proximately 10 miles east to an enclosure 
on Gulf Islands National Seashore in Es- 
cambia County, Florida. The enclosure is 
designed to exclude mammalian and avian 
predators and to initially confine the beach 
mice to a selected dune. Construction of 
the enclosure consisted of sheet aluminum 
4 feet wide and in lengths of 35-50 feet 



buried 18 inches in the sand encircling a 
dune. Poultry mesh was attached to the 
top of each aluminum sheet, resulting in an 
enclosure wall extending approximately 5 
feet above ground. Plastic bird mesh was 
used to construct a roof over the en- 
closure. 

Future recovery actions include periodic 
monitoring of the translocated beach mice 
and release of additional mice as neces- 
sary. This recovery action is a cooperative 
effort among the FWS, the National Park 
Service and the States of Alabama and 
Florida to reestablish the Perdido Key 
beach mouse to an area from which it was 
extirpated following Hurricane Frederick in 
1979. A captive breeding colony also will 
be established at Auburn University. 

The automobile, the primary "predator" 
of the Florida panther (Felis concolor 
coryi), has claimed another victim. A 
female panther was killed on Alligator Alley 
(State Route 84) in Collier County at mile 
marker 1 6. This is the same location where 
two other panthers have been killed. As a 
result of an Endangered Species Act 
(ESA) Section 7 consultation with the 
Federal Highway Administration on up- 
grading Alligator Alley to Interstate 75, a 
number of underpasses will be con- 
structed at mile marker 16. This area has 
been documented to be heavily used by 
panthers and is a primary travel corridor 
for these animals when crossing Alligator 
Alley. Since 1973, eleven panthers have 
been killed and two injured on south Flor- 
ida roads. 

In 1986, FWS personnel with the Jack- 
son, Mississippi, and Annapolis, Maryland, 
field offices, in conjunction with State fish 
and game agencies, concluded a 4-year 



bat population survey at 12 maternity colo- 
nies, 3 of the Endangered Ozark big-eared 
bat and 9 of the Virginia big-eared bat 
(Plecotus townsendii virginianus). 

Over the study period, the Ozark big- 
eared bat population declined by 13.8 per- 
cent at the three study caves in Oklahoma 
and Arkansas. This loss is accounted for 
by the dramatic decline (79.8 percent) at 
the only known maternity colony site of this 
bat in Arkansas. On the other hand, the 
two study colonies in Oklahoma actually 
had substantial increases of 73.3 percent 
and 19.4 percent. The total 1986 maternity 
colony population, including the study 
colonies and additional colonies located 
since the survey began, was 459. (In pre- 
vious years of the study, the counts were 
1983—311; 1984—386; 1985—332). 

The Virginia big-eared bat population 
has increased by 24.3 percent over 4 
years at the eight study colonies in West 
Virginia and at the only study colony in Vir- 
ginia. The total 1986 Virginia big-eared bat 
maternity colony population in West Vir- 
ginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, including the 
study colonies and additional colonies lo- 
cated since the survey began, was 5,084 
(1983—3,505; 1984—3,866; 1985— 
4,565). 

The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission has completed its annual win- 
ter snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis 
plumbeus) survey. The survey spans terri- 
tory from the central lakes region of Flor- 
ida, past Lake Okeechobee, to the Ever- 
glades. The total number of kites observed 
in this year's survey was 563, representing 
an increase of 38.3 percent over last year. 
This year's total is greater than the aver- 
age annual count of 383 kites for the 
5-year period from 1981 to 1985. 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 



Most of the kites were found in Ever- 
glades Conservation Area 3A. This area 
has always been one of the kite's major 
strongholds; however, during drought 
years (such as 1985), kites are forced to 
move northward into the central lakes re- 
gion. The snail kite is dependent on 
drought-related habitats, and development 
pressures in these areas may prove detri- 
mental to the species' survival. 



Region 5 — Representatives from The 
Nature Conservancy, natural resource 
agencies of New Jersey, Maryland, and 
West Virginia, and the FWS Annapolis, 
Maryland, Endangered Species Field Of- 
fice met in the regional office on January 
28 to develop procedures for an inter- 
agency volunteer effort to assist the FWS 
in listing vulnerable plants. This experi- 
mental project could prove to be of tremen- 
dous assistance to the FWS and greatly 
expedite the listing of qualified candidate 
species. 



A meeting of the New Hampshire Au- 
dubon Society, U.S. Forest Service, New 
Hampshire Fish and Game Department, 
and the FWS regional office and Concord, 
New Hampshire, field office staffs was 
held January 23 to discuss the 1987 per- 
egrine falcon {Falco peregrinus) project 
field season. The highly successful use of 
trained volunteers at active and historic 
nesting sites was discussed, as was the 
subject of establishing contacts with the 
Appalachian Mountain Club, rockclimbers, 
State park personnel, and the public. 



Region 6 — All captive black-footed fer- 
rets {Mustela nigripes), 6 males and 1 1 
females, are now adapting to their new 
6,912-square-foot holding facility at the 
Wyoming Game and Fish Department's 
Sybille Wildlife Research Unit near Wheat- 
land, Wyoming. The facility, a pole barn 
construction with metal siding and roof, 
has been erected and enclosed, and about 
one-half of the interior has been finished. 
The building is divided into several rooms, 
including rooms for isolating ferrets, food 
production and preparation, ferret holding 
pens, and office activities. 

Of the 17 ferrets being held at the facil- 
ity, 13 are kept separately in 4- by 8-foot 
woven wire cages. In addition, there are 
four large 8- by 16-foot cages built on the 
floor. The floor of each cage is covered 
with 4 inches of soil. In the center of each 
floor cage, a large square section has 
been framed and filled with an additional 
12 inches of soil. Ferrets in each type of 
cage are offered a choice of two nest 
boxes for security. Each nest box consists 
of an outer compartment and an inner nest 
compartment similar to what a ferret might 
experience in a prairie dog burrow. The 
captive ferrets are fed a ration of prairie 
dogs, hamsters, mice, and prepared moist 



cat food. All of the animals are currently 
doing well and are adapting well to this 
new environment. 

An attempt to breed the ferrets is 
planned for the current breeding period, 
February through March 1 987. The Wyom- 
ing Game and Fish Department is being 
assisted in the captive breeding effort by 
the Captive Breeding Specialist Group of 
the International Union for the Conserva- 
tion of Nature and Natural Resources. This 
group, led by Dr. Ulysses Seal, was re- 
quested by the Wyoming Game and Fish 
Department (WGDF) and the FWS to 
serve as a technical advisory group for the 
captive breeding aspects of the ferret re- 
covery program. Mr. Mike DonCarlos of 
the Minneapolis Zoological Garden is a 
member of the group and will work with the 
WGFD in its efforts to breed ferrets this 
spring. Success in breeding this species in 
captivity may be necessary to prevent its 
extinction, and it will provide an oppor- 
tunity to develop a captive population from 
which ferrets can be reintroduced back 
into the wild. Ferrets in captivity also 
provide an opportunity to further the knowl- 
edge of this species. Research in the fields 
of black-footed ferret genetics, physiology, 
and behavior are currently planned for the 
captive animals. 

Successful captive breeding is very im- 
portant for recovery of this species and it is 
equally important that other populations of 
wild ferrets be found. To help locate an- 
other wild population, the State of Montana 
is currently offering a reward for evidence 
of the species' presence in that State. Any 
person who sees a black-footed ferret is 
asked to report the sighting to the local 
game and fish department or to the FWS. 



During January, the Grand Island Field 
Office distributed an update to the report ti- 
tled, "Potential Present Range of the 
Black-footed Ferret as of January 1, 
1981," and subsequent 1981-1986 up- 
dates. This update includes all probable 
and confirmed ferret sightings reported to 
the Grand Island office during January 1, 
1986, through January 1, 1987. States re- 
porting confirmed or probable sightings 
during the period were Colorado, Utah, 
and Wyoming. 

Competition for Platte River water is 
high among interests in Colorado, Wyom- 
ing, and Nebraska. An interagency effort 
made up of biologists representing State, 
Federal, and private agencies is develop- 
ing habitat models for three listed species 
that use the Platte River in Nebraska. Hab- 
itat Suitability Index (HSI) models are 
being developed for piping plover and inte- 
rior least tern nesting habitat and for 
riverine roosting habitat of migrating 
whooping cranes. The habitat models will 
be linked with a hydraulic model of the 
central Platte River that has been de- 
veloped through Instream Flow Incremen- 



tal Methodology. The goal of the project is 
to develop habitat versus instream flow re- 
lationships that can be used in assess- 
ment of project effects, development of 
reasonable and prudent alternatives to 
jeopardy actions, reservoir operations 
studies, and the enhancement of riverine 
habitat, all as part of ESA Section 7 inter- 
agency consultation. Model development 
is being led by the Grand Island Field Of- 
fice and the Bureau of Reclamation's 
Kansas-Nebraska Projects Office. 



Region 7 — Approximately 20 Endan- 
gered Aleutian Canada geese (Branta 
canadensis leucopareia) succumbed to 
an outbreak of avian cholera in Modesto, 
California, during January. The Modesto 
oxidation ponds are a traditional roosting 
area for ducks and geese in the San Joa- 
quin Valley. Although Aleutian geese have 
died previously from cholera at these 
ponds, mortality has never been as high. 
David L. Hunter, DVM, of the California 
Department of Fish and Game's Wildlife 
Investigations Lab in Rancho Cordova, is 
cooperating with the FWS in examining the 
birds. Proceedures to haze the flock to dis- 
courage their continued use of the area 
are being implemented. 



Region 8 — Several FWS Cooperative Re- 
search Units are engaged in endangered 
species research projects in Puerto Rico. 
The Iowa unit recently completed a report 
on ecological studies of the brown pelican 
(Pelecanus occidentalis), which sug- 
gested that food may be a limiting factor, 
but that environmental contaminants, dis- 
ease, climate, habitat, and nesting suc- 
cess did not seem to be limiting. 

The Louisiana unit is involved in the re- 
covery program for the Puerto Rican parrot 
(Amazona vittata). The objective of the 
Louisiana study is to determine what im- 
pact exotic rats have on parrot production. 

A 2-year study by the Florida unit in the 
Culebra Archipelago (between Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands) will provide 
baseline data on populations and habitat 
assessment for four Endangered sea tur- 
tles. Data collected on the hawksbill (Eret- 
mochelys imbricata), leatherback (Der- 
mochelys cohacea), loggerhead (Caretta 
caretta), and green {Chelonia mydas) sea 
turtles will assist the FWS in developing 
management strategies to improve nesting 
success and manage habitat for these tur- 
tles on the Archipelago. 

The Georgia unit also is investigating 
sea turtles in Puerto Rico. Objectives of a 
current study are to investigate stock as- 
sessment methodology and provide a pop- 
ulation estimate for numbers of nesting 
female sea turtles; calculate nesting suc- 
cess and document reasons for nesting 
failure; and calculate estimates of num- 
bers of foraging turtles on Mona Island. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 1) 



to some extent by one or more of these 
factors and all remain, at least in part, vul- 
nerable to them. Accordingly, the FWS has 
proposed the relict trillium for listing as En- 
dangered (F.R. 1/14/87). 

The listing proposal did not include a 
proposal for designating Critical Habitat 
because the publication of maps and pre- 
cise location data required for such a des- 
ignation would make the trillium more vul- 
nerable to taking. T. reliquum already is 
subject to this problem; in the spring of 
1986, several hundred plants of the largest 
population were cut while in bloom by van- 
dals or uninformed wildflower enthusiasts. 
However, even without a Critical Habitat 
designation, the species will receive pro- 
tection under Section 7 of the Endangered 
Species Act if it is listed. 

Comments on the listing proposal 
should be sent to the Field Supervisor, 
Asheville Endangered Species Field Of- 
fice, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Room 
224, 100 Otis Street, Asheville, North Car- 
olina 28801 by March 16, 1987. 

Crescentia portoricensis 

With fewer than 30 individuals known to 
exist, C. portoricensis is one of Puerto 
Rico's rarest plant species. The survival of 
this evergreen shrub or small tree is se- 
riously threatened by the direct and indi- 
rect impacts of deforestation, and the FWS 
has proposed to list it as Endangered (F.R. 
1/14/87). 

C. portoricensis, also known as Higuero 
de Sierra, is endemic to montane mixed 
evergreen and deciduous forests of the 
lower Cordillera of southwestern Puerto 
Rico. The only two known C. portoricensis 
populations are in the Susua and Maricao 



Commonwealth Forests. The Susua unit 
had largely been cleared by the beginning 
of the twentieth century and, although the 
forest is recovering, both it and the Mar- 
icao unit are experiencing the indirect 
effects of the deforestation that is occur- 
ring on adjacent lands. Associated in- 
creases in erosion, landslides, and flash 
flooding are believed responsible for the 
disappearance of two previously known 
populations. Because C. portoricensis is 
restricted to sites along permanent or in- 
termittent watercourses, it remains par- 
ticularly vulnerable to these problems. 

Flood control projects that include large 
reservoirs in the Maricao area are under 
long-term consideration for possible con- 
struction by the COE. If constructed as 
originally planned, the impoundments 
could extend into drainages where C. por- 
toricensis occurs. Various alternatives are 
being evaluated, and the FWS will work 
with the COE to develop plans that meet 
project objectives while allowing for con- 
servation of the plant. Because these dis- 
cussions are beginning early in the project 
planning process, no conflicts are ex- 
pected. 

Comments on the proposal to list C. por- 
toricensis as an Endangered species 
should be sent to the Field Supervisor, 
Caribbean Field Office, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 491, Boqueron, 
Puerto Rico 00622, by March 16, 1987. 

Hualapai Vole (Microtus 
mexicanus hualpaiensis) 

The Hualapai vole is an extremely rare, 
mouse-sized mammal thought to be re- 
stricted to the Hualapai Mountains of 
northwestern Arizona. Only 15 confirmed 
specimens have ever been captured. Biol- 
ogists conducting an intensive survey in 
1984 were able to locate the vole or its 
sign at three sites totalling less than one 




Crescentia portoricensis is an evergreen, vine-like shrub or small tree reaching up 
to 20 feet (6 meters) in height. Its leaves are dark-green and leathery, usually clus- 
tered at the nodes, and the yellow-white flowers are irregularly bell-shaped. 

ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 



acre in size. The small patches of remain- 
ing suitable habitat are threatened by live- 
stock grazing, recreational activity, and a 
potential water development. To help pre- 
vent the extinction of the Hualapai vole, 
the FWS has proposed to list it as Endan- 
gered (F.R. 1/5/87). 

The Mexican vole (Microtus mexicanus) 
occurs in parts of Mexico and the south- 
western United States. There are 12 M. 
mexicanus subspecies, 3 of which are 
found in Arizona. In addition to M. m. 
hualpaiensis, the subject of the listing pro- 
posal, there are M. m. mogollonensis to 
the east and M. m. navaho to the north- 
east. 

Six vole specimens that might possibly 
be M. m. hualpaiensis have been collected 
from outside the Hualapai Mountains. Four 
came from the Music Mountains, about 50 
miles (80 kilometers) north of Hualapai 
Peak. That population is small, isolated, 
and subject to the same kinds of habitat 
degradation that has occurred in the 
Hualapai Mountains. The other two speci- 
mens were collected in Prospect Valley, 
about 90 miles (145 km) northeast of the 
Hualapais. These two specimens, which 
instead may represent M. m. navaho, were 
taken more than 73 years ago and no oth- 
ers have been reported from Prospect Val- 
ley since that time. 

In the Hualapai Mountains, the vole has 
been found between 5,397 and 8,400 feet 
(1 ,645 and 2,560 meters) in elevation, and 
is primarily associated with conifer forests. 
Within such woodlands, the vole occurs in 
moist sites with good grass cover along 
permanent or semipermanent waters (e.g., 
springs and seeps). Populations of Mi- 
crotus in the Hualapai and the Music 
Mountains are disjunct relicts from 
Pleistocene times. When the North Ameri- 
can glaciers retreated and the southwest's 
climate became warmer and drier, moun- 
taintop "islands" of moist, grassy meadow 
and forest habitat were isolated by the in- 
creasingly arid lowlands. 

Most of the sites in the Hualapais where 
M. m. hualpaiensis or its sign have been 
found are public lands administered by the 
Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 
Others are owned by the Mohave County 
Parks Department, the Santa Fe Pacific 
Railroad, and private citizens. Except for 
the parkland, these areas are managed by 
the BLM as part of larger grazing allot- 
ments. Microtus sites in the Music Moun- 
tains also are on BLM lands. 

Certain land use practices in the past 
damaged most of the Hualapai vole's his- 
torical habitat, especially when exacer- 
bated by the effects of periodic droughts. 
The remaining habitat (approximately 
three-fourths of an acre) in the Hualapai 
Mountains also appears to be threatened. 
Livestock concentrates in moist areas 
around open water and seeps, and could 
reduce or eliminate the vole's ground 
cover plants by grazing and trampling. 

(continued on next page) 




drawing by Pinauu, courtesy 
of the Arizona Game and Fish Department 



Hualapai vole 

Campers and off-road vehicle enthusiasts 
also are attracted to spring areas, causing 
further damage. In addition, the Mohave 
County Parks Department is exploring the 
possibility of developing a 3-acre lake 
within historical vole habitat. 

Because most of the Hualapai vole hab- 
itat is on BLM lands, the cooperation of 
that agency will be critical to the survival of 
the Hualapai vole. The BLM is aware of the 
situation and is giving consideration to the 
vole's welfare. It is attempting to acquire 
one of the key sites in the Hualapai Moun- 
tains that is currently privately owned. (Mi- 
crotus sites in the Music Mountains al- 
ready are administered by the BLM.) If the 
Hualapai vole is listed as Endangered, the 
BLM will be required to ensure that its ac- 
tivities, including its involvements in graz- 
ing leases and water developments, are 
not likely to jeopardize the species' sur- 
vival. 

Comments on the proposal to list the 
Hualapai vole as Endangered should be 
sent to the FWS Regional Director, Region 
2 (address on page 2 of this BULLETIN), 
by March 16, 1987. 

Two Florida Lizards 

Two lizards endemic to central Florida, 
the sand skink (Neosops reynoldsi) and 
the blue-tailed mole skink {Eumeces 
egregius lividus), were proposed for list- 
ing as Threatened (F.R. 1/21/87). Both de- 
pend on scrub and longleaf pine/turkey 
oak vegetation with associated sandy 
soils, a distinctive type of habitat that is 



disappearing as agriculture and urbaniza- 
tion spread. 

The sand skink, which has adapted to a 
mostly fossorial (underground) existence, 
is the only North American skink com- 
pletely specialized for "swimming" through 
loose, sandy soils. Its streamlined features 
include a wedge-shaped head, a partially 
countersunk lower jaw, a reduction in the 
number of digits (one toe on the forelimbs 
and two on the hindlimbs), and tiny fore- 
legs that can be folded into grooves in the 
body. N. reynoldsi burrows to a depth of up 
to 10 inches (25 centimeters) and feeds on 
a variety of small, mostly fossorial arthro- 



pods (e.g., beetle larvae, termites). The 
species is known only from the high sandy 
ridges of Lake, Marion, Orange, Polk, and 
Highlands Counties. 

The blue-tailed mole skink, more 
restricted in range, is known only from Polk 
and Highlands Counties. This subspecies 
forages on the surface or up to 2 inches (5 
cm) underground, but it is not as spe- 
cialized as the sand skink for living in the 
subsurface substrate. Blue-tailed mole 
skinks do not compete with sand skinks for 
food, consuming instead primarily surface- 
dwelling arthropods (e.g., roaches, spi- 
ders, crickets). 

Neither of the skinks regularly inhabit 
substrates where the sand is dry and 
porous. They apparently depend on cer- 
tain moisture conditions that maintain body 
temperatures within a preferred range, 
provide a microclimate favorable for egg 
incubation, and support an abundant sup- 
ply of small invertebrates for food. Al- 
though both skinks are sometimes found 
together under surface vegetational litter, 
they appear to occupy different micro- 
habitats most of the time. Blue-tailed mole 
skinks are not evenly dispersed through- 
out seemingly suitable habitat; rather, they 
occur in localized pockets, most often un- 
der surface litter. Because this litter can 
provide necessary soil moisture, the un- 
even distribution of blue-tailed mole skinks 
could be a function of the uneven distribu- 
tion of litter. Sand skinks are not as 
dependent on surface litter and occur over 
a wider area, possibly due to their ability to 
burrow deeper for soil moisture. 

The sand pine scrub and sandhill areas 
in which the sand skink and blue-tailed 
mole skink occur are threatened by a num- 
ber of factors. These relatively high, well 
drained sites are in demand for citrus 
groves, improved pasture, cultivation, and 
various forms of development (commer- 
cial, residential, and recreational). Conver- 
sion of native habitat to other uses has 

(continued on next page) 




Sand skinks measure up to 5 inches (13 cm) in total length and are gray to tan in 
color. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from previous page) 

caused the ranges of many endemic Flor- 
ida plants and animals to become greatly 
reduced and fragmented. Over the past 
several years, the FWS has listed, or has 
proposed to list, 13 plants and 4 animals 
that are endemic to Florida scrub habitat. 
(See story in this BULLETIN on final list- 
ings for seven scrub plants.) Numerous 
other plants and animals of the region are 
candidates for future listing proposals. 

Fragments of the remaining skink hab- 
itat receive protection on Lake Louisa and 
Wekiwa Springs State Parks, Tiger Creek 
and Saddle Blanket Lakes Preserves 
(owned by The Nature Conservancy), 
Archbold Biological Station (a private re- 
search institution), and Ocala National 
Forest. These conservation areas, how- 
ever, are not enough to ensure the survival 
of the skinks. 

Listing these two skinks as Threatened 
would supplement and reinforce the pro- 



tection they now receive. The State of Flor- 
ida, which already lists both skinks under 
its own legislation as threatened, prohibits 
their direct take without a State permit. 
Such permits are available only for ap- 
proved conservation purposes. Given this 
fact, and the fact that habitat loss rather 
than take is the primary threat to the 
skinks, the FWS included with its listing 
proposal a provision to allow continued 
take when in full accordance with applica- 
ble State laws and regulations. 

Comments on the proposal to list the 
sand skink and blue-tailed mole skink as 
Threatened should be sent to the Field Su- 
pervisor, Endangered Species Field Sta- 
tion, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2747 
Art Museum Drive, Jacksonville, Florida 
32207, by March 23, 1987. 

Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits 
provided by a listing as Threatened or En- 




Blue-tailed mole skinks can reach up to 6 inches (15 cm) in total length. The tail, 
which makes up somewhat less than half of the length, is blue in young lizards, but 
it may become pinkish with age or if it is regenerated. 



dangered under the Endangered Species 
Act are: protection from adverse effects of 
Federal activities; prohibitions against cer- 
tain practices; the requirement for the 
FWS to develop and implement recovery 
plans; the possibility of Federal aid to State 
and Commonwealth conservation depart- 
ments that have signed Endangered Spe- 
cies Cooperative Agreements with the 
FWS; and the authorization to seek land 
purchases or exchanges for important 
habitat. Listing also lends greater recogni- 
tion to a species' precarious status, which 
encourages further conservation efforts by 
State and local agencies, various organi- 
zations, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their authorities to further 
the purposes of the Act by carrying out 
conservation programs for listed species. 
It also requires these agencies to ensure 
that any actions they authorize, fund, or 
carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
survival of a listed species or adversely 
modify its designated Critical Habitat. If 
any agency finds that one of its activities 
may affect a listed species, it is required to 
consult with the FWS on ways to avoid jeo- 
pardy or adverse modification. For species 
that are proposed for listing and for which 
jeopardy or adverse modification is found, 
Federal agencies are required to "confer" 
with the FWS, although the results of such 
a conference are non-binding. Potential 
conflicts almost always are avoided by 
planning early and using the Section 7 
process. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or engage in in- 
terstate or international trafficking in listed 
animals, except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For listed plants, the 
rule is different; the trafficking restrictions 
apply, but collecting of listed plants without 
a permit is prohibited only on lands under 
Federal jurisdiction. Some States, how- 
ever, have their own laws protecting listed 
plants and animals that may be more 
restrictive. 



Approved Listings 

(continued from page 3) 



known to survive at only nine sites in three 
counties. It apparently has been extirpated 
from two other counties. Although two of 
the current sites are on the Wilson's Creek 
National Battlefield, the species is in dan- 
ger of extinction because of its low num- 
bers, limited distribution, and potential 
habitat disturbance. L filiformis was pro- 
posed April 7, 1986, for listing as Endan- 
gered (see BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 5), and 
the final rule was published January 8, 
1987. 



Lespedeza leptostachya 
(Prairie Bush-clover) 

L leptostachya is endemic to the mid- 
western U.S., inhabiting dry to mesic na- 
tive prairies. Although it was never com- 
mon, this perennial now occurs in only a 
fraction of its historical range. Twenty-six 
remaining sites are known, distributed 
over northern Illinois, northern and south- 
central Iowa, southern Minnesota, and 
western Wisconsin. Only 14 of these sites 
receive some degree of official protection. 
Plants at the other sites face threats from 
urbanization, agricultural expansion, and 
construction activities. L. leptostachya 
was proposed December 6, 1985, for list- 



ing as a Threatened species (see BUL- 
LETIN Vol. XI No. 1), and the classification 
was made final on January 8, 1987. 

Cupressus abramsiana 
(Santa Cruz Cypress) 

Five small populations of this densely 
branched tree are known from the Santa 
Cruz Mountains of Santa Cruz and San 
Mateo Counties, California. Except for part 
of one population that extends onto Pesca- 
dero Creek County Park, all of the groves 
are on privately owned land. They are vul- 
nerable to a number of threats, including 
residential development; agricultural ex- 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987) 



Approved Listings 

(continued from previous page) 



pansion; logging; genetic contamination 
from introduced, exotic cypress species; 
and disruptions in the frequency of the nat- 
urally occurring wildfires upon which the 
Santa Cruz cypress depends. An addi- 
tional threat to one population at Butano 
Ridge may arise from oil and gas drilling. 
The proposal to list the Santa Cruz 
cypress as Endangered was issued Sep- 
tember 12, 1985 (see summary in BUL- 
LETIN Vol. X No. 10), and the final rule 
was published January 8, 1987. 



Giant Kangaroo Rat 
(Dipodomys ingens) 

Kangaroo rats, despite their name, are 
not true rats but small mammals spe- 
cialized for rapid hopping on their elon- 
gated hind legs. They inhabit parts of the 
relatively dry, open country of western 
North America. One rare species, the giant 
kangaroo rat, is found only in south-central 
California. Its preferred habitat is native 
annual grassland with sparse vegetation, 
good drainage, and fine sandy-loam soils. 
Estimates of the species' historical range 
vary between 1,300,000 and 2,500,000 
acres (527,600 and 1,000,000 hectares). 
By 1980, extensive conversion of native 
grasslands to cropland had reduced the 
species' range to a total area of less than 
76,800 acres (31,000 ha). Subsequent 
surveys indicate that at least half of the 
habitat remaining in 1980 was lost by 
1985, and the problem continues. On Au- 
gust 13, 1985, the FWS proposed to list 
the giant kangaroo rat as Endangered (see 
summary in BULLETIN Vol. X No. 9), and 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 

THREATENED ! SPECIES 

U.S. & Foreign SPECIES* HAVING 

Foreign Only I TOTAL PLANS 

22 315 23 

2 I 223 55 
4 13 101 21 
16 6 
6 81 43 
9 7 
25 21 
5 1 
13 12 

3 2 155 54 
15 37 ! 943 243** 

"Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, American alliga- 
tor, green sea turtle, Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 209 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 28 animals 

28 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 96 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

26 plants 

January 31, 1987 







ENDANGERED 






Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. 




Only 


Foreign 


Only 


Only 


Mammals 


26 


20 


242 


5 


Birds 


61 


16 


141 


3 


Reptiles 


8 


6 


60 


10 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


3 


Fishes 


39 


4 


11 


21 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 


Clams 


23 





2 





Crustaceans 


4 








1 


Insects 


8 








5 


Plants 


117 


6 


1 


26 


TOTAL 


294 


52 


466 


79 



the final rule was published January 5, 
1987. Because some of the populations 
are on lands administered by the BLM and 
Department of Energy, these agencies will 
be required to consult with the FWS on 
their activities that may affect the giant 
kangaroo rat. Such activities include, but 
are not limited to, issuance of permits for 
grazing, rodentcide application, and oil or 



natural gas exploration or development; 
however, no major conflicts are expected. 



These listed animals and plants are now 
protected under the Endangered Species 
Act, the terms of which are summarized in 
this BULLETIN at the end of the story on 
species newly proposed for, listing. 



February 1987 



Vol. XII No. 2 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior u S Fisn and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, wasnmgton, DC 20240 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 2 (1987; 



VY.77'/^o 



• wulio UULUMENTS 

DEPOSITORY ITEM 



March 1987 



APftgO BO? 



Vol. XII No. 3 




Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, D.C. 20240 



Four Southeastern Plants Proposed for Listing 



During February 1987, the following four 
species of plants endemic to small areas 
of the southeastern United States were 
proposed by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
(FWS) for listing as Endangered or 
Threatened: 



Liatris helleri (Heller's Blazing 
Star) 

A small perennial herb, L helleri is a 
member of the aster family (Asteraceae). 
The species is found only on a few scat- 
tered summits in the northern Blue Ridge 
Mountains of North Carolina, where it 
grows in shallow, acidic soils on high 
ledges of outcrops that are exposed to full 
sunlight. 

Of the nine historically known L helleri 
populations, two are considered extir- 
pated; a site in Watauga County was con- 
verted to a residential development and 
another in Mitchell County was subjected 
to intensive recreational use. Only three of 
the seven surviving populations receive 
some protection from human-induced hab- 
itat alteration. The other four are on lands 
that have been, or are being, developed 
for commercial recreational use. In an 
effort to prevent the species' extinction, the 
FWS has proposed to list it as Threatened 
(F.R. 2/19/87). 

The seven surviving L. helleri popula- 
tions occur in Caldwell, Avery, Ashe, and 
Burke Counties. Three of them occur on 
privately owned land, and are threatened 
by the construction of roads, parking lots, 
buildings, and other tourist support facili- 
ties or by trampling. A fourth site is being 
developed into a ski resort. Only the site 
owned by The Nature Conservancy re- 
ceives full protection. The other two L. 
helleri sites are on public lands, Pisgah 
National Forest and the Blue Ridge Park- 
way, but these also are scenic areas that 
are subject to heavy recreational use. Soil 
compaction and erosion, trampling, and 
the potential construction of new hiking 
trails are significant threats to the species' 
survival. 

L helleri already is listed as threatened 
by the State of North Carolina, which pro- 
hibits intrastate trade in the species with- 
out a permit and collecting of the plants 
without both a State permit and written 
permission of the landowner. This protec- 



tion will be reinforced and supplemented 
by the Federal Endangered Species Act if 
the FWS listing proposal is made final. An 
important addition would be the protection 
of habitat from potentially adverse Federal 
activities. Such activities could include fur- 
ther construction of recreational facilities, 
use of aerially-applied chemicals to fight 
fires, road construction, and permits for 
mineral exploration if carried out without 
the species' needs being considered. The 
FWS will work with the U.S. Forest Service 
and National Park Service to ensure the 
conservation of L. helleri on Federal lands 
while accommodating agency objectives 
to the extent possible. Both agencies have 
expressed interest in cooperating with the 
FWS to develop management and recov- 
ery plans. 




Liatris helleri (Heller's blazing star) is a 
perennial with one or more arching 
stems reaching up to 16 inches (40 cen- 
timeters) from a tuft of narrow, pale 
green leaves. 



Comments on the proposal to list L. 
helleri as Threatened are welcome, and 
should be sent to the Field Supervisor, En- 
dangered Species Field Office, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, 100 Otis Street, 
Room 224, Asheville, North Carolina 
28801, by April 20, 1987. 

Three Granite Outcrop Plants 

The FWS has proposed listing Isoetes 
melanospora (black-spored quillwort) 
and Isoetes tegetiformans (mat-forming 
quillwort) as Endangered species, and 
Amphianthus pusillus (little amphi- 
anthus) as Threatened (F.R. 2/19/87). All 
three of these plants are restricted to small 
pools on granite outcrops in the south- 
eastern U.S. 

/. melanospora, a low-growing plant in 
the quillwort family (Isoetaceae) can be 
distinguished by its complete velum cover- 
age, dark tuberculate megaspores, and 
short spiral leaves. /. tegetiformans is simi- 
lar in appearance, but has a mat-forming 
growth habit of plants interconnected by 
rhizomes. A. pusillus is a monotypic genus 
of uncertain membership in the 
snapdragon family (Scrophulariaceae). 
This diminutive, fibrous-rooted annual has 
both floating and submerged leaves of dif- 
ferent shapes and tiny white flowers. A. 
pusillus is ephemeral, usually completing 
its entire life cycle within a 3- to 4-week 
period. 

The granite outcrops supporting popula- 
tions of these plants occur as large, iso- 
lated domes or as gently rolling "flatrocks" 
in the Piedmont physiographic region of 
the southeast. Because of their scattered 
distribution and harsh environmental con- 
ditions (high light intensities, extreme wet/ 
dry periods), these rock exposures are ac- 
tive sites for plant speciation, as shown by 
their high degree of endemism. Of the 
plants endemic to granite outcrops, the 
three recently proposed species are the 
most restricted. They grow in shallow, flat- 
bottomed temporary or vernal pools that 
are found on the crest and flattened slopes 
of some unquarried outcrops. Such pools 
retain water for several weeks following 
heavy rains and completely dry out in sum- 
mer droughts. The vast majority of these 
pools are small, only 0.5 to 1 .0 meters 

(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 




Endangered species program regional 
staff members have reported the fol- 
lowing activities for the month of 
February: 

Region 1 — Wintering bald eagles 
(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) seem to be 



taking more of a liking to an area around 
Pend Oreille Lake in northern Idaho this 
season. This year's high count was 429 
bald eagles near the southern part of the 
lake where kokanee (salmon) were 
spawning. Last winter, the high count was 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle. Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Marvin E Monarty. Chief, 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Earl B Baysinger, Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R Bavin, Chief. 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1 , Lloyd 500 Bldg , Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L Wal- 
lehstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region I: California. Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada. Oregon. Washington, and Pacitic Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico. Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana, Iowa. Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama. Arkansas. Florida, Georgia. Kentucky. Louisiana. Mississippi. North Carolina. South Carolina. Ten- 
nessee, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware. Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire. New Jersey. New York. Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia Regjon-6: Colorado, 
Kansas. Montana, Nebraska. North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg , Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities. MN 551 1 1 (612-725-3500); Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director; John S. 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist- 
Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta. GA 30303 
(404-331 -3580); James W Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director; John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W. Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486. Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director, Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 101 1 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director; Dennis 
Money, Endangered Species Special- 
ist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



274, and the birds favored the northern 
half of Pend Oreille. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 
U.S. Forest Service, Washington Depart- 
ment of Game, National Park Service, The 
Nature Conservancy, and numerous vol- 
unteers surveyed bald eagle night roosting 
sites in Skagit County, Washington. Winter 
concentrations of these birds along the 
Skagit River corridor are among the high- 
est in the nation. Traditionally, the bald 
eagle population often exceeds 400 on the 
Skagit during winter months when the 
eagles feed on salmon carcasses washed 
up on sand and gravel bars after 
spawning. 

On January 5, 1987, the FWS closed onj 
its purchase of the 1 1 ,360-acre Hudson, 
Ranch in Kern County, California, for $3.5 
million. The ranch was incorporated into! 
the Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge,!: 
which was established for the Endangered}! 
California condor (Gymnogyps califor-. 
nianus). This newly acquired acreage wilt 
be added to 873 acres already owned byi| 
the FWS. The adjacent 1,304-acre Hoag, n 
Ranch is also in the process of being ac- : , 
quired by the FWS and should complete,, 
most of the planned acquisitions for the, e 
refuge. ,| 

IK 

In the final report of a 3-year study or 
the San Clemente loggerhead shrikes; 
(Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi), the shrike \ 
population was estimated to be betweero 
19 and 30 adults. In the 1986 breeding 
season, there were only 24 adults. Then 
population is limited by heavy predation d| 
young and a lack of suitable nest sites'! 
The report recommends removing remain 
ing feral goats, relocating suitable nestini 
species, and controlling feral ca, 
predation. J 

* * * 

The locally initiated effort to develop 
habitat conservation plan for the Marin 
Dunes ecosystem (Monterey County, Ca 
ifornia) advanced another step with the sel 
lection of a consultant to prepare the pla 
and associated environmental document?; 
The plan will address the conservatio ( 
needs of the Endangered Smith's blue bu 
terfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) and foiT 
species that are candidates for future lis 
ing: the black legless lizard (Anniell. 
pulchra nigra), Menzies' wallflower (Erys, 
mum menziesii), Monterey spineflowc 
(Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens), ar j 
Monterey slender-flowered gilia (Gilia fe.i 
uiflora var. arenaria). In late 1986, the Ct 
ifornia State Coastal Conservancy a| 
proved a matching grant to the city 
Marina that will fund up to $50,000 of tf 
costs associated with this planning effo> 
Local landowners have made a comm; 
ment to pay the remainder of the plannin 
costs. 



(continued on page i y; 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (19tfffi/ 



\p 



NMFS News 

Under the Endangered Species Act, the 
Fish and Wildlife Service shares respon- 
sibility for conserving listed species with 
he National Marine Fisheries Service 
;NMFS), a separate agency that takes the 
ead on most sea-dwelling animals. NMFS 
ecently published several notices relating 
o the Act, and they are summarized 
)elow: 



A notice of review was initiated February 
6 on the status of the Chinese River dol- 
)hin (Lipotes vexillfer). This aquatic mam- 
nal is found primarily in the lower and mid- 
lie Chang Jiang (Yangzte) River in east- 
:entral mainland China. Information con- 
ained in a petition from the Center for En- 
'ironmental Education indicates that this 
lolphin may qualify for listing under the 
•ndangered Species Act. Further informa- 
lon is requested on this species' status 
ind threats to its survival, and should be 
ent to the Assistant Administrator for 
^"isheries, National Oceanographic and At- 
mospheric Administration, National Marine 
isheries Service, Washington, DC 20235, 
jjfy April 17. NMFS has indicated that it in- 
" ?nds shottly to initiate status reviews on 
II other species of river dolphins 
/orldwide. 

In a February 27 notice, NMFS pub- 
lished its determination that listing the win- 
ikfer run of the chinook salmon (On- 
wiorhynchus tshawytscha) in California's 
ini lacramento River is not warranted at this 
lime. A listing petition had been submitted 
io y the American Fisheries Society. People 
es anting a copy of the determination can 
ain-rite to the above address or call 
tin(p2/673-5348. 
cai 



ie. 



or 



Listings Approved for Two Species 



During February 1987, final listing rules 
were published for the following species, a 
tree and a fish: 

Serianthes nelsonii 

This large tree is endemic to two of the 
Mariana Islands in the western Pacific 
Ocean. A single mature specimen is 
known to survive on Andersen Air Force 
Base in the Territory of Guam, where the 
species is known locally as hayun lagu. 
Approximately 64 are known on the island 
of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern 
Mariana Islands, where the local name is 
tronkon guafi. The future of S. nelsonii is 
imperiled by habitat degradation or de- 
struction, typhoons and other natural or 
human-related disasters, insect damage, 
and the cropping of seedlings by intro- 
duced deer and pigs. It was proposed for 
listing as an Endangered species on Octo- 
ber 25, 1986 (summary in BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 1 1 ), and the final rule appeared in 
the February 18, 1987, Federal Register. 
The governments of Guam and the Com- 
monwealth of the Northern Mariana Is- 
lands, along with Air Force officials, have 
expressed interest in conserving the 
species. 

Pecos Bluntnose Shiner 
(Notropis simus pecosensis) 

Notropis simus historically occurred in 
the Rio Grande from El Paso, Texas, north 
through New Mexico to near the site of the 
Abiquiu Reservoir on the Chama River, 
and in the Pecos River in New Mexico from 
the upper reaches of Avalon Reservoir 
north to above the town of Santa Rosa. 



Because of habitat loss resulting from 
water diversion, irrigation, and impound- 
ment, the Rio Grande subspecies, N. s. 
simus, is now extinct, and the Pecos sub- 
species, N. s. pecosensis, has severely 
declined in numbers. Water demand in the 
region is increasing, and may cause fur- 
ther reduction in range and population. To 
help prevent the extinction of the Pecos 
subspecies, the Fish and Wildlife Service 
proposed May 1 1 , 1984, to list N. s. peco- 
sensis as Threatened and to designate 
Critical Habitat for it. (See summary in 
BULLETIN Vol. IX No. 6.) 

After extensive review of the comments 
on the listing proposal, the FWS published 
the final rule in the February 19, 1987, 
Federal Register. The Critical Habitat 
areas were reduced from the amounts pro- 
posed, and revised maps were printed with 
the final rule. Current Federal activities af- 
fecting the Pecos River are not expected 
to be incompatible with the Critical Habitat 
designation. 

The State of New Mexico already pro- 
hibits take of the Pecos bluntnose shiner 
except under scientific collecting permit for 
conservation purposes. Because of this 
protection, and because habitat loss rather 
than take is the primary threat to the fish, 
the final listing rule included a special 
provision allowing for take without a Fed- 
eral permit if a State collection permit is 
obtained and all applicable State laws and 
regulations are followed. 

These listed species now are protected 
under the Endangered Species Act, the 
terms of which are summarized in this 
BULLETIN at the end of the story on spe- 
cies newly proposed for listing. 



Regional News 

jp iontinued from page 2) 



:,is ; 
ell 

t r ys ' 
j r 
|,ar, 
ite, 
;C<-' 
<a| 

iy* 
jfti 
sffot 

mm 
nnir 



Staff from the Sacramento Endangered 
'pedes Office and the San Francisco Bay 
ational Wildlife Refuge examined two 
nd parcels that are the subject of a pro- 
ved land exchange involving the Antioch 
unes National Wildlife Refuge. The pro- 
)sed exchange would increase the 
nount of habitat available for the Contra 
osta wallflower (Erysimum capitatum 
ir. angustatum), Antioch dunes evening 
imrose [Oenothera deltoides ssp. how- 
] ii), and the Lange's metalmark butterfly 
podemia mormo langei). A number of 
/ertebrates that are candidates for listing 
oposals (mostly insects) also would ben- 
t from the proposed exchange. 



Region 2 — Razorback sucker (Xy- 
uchen texanus) and bonytail chub (Gila 
igans) fingerlings were stocked in ponds 
the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Ref- 
e in Arizona last fall as part of the recov- 
/ effort for these species. Recent mea- 



surements of these fish have documented 
excellent growth. Similar growth was 
shown for razorback sucker fingerlings 
stocked on the Imperial National Wildlife 
Refuge, also in Arizona. The encouraging 
results highlight the potential for using ref- 
uge waters as supplemental sites for rais- 
ing Endangered fishes prior to eventual re- 
introduction into native waters. 

* * * 

A project is under way to establish two 
new populations of Texas snowbells 
(Styrax texana) in the hilly Edwards 
Plateau, west of San Antonio. If success- 
ful, the project will more than triple the cur- 
rently known 39 plants and place Texas 
snowbells well on the road to recovery. 
The San Antonio Botanical Garden will co- 
ordinate the effort with help from the FWS, 
the State of Texas, and private land- 
owners. Seedlings raised at the botanical 
garden will be planted at sites to be se- 
lected this spring. 

Seedling production at the garden has 
been very successful; over 85 percent of 
the seed produced seedlings after receiv- 



(196 JDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 



ing 4 to 6 weeks cold treatment. Various 
regimes will be used to determine the most 
successful planting techniques. The new 
populations will be monitored for 5 years. 

* * * 

At the end of January, the presence of a 
juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) 
with several thousand sandhill cranes (G. 
canadensis) was confirmed in western 
Oklahoma. In mid-February, the bird 
moved north to Quivira National Wildlife 
Refuge in Kansas. On February 20, it was 
again in western Oklahoma with about 
10,000 sandhill cranes. 

This was the smallest fledgling-age bird 
color-banded in Canada in August. It ap- 
parently became separated from its par- 
ents during migration. Both parents arrived 
at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in De- 
cember. Discovery of the chick means all 
21 chicks present in Canada in August 
have survived into winter. Average chick 
survival from August to December is typ- 
ically about 70 percent. 

(continued on page 7) 

3 



Endangered Gray Bat Benefits from Protection 



by Merlin D. Tuttle 
President, Bat Conservation International 



The Endangered gray bat {Myotis gri- 
sescens) was once one of the most abun- 
dant mammals of the southeastern U.S. 
People in at least five States, especially Al- 
abama, Tennessee and Missouri, viewed 
hundreds of thousands passing over in 
great columns each summer evening. 
These bats also played an important role 
in the checks and balances of nature as 
the primary controllers of night-flying 
aquatic insects, including mosquitos. Sin- 
gle colonies consumed literally tons 
nightly. 

Until the arrival of man, caves remained 
the secure bastions of this dominant spe- 
cies. Problems apparently began when ab- 
original tribes first camped or lived in the 
entrances of large caves. Some gray bats 
likely perished through suffocation when 
smoke from fires penetrated their pre- 
viously safe living quarters, while others 
apparently ended up in Indian stew pots. 
Nevertheless, the majority remained out of 
reach in deep, dark caves. 

It was modern man that made the real 
difference. During the Civil War, guano for 
gun powder was extracted from nearly 
every substantial gray bat cave in the 
South. Large guano accumulations in 
these caves undoubtedly prolonged the 
war by providing a reliable source of salt- 
peter long after importation had been cut 
off. Without a doubt, gray bat colonies suf- 
fered some of the biggest losses of the 
Civil War. 

Following the war, the gray bat, a highly 
resilient species, once again was able to 
prosper, as evidenced by the conspicuous 
replacement of large guano deposits in 
most formerly occupied caves. Modern 
man had arrived, but he, for the most part, 
still feared and avoided the dark inner 
reaches of caves. 

Early Studies 

My personal introduction to gray bats 
occurred when my family moved to Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, and lived near Baloney 
Cave. I soon joined high school friends in 
exploring this and other caves, quite un- 
aware of the potential harm that could re- 
sult to bats from our often poorly timed 
trips. I was particularly fascinated by the 
spring and fall appearance of several thou- 
sand gray bats that would mysteriously 
disappear in only a few days. 

My fascination quickly grew, eventually 
leading me to search out and visit 1 20 gray 
bat caves in six States, while banding 
40,182 of these bats in a study that 
spanned 20 years. 1 I learned that they are 
highly selective and require unique cave 
types, using 0.1 percent of available caves 
in winter and 2.4percent in summer. 2 At 



least 95 percent of the entire known spe- 
cies population hibernates each winter in 
just nine highly vulnerable caves, with 
more than half in a single cave. 3 

Undisturbed colonies typically contain 
tens of thousands of individuals, some- 
times hundreds of thousands. 2 More than 
any other American mammal, they require 
caves year-round. For their size, they are 
among the world's slowest reproducing 
mammals. Mothers usually do not produce 
their first offspring until they are two years 
old and require five years to leave just two 
that survive. 3 Furthermore, large numbers, 
often many thousands, are required in 
order to share the cost of heating a roost. 
When numbers fall too low, growth of 
young bats slows unacceptably, and the 
remaining colony dies out, leading to a 
threshold phenomenon sometimes 
referred to as the "passenger pigeon 
effect." 34 

By the late 1 950's, the popularity of cave 
exploration was rapidly increasing. Unfor- 
tunately, one of my earliest observations 
was that the frequency of human visitation 
of caves was highly correlated with the dis- 
appearance of gray bat colonies. In the 
early 1 960's I often found vast quantities of 
guano in caves that obviously had not 
been occupied by bats for several years. 
At first, I, like others who explored caves, 
believed that the bats had simply moved to 
other caves. 

However, given their highly specific 
roost needs, few colonies have suitable 
options. Caves not already occupied are 
too warm or too cold, located too far from 
feeding areas, lack appropriate roost sur- 
faces, are too vulnerable to predation, or 
are too disturbed by people. In fact, my 
banding studies documented that evicted 
colonies seldom survive. 2 

For example, when Hambrick Cave, 
near Guntersville, Alabama, became 
heavily disturbed by people, its large gray 
bat nursery colony disappeared within a 
year. A high proportion of these bats were 
banded, enabling me to trace their sur- 
vival. Through banding studies, I already 
had established their seasonal movement 
patterns and also had documented loyalty 
for life to whichever hibernating cave was 
selected in their first winter. After losing 
their nursery cave, these bats disappeared 
from their traditional hibernating caves, de- 
monstrating that they had not survived by 
merely moving to another summer cave. 5 

Decline Documented 

Seeing such dramatic losses, and realiz- 
ing how needless most were, I became 
alarmed and determined to do something. 
First, I needed clear documentation of the 



extent and causes of decline. In 1976, 1 re- 
visited each of the 22 colonies (from the 
original 120) that I believed would be least 
likely to have declined since my last 
census in 1970. Even these colonies had 
declined by an average of 54 percent in 
just six years! 2 If all 120 colonies had been 
censused, I likely would have found that 
most had disappeared entirely, as shown 
in a similar survey in Kentucky. 6 The few 
that had escaped human disturbance re- 
mained stable, while hundreds of thou- 
sands had disappeared from the most 
heavily disturbed sites. The relationship 
between human disturbance and colony 
decline was undeniable. 2 

I sampled guano from these caves and 
sent it to Dr. Don Clark at the Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center for pesticide resi- 
due analysis. Several colonies showed po- 
tentially dangerous levels of toxins, rang- 
ing from organochlorine pesticides to 
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and 
lead, but the influence of human disturb- 
ance completely overshadowed our ability 
to assess any measurable impact from 
toxins. 2 By this time we knew that 
pesticides were killing some gray bats, 7 
but probably not as many as had died from 
roost disturbance by people. 28 

Protection Provided 

Regardless of why, it was clear that gray 
bats were seriously endangered. At my re- 
quest, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
officially listed them in 1976. Although 
most conservation organizations were not 
yet ready to help anything as unpopular as 
bats, the Tennessee Valley Authority re- 
sponded to my requests for assistance 
and played a leading role in saving these 
bats. Within two years, they had funded a 
major study of foraging habitat and had 
provided excellent protection for such vi- 
tally important sites as Hambrick and Nick- 
ajack Caves, where past nursery colonies 
likely totaled at least a half million or more. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service soon ac- 
quired and protected Blowing Wind and 
Cave Springs Caves, where past nursery 
populations exceeded a total of half a mil- 
lion gray bats, and New Fern Cave, site of 
the world's largest known hibernating bat 
population which alone sheltered an esti- 
mated 1.5 million gray bats as recently as 
1969. The Nature Conservancy, with Bat 
Conservation International's (BCI) assist- 
ance, acquired and protected Judges 
Cave, housing the most important remain- 
ing nursery colony in Florida, and Hub- 
bards Cave in Tennessee (See BATS, De- 
cember 1985). Hubbards is one of the 
species' three most important hibernation 
sites. State non-game wildlife programs 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 



also played important roles in gray bat pro- 
tection, especially in Florida, Missouri, 
Arkansas and Tennessee. 

Success 

It has been argued that remnant popula- 
tions of Endangered bats likely could not 
reestablish themselves, even if provided 
adequate protection from human disturb- 
ance. Therefore, it is exciting to report 
enormous success over the first nine years 
of protective efforts for the gray bat. For 
example, of the four protected summer 
caves (Hambrick, Nickajack, Cave 
Springs, and Blowing Wind), three had en- 
tirely lost their nursery colonies by 1976, 
and Blowing Wind had been reduced to 
bachelor use by approximately 128,000 
bats, only a fraction of former numbers. 
With protection, all four caves are now oc- 
cupied by large nursery colonies that to- 
taled 692,000 in 1985. 9 Without protection, 
it is unlikely that any of these bats would 
exist today, yet they alone consume nearly 
a million pounds of insects over Alabama 
and Tennessee reservoirs each summer. 
(Hubbards and New Fern Caves are ex- 
tremely difficult to census accurately, 
hence their omission from regular census- 
ing.) 

Increasing cooperation from organized 
caving groups is encouraging. For exam- 
ple, the Tennessee Cave Survey now in- 
cludes identification of sensitive bat caves 
and dates when they can and cannot be 
visited without harm to bats. Education of 
the public and cooperation between pro- 
fessional cavers and management agen- 
cies also is on the increase. 

In most cases, gray bats apparently can 
be reestablished even where pesticides 
have been implicated as especially prob- 
lematic, as was well demonstrated at Cave 
Springs Cave. Guano samples from this 
site contained the most pesticides and 
other pollutants of any examined, 11 yet 
simple protection from disturbance permit- 
ted colony reestablishment. Thousands of 
these bats apparently died of poisoning 
this summer, so it cannot be said that 
toxins are no threat, just that they are not 
yet an insurmountable obstacle. 9 

A remaining concern is that gates to pre- 
vent untimely human intrusion into caves 
can cause more harm than good, when im- 
properly designed. We now know that 
gates must allow adequate fly-over space 
to be tolerated by gray bat nursery colo- 
nies. 2 10 Some early gates must be re- 
moved, as they are excluding bats from 
formerly important roosts. Fences gener- 
ally have been effective only where ade- 
quate patrolling, signs, and law enforce- 
ment were provided, though signs alone 
have helped in some cases, especially 
where there are cooperative landowner 
agreements. Gray bat intolerance of full 
gates at nursery caves continues to be a 
major obstacle, though properly designed 
gates at hibernating sites, such as the one 
at Hubbards Cave, seem to be working 




hibernating gray bats on the ceiling of Hubbard's Cave 



well. (Editor's note: see BULLETIN Vol. X 
No. 12.) 

Unfortunately, many gray bat nursery 
caves and some important hibernation 
sites remain unprotected. In many of 
these, colonies already are gone or con- 
tinue to decline rapidly. Much remains to 
be accomplished before the gray bat and 
others are truly safe. 



Note: BCI members, Bob Currie and 
Fred Bagley of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, and Ralph Jordan (Project Man- 
ager, Streams, Trails and Natural 
Heritage, Tennessee Valley Authority), de- 
serve special credit for much of the suc- 
cess in saving gray bats. I thank them and 
the many other individuals and organiza- 
tions who have helped. 



References 

1. Tuttle, M.D. 1976. Population ecology 
of the gray bat (Myotis grisescens): 
Philopatry, timing and patterns of 
movement, weight loss during migra- 
tion and seasonal adaptive strategies. 
Occ. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Kans., 
54:1-38. 

2. Tuttle, M.D. 1979. Status, causes of 
decline and management of endan- 
gered gray bats. J. Wildl. Manage., 
43:1-17. 

3. Brady, J., T.H. Kunz, M.D. Tuttle and 
D. Wilson. 1982. Gray bat recovery 
plan. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Denver, 
CO, 17 pp & 5 appendices. 

4. Tuttle, M.D. 1975. Population ecology 
of the gray bat (M. grisescens): fac- 
tors influencing early growth and de- 
velopment. Occ. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Univ. Kans. 36:1-24. 

5. Stevenson, D.E., and M.D. Tuttle, 
1981. Survivorship of the endangered 
gray bat (M. grisescens). J. Mamm., 
62:244-257. 

6. Rabinowitz, A., and M.D. Tuttle. 1980. 
Status of summer colonies of the en- 



dangered gray bat in Kentucky. J. 
Wildl. Manage., 44:955-960. 

7. Clark, D.R., Jr., R.V. LaVal and S.M. 
Swinford. 1978. Dieldrin-induced mor- 
tality in an endangered species, the 
gray bat (M. grisescens). Science, 
199(4335): 1357-1359. 

8. Clark, D.R. 1981. Bats and environ- 
mental contaminants: A review. U.S. 
Dept. of Interior, Fish & Wildl. Serv., 
Special Sci. Rept. — Wildlife No. 235, 
27 pp. 

9. Bagley, F. Unpublished U.S. Fish & 
Wildlife Service Censuses. 

10. Tuttle, M.D. 1977. Gating as a means 
of protecting cave dwelling bats. Pp. 
77-82 in Natl. Cave Manage. Sympos. 
Proceedings, 1976. (T. Aley and D. 
Rhodes, eds.), Speleobooks, Albu- 
querque, NM, 146 pp. 

11. Clark, D.R. Personal communication. 



(Reprinted by permission from the Decem- 
ber 1986 issue of BATS, the newsletter of 
Bat Conservation International.) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 



$5,000 Reward Paid in Grizzly Bear Case 



A Montana man who led Federal and 
State wildlife agents to an illegally-killed 
grizzly bear {Ursus arctos) and helped 
them convict the poacher received a 
$5,000 reward January 2 from the National 
Fish and Wildlife Foundation and the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Grizzly 
bears in the 48 conterminous States cur- 
rently are listed by the FWS as Threat- 
ened, a classification that gives them pro- 
tection under the Endangered Species 
Act. The FWS paid $3,000 of the reward 
and the Foundation contributed $2,000. 

Chip Collins, director of the Foundation, 
said that the Foundation plans to pay more 
rewards in the future. "Because of the im- 
portance of deterring illegal killing of pro- 
tected species such as grizzly bears, the 
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation will 



be establishing a reward fund for people 
who provide information about wildlife law 
violations that lead to convictions and en- 
hance the recovery of endangered and 
threatened species." The non-profit Na- 
tional Fish and Wildlife Foundation is a pri- 
vate, independent organization estab- 
lished by Congress in 1984 to help raise 
funds to support high-priority fish and wild- 
life conservation programs. 

The investigation began in September 
1985, when the recipient overheard that 
another man had illegally killed an adult 
male grizzly bear in a portion of the Flat- 
head National Forest, Montana, that is 
closed to grizzly hunting. He gave the in- 
formation to officers with the FWS and the 
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and 



Parks, and provided information on the lo- 
cation of the bear hide, skull, and skeleton. 
He later flew into the wilderness area with 
officers and helped them locate the re- 
mains of the illegally-taken bear. 

As a result, the poacher, another Mon- 
tana resident, was charged in U.S. District 
Court in Helena, Montana, with one count 
of illegal take of a Threatened species and 
a second count of possession and trans- 
portation of an illegally-taken grizzly bear. 
Through a plea arrangement, he pleaded 
guilty to the second count and was fined 
$8,500 and placed on 2 years' probation. 
This is the largest fine ever assessed 
against an individual for transportation and 
possession of an illegally-taken grizzly 
bear. 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 1) 

square, and they are rare even in the best 
localities. 

All three plants have declined signifi- 
cantly in range due to habitat degradation. 
Their presence on granite outcrops makes 
them particularly vulnerable to quarrying; 
38 percent of historically known /. melano- 
spora populations, for example, have been 
lost to this activity. Rock outcrops also are 
popular recreational sites. Many of the 
pools supporting the proposed plants have 
been damaged by off-road vehicle (ORV) 
use, especially as the result of increased 
erosion, and some of the plants have been 
crushed or uprooted directly. Other 
damage to the fragile habitat has resulted 
from such vandalistic activities as littering 
and fire building. The mere rearrangement 
of stones in two pools caused a decline in 
two populations of A. pusillus and /. 
melanospora. Because granite outcrops 



often are enclosed in pastures, some pop- 
ulations of all three plants also have been 
damaged by trampling and nutrient over- 
load in the pools. 

A. pusillus and /. melanospora are listed 
under Georgia State law as endangered, a 
classification that prohibits the take of 
these plants from public lands without a 
permit and regulates intrastate sale and 
transport in these species. Georgia law, 
however, does not provide for protection 
against habitat destruction, which is the 
main threat. The existing protection will be 
strengthened if the FWS listing proposal is 
made final. 

Comments on the proposal to list Am- 
phianthus pusillus as Threatened and Iso- 
etes melanospora and /. tegetiformans as 
Endangered should be sent to the Endan- 
gered Species Field Station, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Jackson Mall Office Cen- 
ter, Suite 316, 300 Woodrow Wilson Ave- 
nue, Jackson, Mississippi 39213, by April 
20, 1987. 




Amphianthus pusillus and Isoetes melanospora occur at this pool (which is much 
larger than most) in De Kalb County, Georgia, but some plants may have been de- 
stroyed when vandals constructed the thin rock "peninsula." 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act as Threatened or 
Endangered is approved are: protection 
from adverse effects of Federal activities; 
prohibitions against certain practices; the 
requirement for the FWS to develop and 
implement recovery plans; the authoriza- 
tion to seek land purchases or exchanges 
for important habitat; and the possibility of 
Federal aid to State or Commonwealth 
conservation departments that have 
signed Endangered Species Cooperative 
Agreements with the FWS. Listing also 
lends greater recognition to a species' pre- 
carious status, which encourages further 
conservation efforts by State and local 
agencies, independent organizations, and 
individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their authorities to further 
the purposes of the Act by carrying out 
conservation programs for listed species. 
It also requires these agencies to ensure 
that any actions they authorize, fund, or 
carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
survival of a listed species. If an agency 
finds that one of its activities may affect a 
listed species, it is required to consult with 
the FWS on ways to avoid jeopardy. For 
species that are proposed for listing and 
for which jeopardy is found, Federal agen- 
cies are required to "confer" with the FWS, 
although the results of such a conference 
are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule is 
different; the prohibition against collecting 
applies only to listed plants found on lands 
under Federal jurisdiction. Some States, 
however, have their own laws against take 
of listed plants. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

From the total of 29 thick-billed parrots 
(Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) that were 
released in the Chiricahua Mountains of 
southeastern Arizona in September and 
October, 13 birds remain. The 8 parrots 
that disappeared in November may have 
overwintered in Mexico. 



The Bureau of Reclamation's 4-year Ari- 
zona Bald Eagle Study, conducted by Bio- 
systems Analysis, Inc., of Santa Cruz, Cal- 
ifornia, is now under way. The study is 
designed to identify limiting factors to the 
population and has already yielded new in- 
formation about the winter foraging ecol- 
ogy of a pair in the Pinal territory. A breed- 
ing adult female living at the Pinal territory 
has been captured and radio-collared. 
This pair began incubating their eggs on 
January 26. The research team will soon 
resume trapping efforts with the goal of at- 
taching radios to a minimum of 12 
breeding adults, including members of 8 
pairs. 

Region 4 — The Indiana bat (Myotis 
sodalis) population has declined by ap- 
proximately 50 percent at Stillhouse Cave 
in Kentucky, according to a survey con- 
ducted by the Asheville, North Carolina, 
Endangered Species Field Office. No rea- 
son for the decline was readily apparent 
during the survey. Stillhouse Cave is a pri- 
ority Indiana bat hibernaculum. 

The Virginia big-eared bat (Plecotus 
townsendii virginianus) population has in- 
creased by about 900 individuals since the 
last survey was conducted 2 years ago, for 
a current population of approximately 
3,600. Twenty-five percent of the known 
population of this big-eared bat sub- 
species is located at Stillhouse Cave. 
Cave Conservation International has 
agreed to construct gates at Rocky Hollow 
Cave in southwestern Virginia and at a 
U.S. Forest Service cave in West Virginia. 
Rocky Hollow Cave, which will be gated in 
July, is used as a hibernating site by Indi- 
ana bats. The West Virginia cave, sched- 
uled to be gated soon, is an important site 
for Virginia big-eared bats. 

Biologists from the Florida Department 
of Natural Resources, Jacksonville Endan- 
gered Species Field Office, FWS Sirenia 
Project, and a grassbed ecologist from the 
National Marine Fisheries Service's Beau- 
fort Laboratory met at Hobe Sound, Flor- 
ida, in January to plan the implementation 
of a 5-year study. Hobe Sound is a major 
feeding site for many of the 200 to 270 
manatees (Trichechus manatus) that win- 
ter at the Florida Power and Light's power 
plant in Riviera Beach, approximately 18.5 
miles to the south. The study is designed 
to evaluate the status of the grassbeds 
and the comments to a proposed no-wake 



regulation to protect grassbeds. Excessive 
turbidity caused by hundreds of large 
boats moving through the area in the fall 
and spring months is thought to be ad- 
versely impacting this critical manatee 
feeding area. 

* * * 

Representatives from the FWS Carib- 
bean Field Office attended the January 
meeting of the Puerto Rican parrot {Ama- 
zona vittata) working group. Significant is- 
sues discussed included budgetary prob- 
lems relating to proposed funding, delays 
in the construction of the Rio Abajo aviary, 
and safety issues related to increasing 
criminal activity in the Caribbean National 
Forest. Agreement was reached between 
FWS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 
and National Audubon Society representa- 
tives on a volunteer program to conduct 
essential nest-guarding activities. In addi- 
tion, there was agreement on a 1-year 
management policy to maximize the cap- 
tive breeding stock. 

An in-house team of three taxonomists 
has been appointed to evaluate data com- 
piled on the silver rice rat (Oryzomys ar- 
gentatus). The FWS postponed action last 
year to list the silver rice rat as Endan- 
gered because questions arose as to 
whether it was a distinct species or the 
same animal as the common rice rat that 
occurs throughout Florida. Based on the 
team's findings, the FWS will determine 
whether or not to give the silver rice rat En- 
dangered Species Act protection. A report 
from the team is expected sometime in late 
May or early June. The silver rice rat is re- 
ported only from the lower Florida Keys. 



Region 5 — On January 13, a meeting 
was held in Asheville, North Carolina, with 
representatives of eastern States involved 
in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) re- 
covery activities. Items discussed at the 
meeting included the 1986 nesting and 
productivity survey, 1987 release ac- 
tivities, 1987 funding outlook, nest manip- 
ulation, captive breeding outlook, and 
overall coordination of recovery activities 
in Regions 4 and 5. 

A meeting hosted by the Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) was held on Feb- 
ruary 5 in Atlanta, Georgia, to discuss 
FWS pesticide consultation responsibil- 
ities under Section 7 of the Endangered 
Species Act. The EPA demonstrated a 
willingness to accommodate the endan- 
gered species concerns of FWS and out- 
lined how both agencies could work to- 
gether effectively. 



Region 6 — The Utah Native Plant So- 
ciety has funded a study on the ecology of 
the Endangered dwarf bear-poppy {Arcto- 
mecon humilis) near St. George, Utah. 
The study will address needs identified in 



the recently completed Bureau of Land 
Management's Dwarf Bear-Poppy Man- 
agement Plan and the FWS' Dwarf Bear- 
Poppy Recovery Plan. The Bureau of Land 
Management will provide technical and fi- 
nancial assistance to the project. Utah 
State Division of Lands and Forestry 
(which owns and manages over half the 
species' habitat) and FWS personnel will 
support the research effort with limited 
technical and field assistance. 

An informal interdisciplinary Montana 
Piping Plover Recovery Committee was 
organized in Montana in the spring of 
1986. This group of biologists, ornitholo- 
gists, and interested lay persons will meet 
at least once a year to organize searches 
for piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) 
and select geographic areas of respon- 
sibility for members to search. 

During the 1986 breeding season, 20 
piping plover nests were located in four of 
seven areas of potential or known habitats 
searched in northeastern Montana. Ten 
plover nests were found on Medicine Lake 
National Wildlife Refuge and the Northeast 
Montana Wetland Management District, 
six nests were located on Dry Arm of Fort 
Peck Reservoir, Charles M. Russell Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge, and four nests were 
found at Nelson Reservoir near Malta, 
Montana. Additional pairs of plovers were 
noted at Fort Peck Reservoir, but nests 
were not located. 

Data have been compiled and entered 
into an electronic data base. For a copy of 
the 1986 survey results in northeastern 
Montana, contact the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service, Endangered Species Field Of- 
fice, Federal Building and U.S. Court- 
house, 301 S. Park, P.O. Box 10023, 
Helena, Montana 59626. 

Region 7 — Last month, the regional of- 
fice reported that approximately 20 Endan- 
gered Aleutian Canada geese {Branta 
canadensis leucopareia) died from avian 
cholera at the Modesto, California, oxida- 
tion ponds, a traditional roosting area for 
Aleutian geese in the San Joaquin Valley. 
Although action was taken to haze the 
geese from the affected area, several 
more dead Aleutian geese have been re- 
covered. Dr. Nancy Thomas of the FWS 
National Wildlife Health Lab in Madison, 
Wisconsin, now reports that a total of 47 
Aleutian geese have died from avian chol- 
era in California during January and Feb- 
ruary of this year. An additional two geese 
that apparently died of lead poisoning also 
were recovered. 

Although the wintering flock has begun 
to move northward toward Crescent City, 
where they stage prior to spring migration, 
cholera has periodically been reported 
from this area as well. Numbers of Aleutian 
geese in the Crescent City area are ex- 
pected to reach a peak between late 
March and mid-April. Their movements 

(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 7) 

and health will be closely monitored. The 
loss of 49 birds amounts to about one per- 
cent of the total population in the wild. 

Region 8 (Research) — Two southern 
FWS cooperative research units are en- 
gaged in research projects related to the 
green pitcher plant (Sarracenia oreo- 
philia). The Mississippi Cooperative Fish 
and Wildlife Research Unit, in a study of 
pitcher plant colonies, has developed a list 
of 329 associated plant species (including 
282 vascular plants and 47 bryophytes). 
Baseline information has been collected 
on all known green pitcher plant colonies 
in Alabama, Georgia, and a recently dis- 
covered location in North Carolina. Com- 
munities will be monitored and the list will 
be refined to designate indicator species 
as the study continues. Information col- 
lected will be incorporated into the Green 
Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan. 

In another study, green pitcher plants 
were transplanted into suitable sites and 
monitored during the subsequent growing 
season. From this effort, the Mississippi 
Unit reached the conclusion that it is 
economically feasible to transplant this 
species. Long-term monitoring is continu- 
ing to determine whether or not the plants 
will reproduce at the new site. 

The Alabama Cooperative Fish and 
Wildlife Research Unit is producing two 
slide-tape shows on the green pitcher 
plant and its habitat, based upon informa- 
tion needs identified by the Office of Infor- 
mation Transfer. These modules will stim- 
ulate interest in protecting, preserving, and 
enhancing the remaining pitcher plant 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

26 

61 

8 

5 

39 
3 

23 

4 

8 

118 

295 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



Foreign 

Only 

242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 





1 

466 



U.S. 
Only 

5 

3 
10 

3 
22 

5 



1 

5 

26 
80 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 

15 



Foreign | 


SPECIES* 


Only i 


TOTAL 


22 


315 


o I 


223 


13 


101 





16 


I 


82 


I 


9 





25 


o I 


5 


I 


13 


2 


156 


37 | 


945 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

43 

7 

21 

1 

12 

54 

243** 



'Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, American alliga- 
tor, green sea turtle, Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

"More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 209 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 27 animals 

31 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 96 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

26 plants 

February 28, 1987 



bogs in the southeastern United States. 
One version will be for general audiences, 
while the other slide-tape will include semi- 
technical information of interest to re- 
source managers. Currently in review, the 



final products are expected to be available 
by summer. Copies will be available for 
loan; information on how to order these 
products will be provided when the presen- 
tations are completed. 



March 1987 



Vol. XII No. 3 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior u S Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC 20240 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 3 (1987) 



m.77:&/y 



fUBL/CDOn,Mr Nrr 

REPOSITORY ITEM Vol- XII No. 4 



April 1987 






Technical Bulletin 



Department of intefforrtre. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC. 20240 



Texas Fish, Considered Extinct, is Proposed for Delisting 



The Amistad gambusia (Gambusia 
amistadensis), a small fish known from a 
single spring in Val Verde County, Texas, 
is widely considered to be extinct. Accord- 
ingly, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) 
recently proposed to remove it from the list 
of Endangered and Threatened wildlife 
(F.R. 3/11/87). 

The original description of G. 
amistadensis was based on specimens 
collected in 1968 from Goodenough 
Spring, a tributary of the Rio Grande, just 
prior to its inundation by the rising Amistad 
Reservoir. They were not recognized as 



members of a distinct species until well af- 
ter construction of Amistad Dam, a U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers project, had be- 
gun. The impoundment put the spring un- 
der more than 70 feet (21 meters) of silty 
water, changed water temperatures, and 
eliminated the shoreline aquatic vegeta- 
tion inhabited by the gambusia from the 
spring area. By 1973, when the species 
was formally described, it was already ex- 
tinct in its native habitat. G. amistadensis 
was listed as an Endangered species in 
1980, at which time it occurred only in cap- 
tivity at the University of Texas in Austin 



and at Dexter National Fish Hatchery in 
New Mexico. Since that time, all captive 
populations have died or have been elimi- 
nated through hybridization with, and pre- 
dation by, the mosquitofish (Gambusia af- 
finus). 



Comments on the proposal to remove 
the Amistad gambusia from its Endan- 
gered classification are welcome, and 
should be sent to the Regional Director, 
Region 2 (address on page 2 of this BUL- 
LETIN), by May 11, 1987. 



National Marine Fisheries Service Proposes Shrimp Fishing 
Industry Use of Turtle Excluder Devices 

Gioria Thompson 

Office of Protected Species and Habitat Conservation 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



In the March 2, 1987, Federal Register, 
the National Marine Fisheries Service 
(NMFS) of the U.S. Department of Com- 
merce proposed rules that would require 
shrimp trawlers in the Gulf of Mexico and 
in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the 
southeastern United States to use ap- 
proved gear in specified locations and at 
specified times in order to reduce inciden- 
tal captures of Endangered and Threat- 
ened sea turtles in shrimp trawls. 

These proposed rules had been jointly 
recommended to NMFS by representa- 
tives of affected shrimpers and several en- 
vironmental groups as offering the best 
prospect for reducing incidental sea turtle 
drownings as near to zero as possible 
while avoiding, to the greatest extent pos- 
sible, adverse economic effects on the 
shrimp fishing industry. They contain crite- 
ria and procedures for testing and approv- 
ing turtle excluder devices (TEDs), specify 
areas and seasons in which approved 
TEDs must be used, extend current report- 
ing requirements, extend existing meas- 
ures for resuscitation and release of cap- 
tured sea turtles, continue current 
designations of Critical Habitat, and state 
the Departmental enforcement policy with 
respect to violations of the Endangered 
Species Act (ESA) and these rules. 



All five species of sea turtles (log- 
gerhead, Kemp's ridley, green, leather- 
back, and hawksbill) found in marine wa- 
ters off the southeastern U.S. and the Gulf 
of Mexico are protected by the ESA. 
(NMFS has legal authority over sea turtles 
in the water and the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice has authority when they are on land.) 
One threat facing these species is that 
many are caught in shrimp trawls. Based 
on observer data, NMFS estimates that 
annually 47,973 are incidentally caught, 
and that 1 1 ,179 of them die. An estimated 
767 Kemp's ridleys alone are killed each 
year by the off-shore shrimp fleet in the 
southeastern U.S. This species is in the 
greatest peril of extinction; its nesting num- 
bers have dwindled from an estimated 
40,000 in one day in 1947 to an annual es- 
timate of 572 in 1986 (due to a number of 
factors). 

Stranding Data 

Some sea turtles that die in U.S. waters 
wash toward shore and are found stranded 
in coastal areas. Because of the protected 
status of the species, a need to collect in- 
formation about the species, and interest 
from the public, NMFS, in cooperation with 
the States, established a volunteer 



network in 1979 to patrol coastal U.S. 
beaches and report on strandings. From 
January 1980 through December 1986, 
8,317 marine turtles (excluding those from 
the NMFS "headstall" program) were re- 
ported as stranded. 

Often it is impossible to determine the 
cause of death of a stranded turtle. Not all 
of the sea turtles that strand can be at- 
tributed to shrimp trawling; however, there 
often is a correlation between the level of 
strandings and major shrimping efforts. 
This correlation has been documented by 
scientists and Sea Turtle Stranding and 
Salvage Network personnel from South 
Carolina to Florida, as well as Louisiana 
and Texas. Stranding reports tend to cor- 
roborate the data from direct capture ob- 
servations, and together they indicate that 
shrimp trawling is a significant source of 
sea turtle mortality. 

Gear Research 

In 1978, NMFS initiated a research pro- 
gram to develop gear that would reduce 
the mortality of sea turtles associated with 
shrimp trawling. Other project goals were 
to prevent significant shrimp loss and to 
minimize the economic impacts on 
(continued on page 4) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 




Endangered species program re- 
gional staff members have reported the 
following activities for the month of 
March: 

Region 1 — The Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice's (FWS) Sacramento Endangered 



Species Office (SESO) met with repre- 
sentatives of the California Department of 
Fish and Game, Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment, and Chevron U.S.A. in February re- 
garding a proposed 27-square mile seis- 
mic exploration project. The proposed 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle. Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

John Christian, Acting Chief 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Earl B Baysinger, Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1 , Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 

N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 

97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L Wal- 

lenstrom, Regional Director; David F. 

Riley, Assistant Regional Director; 

Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 

Specialist. 
Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 

87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 

Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 

Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 

James Johnson, Endangered Species 

Specialist. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg , Fori Snellmg, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director; John S. 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director, 
James M Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 4. Richard B Russell Federal Bldg , 
75 Spring St , S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331 -3580); James W. Pulliam. Re- 
gional Director, John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director, Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector, John D. Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director, Barry S Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd , Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542), Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director, Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director, Dennis 
Money, Endangered Species Special- 
ist 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC. 20240; 
Richard N Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California. Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada. Oregon, Washington, and Pacilic Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona. New 
Mexico. Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana, Iowa, Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama. Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi, North Carolina. South Carolina. Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut. Delaware, Maine. Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire. New Jersey, New York. Pennsylvania, Rhode Island. Vermont. Virginia and West Virginia Region6: Colorado, 
Kansas. Montana, Nebraska. North Dakota, South Dakota. Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 20240. 



action involves systematically drilling 700- 
foot test holes and setting off 50-pound 
charges of dynamite to determine a poten- 
tial for oil and gas reserves. It may affect 
three federally-listed Endangered species, 
the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis 
mutica), blunt- nosed leopard lizard (Gam- 
belia silus), and giant kangaroo rat (Di- 
podomys ingens). Chevron U.S.A. will 
conduct initial searches for occurrence of 
these species. Possible mitigation in- 
cludes avoidance of kit fox dens and giant 
kangaroo rat colony sites; use of a mini- 
mum 200-foot buffer to prevent burrow col- 
lapse from seismic explosion; implementa- 
tion of an employee training program; 
limiting vehicles to existing roads; re- 
habilitation of disturbed habitats; and con- 
struction of barriers, fences, and gates af- 
ter project actions to minimize future off- 
road vehicle use. 

The Bureau of Land Management and 
Department of Energy, as the Federal per- 
mitting agencies, will be consulting for- 
mally with the FWS on this project. 



Sand City, California (Monterey 
County), has proposed to rezone and re- 
develop coastal and dune habitats that 
may contain Endangered Smith's blue but- 
terflies (Euphilotes enoptes smithi). 
Smith's blue butterflies have been col- 
lected from sand dune habitats in Sand 
City as recently as July 1986. The SESO 
informed the city about the prohibitions in 
the Endangered Species Act regarding in- 
cidental take of listed species and the reg- 
ulatory process that has been established 
for issuing permits to authorize such inci- 
dental take. 



Pursuant to stipulations on a U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers permit and recommen- 
dations made through formal consultation 
for the filling of 180 acres of wetlands at 
Oakland Airport, the SESO is working with 
other agencies to develop a management 
agreement with the Port of Oakland. This 
agreement will provide for a secure Cal- 
ifornia least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) 
nesting colony. The other involved agen- 
cies include the San Francisco Bay Con- 
servation and Development Commission, 
California Department of Fish and Game, 
and the Federal Aviation Adminstration. 



SESO and FWS Ecological Services 
personnel met with the Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency, California Department of 
Fish and Game, and San Francisco Water 
Department to resolve a recent illegal fill- 
ing and destruction of wetland habitat be- 
lieved to support the San Francisco garter 
snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). 
The site has been completely bulldozed 
and drained, eliminating 6 to 10 acres of 
former wetland habitat. The Water Depart- 

(continued on page 2) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



White Bladderpod Listed as 
Endangered Plant 



The white bladderpod (Lesquerella pal- 
lida), an annual plant in the mustard family 
(Brassicaceae), has been listed by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as Endan- 
gered (F.R. 3/11/87). This species cur- 
rently is known only from three populations 
in San Augustine County, Texas, where it 
is restricted to wet, open areas associated 
with the Weches geological formation. All 
three populations occur on privately 
owned pasture lands, although one ex- 
tends onto a county road right-of-way. L. 
pallida was proposed for listing as an En- 
dangered species on April 9, 1986 (see 
summary in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 5), be- 
cause of the potential threats posed by in- 



creased grazing, herbicide application, 
road maintenance or widening, and en- 
croachment by more aggressive plants. 

Among the benefits provided for listed 
plants by the Endangered Species Act are 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities, prohibitions on interstate/inter- 
national trafficking, the requirement for the 
FWS to develop and implement a recovery 
plan, and the authorization to seek land 
exchanges or purchases to protect impor- 
tant habitat. Listing also lends greater rec- 
ognition to a species' precarious status, 
which can encourage additional conserva- 
tion efforts by State and local agencies, 
various organizations, and individuals. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

ment has informally agreed to restore the 
wetland habitat. In addition, it will propose 
to secure additional wetland habitat off-site 
to compensate for the interim loss of hab- 
itat. 



The SESO staff and the Bureau of Land 
Management have prepared a report to 
Congress on the proposed Carrizo Natural 
Heritage Reserve. The 180,000- acre re- 
serve would secure habitat in perpetuity 
for the Endangered San Joaquin kit fox, 
blunt- nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo 
rat, and California condor (Gymnogyps 
californianus), as well as several Federal 
candidates and State-listed species. The 
project would be funded through a com- 
bination of Land and Water Conservation 
Fund allocations, land exchanges, and pri- 
vate contributions. About 25,000 acres 
currently are in public ownership. 



A multi-agency team, including repre- 
sentatives of the FWS Boise, Idaho, Field 
Office and the Idaho Department of Fish 
and Game, has captured 26 caribou 
(Rangifer tarandus) in British Columbia 
using helicopters and net guns. They were 
thoroughly checked for any signs of health 
problems before being transported to the 
release site northeast of Bonners Ferry, 
Idaho, to augment the Endangered Selkirk 
Mountain herd. (Two of the animals died 
while being held, but the other 24 were re- 
leased in apparently good health.) All 24 
were radio-collared. Once the caribou 
have settled down in their new location, 
students at various Idaho elementary 
schools will be allowed to name and adopt 
a caribou. The Idaho Department of Fish 
and Game will issue weekly reports that 
will enable the students to track the move- 
ment of their special animal. 



Region 2 — Due to efforts by FWS 
Williams Creek National Fish Hatchery 
(NFH) personnel, fingerling Apache trout 
(Salmo apache) will be available for re- 
introduction this fall. The Apache trout is a 
Threatened species native to the White 
Mountains of Arizona. In 1975, the species 
was reclassified from Endangered to 
Threatened and special regulations were 
written that allowed for their limited take. 
The hatchery project began in 1983, when 
eggs were taken from wild Apache trout 
and reared in William Creek NFH. This 
spring, hatchery-reared trout spawned for 
the first time, providing 100,000 eggs that 
will produce about 50,000 fingerlings for 
reintroduction. 

The hatchery culture of the Apache trout 
has been extremely successful due to the 
innovative culture techniques employed by 
the hatchery's Assistant Manager, Bob 
David. David designed a feeding system 
that simulated drift feeding, automatically 
providing fry-sized fish with brine shrimp. 
As the fish grew, they were gradually 
weaned from the shrimp with pelleted 
feed. The fingerlings thus produced will be 
used this fall to stock reaches of reclaimed 
streams on the Fort Apache Indian Reser- 
vation and Apache-Sitgreaves National 
Forest. Eventually, Apache trout may re- 
place introduced rainbow trout (Salmo 
gairdneri) as the sport fish throughout 
much of the former's historical range. 



The Secretary of Fisheries for the Re- 
public of Mexico has initiated an immedi- 
ate program to institute use of the Turtle 
Excluder Device (TED) in all shrimp trawls 
fishing in Mexican waters of the Gulf of 
Mexico. There will be no exemptions for 
TED use in waters under Mexican jurisdic- 
tion. (A proposal now under consideration 
for TED use in U.S. waters would allow for 
several types of exemptions depending on 
seasons and depths where fishing occurs.) 
The Tampico shrimp fleet has been desig- 
nated as the first fleet to be equipped with 



and to use TEDs. The Campeche fleet will 
follow upon completion of the Tampico 
effort. 

The Secretary stated that this action is a 
further step in supporting the President of 
Mexico's recent designation of 15 sea tur- 
tle nesting beaches as sea turtle sanctu- 
aries. This action will further establish 
Mexico as one of the world's leading na- 
tions in the management and conservation 
of sea turtle resources. The Secretary also 
stated that he hopes neighboring nations 
will take similar actions in recognition of 
the need for international cooperation in 
the management of sea turtle resources. 



The Whooping Crane Recovery Team 
met in Albuquerque March 10 and 11 and 
participated in a tour of the Middle Rio 
Grande Valley on the 12th. Recovery ac- 
tivities since the March 1 985 meeting were 
reviewed and plans made for team par- 
ticipation in key future events. Dr. James 
Lewis, FWS Whooping Crane Coordinator, 
was banquet speaker at the 4th Annual 
Whooping Crane Festival in Monte Vista, 
Colorado, and he participated in other fes- 
tival weekend events. 

Ten whooping cranes were still present 
at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife 
Refuge on March 8. Whooping cranes 
have typically left New Mexico and mi- 
grated into Colorado by late February. 
Most whooping cranes had left New Mex- 
ico by March 1 1 . The record late northward 
departure date was believed to be due to 
late winter storms, abundant foods still 
available at the Bosque del Apache ref- 
uge, and the absence of late February 
snow goose hunting that had occurred on 
the refuge in previous years. 

A juvenile whooping crane wintering 
with sandhill cranes in western Oklahoma 
left the State March 1 1 and was first seen 
in Nebraska March 15. It was roosting on 
the Lilian Annette Rowe National Audubon 
Sanctuary and feeding on private lands 
near Gibbon, Nebraska. 



A count of booming male Attwater's 
greater prairie chickens (Tympanuchus 
cupido attwateri) on Attwater Prairie 
Chicken NWR, Texas, resulted in a total of 
1 1 1 males observed and an estimated to- 
tal of 222 chickens on the refuge. When 
the refuge was first established in 1973, 
only 25 prairie chickens were known to oc- 
cur on the area. The nine-fold increase can 
be related to improved management and 
protection provided by the refuge. A total 
count of Attwater's prairie chickens in 
Texas has yet to be made, but past counts 
have indicated a steady decline off the ref- 
uge area. 



Last July (1986), the FWS met with biol- 
ogists from Arizona, New Mexico, and 

(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



CLEMSON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

PUBLIC nnrilMCMTC rn-o-r 




Excluder Devices 

(continued from page 1) 

shrimpers. The earliest solution, called an 
excluder panel, was a barrier fitted across 
the mouth of the trawl. The panel was 
made of large webbing that would prevent 
sea turtles from entering the net but allow 
shrimp through the openings. The best 
configuration reduced the catch of sea tur- 
tles by 75 percent but also reduced the 
shrimp catch by 1 5 to 30 percent. Because 
of the high shrimp loss, this was not an ac- 
ceptable solution and the excluder panel 
was abandoned. 

Another technique to reduce turtle mor- 
tality documented as part of this program 
was to reduce the tow time for trawls. Anal- 
ysis of incidental capture data showed a 
direct correlation between tow time and 
sea turtle mortality. As tow time increases, 
turtle mortality increases. 

Research on the NMFS TED began in 
1 980. By 1 981 , NMFS had developed gear 
that would reduce the incidental catch of 
sea turtles by 97 percent with no loss of 
shrimp. Since the development of the pro- 
totype TED, NMFS has worked with Sea 
Grant, commercial shrimpers, and others 
to refine it. The TED was reduced in size 
and made lighter and collapsible for safer, 
easier handling. A number of comments, 
suggestions, and constructive criticisms 
were studied and tested. Those that 
worked were adopted into the design. 

This gear has other benefits in addition 
to saving sea turtles. It releases debris and 
by-catch such as sharks, rays, jellyballs, 
and horseshoe crabs. Additional separa- 
tors can be installed to release most un- 
wanted finfish, up to 78 percent during the 
day and up to 53 percent at night. 

Voluntary TED Program 

NMFS began a formal program in 1983 
to encourage shrimpers to use the TED 
voluntarily. TEDs were built and delivered 
to shrimpers who agreed to use them in 



commercial shrimp trawling operations. 
NMFS gear experts worked with these 
shrimpers to properly install and use the 
TEDs. NMFS also worked with Sea Grant 
and industry groups to transfer this tech- 
nology. The Southeastern Fisheries Asso- 
ciation, Texas Shrimp Association, and the 
Bryan County Fisheries Cooperative were 
helpful throughout the technology transfer 
program. Several environmental organiza- 
tions, including the Center for Environmen- 
tal Education, Greenpeace, the Environ- 
mental Defense Fund, and Monitor 
International, also provided advice and as- 
sistance. 

An advisory group, co-chaired by an in- 
dustry member and a member represent- 
ing a conservation group, was formed to 
assist the industry in adopting the new 



gear. Despite their hard work on this issue, 
the voluntary program was not successful. 
Only a very small number of the estimated 
17,200 shrimp trawlers currently are using 
TEDs. 



Proposed Regulations 

After the failure of the voluntary TEDs 
program, the Director of the NMFS South- 
east Region developed draft regulations 
that would require use of TEDs in certain 
areas. Concern about the proposal led to 
the formation of a group of shrimp industry 
and environmental community representa- 
tives to negotiate a mutually agreeable so- 
lution. The negotiating team reached an 
agreement that all but one of the partici- 
pants signed. The members recom- 
mended this agreement as offering the 
best prospect for reducing the incidental 
catch and mortality of sea turtles asso- 
ciated with shrimp trawling while avoiding, 
to the greatest extent possible, adverse 
economic effects on the shrimp industry. 
Therefore, on March 2, 1987, NMFS is- 
sued the proposed rule that would imple- 
ment the conditions of the mediated agree- 
ment. (Since then, two of the industry 
organizations represented in the negotiat- 
ing group that signed the agreement have 
stated that they no longer endorse the 
agreement.) 

This proposed rule would provide for a 
sequential transition to increased TED 
use. The initial focus is on areas and times 
most critical for the conservation of sea 
turtles; later, it will expand to other impor- 
tant areas and times. The proposed imple- 
mentation schedule is summarized as fol- 
lows: 





Season and Area Requirements 






Effective Date 


Season 


Area 


South Atlantic 








Offshore 


July 15, 1987 


all year 


Cape Canaveral 
area to 200 miles 




January 1988 


May through 
August 


northern Florida to 
Ocracoke Inlet; 
shore to 200 miles 


Inshore 


January 1, 1988 


all year 


Cape Canaveral 
area to N.C.-S.C. 
border 


Gulf of Mexico 








Offshore 
Eastern 


July 15, 1987 


all year 


southwestern Flor- 
ida and Florida 
Keys; less than 10 
fathoms 


Western 


July 15, 1987 


March through 
November 


Mobile Bay to Mex- 
ico border; less 
than 1 fathoms 


Inshore 
Louisiana 


July 15, 1987 


March through 
November 


Breton and Chan- 
deleur Sounds 


Eastern 


July 15, 1987 


all year 


southwestern Flor- 
ida 


Western 


July 15, 1988 


March through 
November 


Mobile Bay to Mex- 
ico Border 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



Excluder Devices 

(continued from previous page) 

"Inshore" means marine or tidal waters 
landward of the baseline from which the 
territorial sea of the United States is meas- 
ured, and "offshore" means seaward of 
the baseline. 

The July 15, 1987, starting date may be 
delayed to January 1, 1988, in certain 
areas or for certain trawlers if NMFS deter- 
mines that there are insufficient TEDs 
available. 

On January 1, 1989, TED requirements 
will be extended to water depths up to 1 5 
fathoms in the same offshore areas of the 
Gulf of Mexico. This will provide significant 
additional protection to the critically En- 
dangered Kemp's ridley turtle. TEDs will 
also be required in April and/or September 
1989 north of Cape Canaveral to central 
North Carolina if NMFS has determined 
that there has been less than 80 percent 
total use of TEDs in these months during 
1988. 

Approved TEDs 

Under the proposed rule, four TEDs de- 
signs — the NMFS, Cameron, Matagorda, 
and Georgia versions — are approved de- 
vices. All four have been shown to have 
very high turtle exclusion rates. 

Trawl Efficiency Testing 

The rules provide a procedure for testing 
additional devices for approval. All tests for 
turtle exclusion will be conducted under 
NMFS supervision. Normally, these tests 
will be conducted off Cape Canaveral, 
Florida, using a scientific protocol de- 
veloped by NMFS scientists. 

The negotiators wanted to encourage 
additional experimentation in hopes of 
providing even better and less costly 
TEDs. The proposed rule provides the Di- 
rector of NMFS' Southeast Region with the 
authority to allow TED efficiency experi- 
ments to be conducted by private parties. 
NOAA has a test protocol to aid in calculat- 
ing shrimp retention and bycatch exclusion 
rates which the experimenter can use. 

Exemptions 

Shrimp trawlers using a single net with a 
headrope of 30 feet or less, or using two 
nets each with headrope lengths of 30 feet 
or less that are not connected to each 
other and are towed from opposite sides of 
the trawler, are exempt for TED require- 
ments. A single independent test net with a 
headrope of 20 feet or less also is exempt. 

Shrimp trawlers fishing for royal red 
shrimp in the Gulf of Mexico or royal red or 
rock shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean are ex- 
empt as well from TED requirements 
provided that 90 percent of the shrimp 
aboard the trawler are either of those spe- 
cies. Those fisheries occur in very deep 




water, where sea turtles are rarely encoun- 
tered. 

Enforcement Policy 

The proposed rule notifies the public of 
the following interpretation and enforce- 
ment policy: 

a) shrimp fishermen who do not use 
TEDs in the areas and at the times re- 
quired by the rules are in violation of the 
Endangered Species Act; and 

b) enforcement action will not be taken 
against shrimp fishermen who comply 
with the rules, even if Endangered sea 
turtles are incidentally taken. 

Economic Effects of 
the Proposal 

The economic effects of the proposed 
rule are discussed in detail in a Regulatory 
Impact Review that was prepared in con- 
junction with a draft supplement to the final 
environmental impact statement on "List- 
ing and Protecting the Green Sea Turtle, 
Loggerhead Sea Turtle and Pacific Ridley 
Sea Turtle Under the Endangered Species 
Act of 1973." 

The total annual costs for TEDs will be 
between $3.7 and $7.4 million for the en- 
tire fleet, or $1 00 to $1 ,200 per trawler, 
based on a 2-year life for TEDs, repair 
costs, and spare TEDs. 

Based on available information, NMFS 
believes that there will be no significant 
shrimp loss. In fact, some tests using the 
Georgia and NMFS TEDs have shown an 
increased catch. 

Changes in the amount of bycatch will 
have both positive and negative economic 
effects. On the positive side, undesirable 
bycatch such as sharks, jellyfish, and de- 
bris will be reduced, resulting in a small 
positive benefit. However, in certain areas, 
some of the bycatch (for example, 
flounders and spiny lobster) is sold. Re- 



duction in the catch of these species will 
result in a corresponding economic loss of 
between $220,000 and $350,000 annually 
for the entire industry. 

A final cost is associated with reporting 
requirements contained in the proposed 
regulations. For the first year, the industry- 
wide cost is estimated to be $32,000, and 
$20,000 annually thereafter. 

The total of these costs is estimated to 
be between $4 and $8 million each year. 
Additionally, administration and enforce- 
ment of the program will cost the Federal 
Government an estimated $1.6 million 
each year, for a combined total annual 
cost of between $5.6 and $9.6 million. 

Other Action 

The working group did not address in 
detail changes beyond 1989. Its agree- 
ment states that if less than 80 percent of 
the Gulf-wide shrimp effort is with TED- 
equipped nets, then additional require- 
ments would be imposed to ensure at least 
80 percent Gulf-wide coverage. However, 
this additional requirement would be 
waived if, by that date, Mexico has 
achieved comparable use of turtle ex- 
cluder gear. (Editor's note: The Republic 
of Mexico recently announced a program 
to institute the use of TEDs in all shrimp 
trawls within its waters, as well as other 
sea turtle conservation measures. See 
Region 2 news in this month's BUL- 
LETIN.) The working group also recom- 
mended that conservation agreements be 
pursued with other Caribbean nations. 
Such nations should be encouraged to re- 
quire use of TEDs by their shrimpers and 
to adopt other turtle conservation ac- 
tivities. 

Further information on TEDs is available 
by writing the National Marine Fisheries 
Service, Office of Protected Species and 
Habitat Conservation, 1825 Connecticut 
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20235 or 
telephone (202) 673-5348. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

Texas to discuss the possibilities of re- 
introducing the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus 
baileyi) back into the southwestern U.S., 
as called for in the 1982 Mexican Wolf Re- 
covery Plan. Eight sites were suggested 
for evaluation (Texas — Big Bend and 
Guadalupe Mountains National Parks; 
New Mexico — White Sands Missile 
Range and Gila National Forest; Arizona 

— four localities in the Coronado National 
Forest). In response to those suggestions, 
Texas declined to recommend any sites, 
New Mexico recommended White Sands 
as a possible site, and Arizona suggested 
a total of 1 5 localities that it is now arrang- 
ing in priority. After a preliminary informa- 
tion meeting with the military and National 
Park personnel last month, it was decided 
to request permission to evaluate White 
Sands Missile Range as a possible re- 
introduction site. Criteria to be evaluated 
include prey base, competition, open wa- 
ter, human impacts, access, and cover. 
Public opinion, the National Environmental 
Policy Act, and Endangered Species Act 

— Section 7 consultation also will be con- 
sidered before a final site selection is 
made. When a reintroduction site is se- 
lected, wolves in that area will first be listed 
as an experimental, nonessential popula- 
tion in order to allow more flexible man- 
agement of the introduced animals and 
their offspring both on and off the introduc- 
tion area. 

Mexican wolves have been extirpated 
from the U.S. since 1970, and have not 
maintained a resident population here 
since the early 1900's. Twenty- seven 
Mexican wolves are currently housed at 
four zoos, the offspring of four wolves cap- 
tured in Mexico during 1977-1980. 

Region 4 — On February 25, 1 987, biol- 
ogists from the FWS Jacksonville, Florida, 
Field Office inspected the only remaining 



natural population of the Stock Island tree 
snail (Orthalicus reses nesodryas) at Key 
West, Monroe County, Florida. (A few in- 
troduced populations may exist elsewhere 
in the Florida Keys.) The Stock Island pop- 
ulation is now confined to about 20 trees in 
and adjacent to a county parking lot. The 
county has placed rocks around the trees 
to prevent vehicular damage, and has also 
deposited soil around the bases of the 
trees to provide an egg-laying substrate for 
the snails. Only 1 2 snails, all in aestivation, 
were observed. The last survey of the 
snails during their active season was done 
in July 1986, and it indicated that as few as 
27 Stock Island tree snails may remain in 
this colony. 



The Jacksonville District of the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers has published a 
public notice for a proposed General Per- 
mit to build boat docking facilities in man- 
atee (Trichechus manatus) Critical 
Habitat. General Permit SAJ-55, if imple- 
mented, will allow the construction of boat 
docks or slips at a density of two per 100 
feet of shoreline with a ratio of 1 :1 power to 
sail. For example, if an applicant owns 100 
feet of shoreline, the permit would allow a 
maximum mooring of one powerboat and 
one sailboat. Projects of this size would 
not require a Biological Opinion from the 
Service. Those wishing to construct more 
slips than allowed under General Permit 
SAJ-55, such as commercial marina de- 
velopers, would still have to request an in- 
dividual permit requiring a Biological Opin- 
ion from the Service. The provisions of 
General Permit SAJ-55 were developed by 
the Corps in close cooperation with the 
Florida Department of Natural Resources 
and the FWS Jacksonville Field Office. 



The Choctawatchee beach mouse (Per- 
omyscus polionutus allophrys) relocation 




Mexican wolf young in the captive propagation program. 



conducted in January by the FWS Jack- 
son, Mississippi, Field Office appears to 
have been successful. Eight pairs were 
transferred to Grayton Beach State Re- 
creation Area in Florida (four pairs from 
Shell Island on Tyndall Air Force Base and 
four from St. Andrews State Recreation 
Area). Alabama beach mice (P. p. ammo- 
bates) were trapped and marked at Bon 
Secour National Wildlife Refuge, Alabama, 
in an effort to survey numbers. The last 
trapping effort captured 29 individuals and 
the continued existence of Alabama beach 
mice on Gulf Shore Plantation was con- 
firmed. A red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was 
trapped at Fort Morgan, Alabama, and 
fitted with a transmitter to study move- 
ments of this beach mouse predator. 



Region 6 — The Montana Black-footed 
Ferret Working Group met in Billings, Mon- 
tana, on January 27, 1987. The agenda in- 
cluded discussion on prioritization of po- 
tential reintroduction sites in Montana, 
cooperation with the Wyoming black- 
footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) program, 
completion of prairie dog management 
guidelines, and future tasks for ferret re- 
covery in Montana. 

After a recent snowstorm, biologists 
found the tracks of a 4-year-old male 
black-footed ferret near Meefeetsee, Wy- 
oming, that they have been trying to cap- 
ture since last September. Biologists from 
the FWS and the Wyoming Game and Fish 
Department recently caught it and took it to 
Laramie, Wyoming, where it will undergo a 
quarantine period before being placed with 
the other 1 7 ferrets in the captive breeding 
program. This will be the oldest male at the 
captive breeding facility, which makes it an 
extremely valuable addition. It is the only 
male that researchers are confident has 
had breeding experience in past years, 
which increases the possibilities of suc- 
cess for captive breeding. The ferrets are 
currently in their breeding season, but it 
will be several months before results of 
this year's captive breeding efforts are 
known. 



Due to low production of peregrine fal- 
cons (Falco peregrinus) at the Peregrine 
Fund's facility in Idaho, fewer birds were 
released in 1986. The following figures 
represent the number of birds hatched and 
percentage reaching independence in Re- 
gion 6 States: Montana, 13 birds and 92 
percent; Wyoming, 17 birds and 59 per- 
cent; Utah, 9 birds and 67 percent; and 
Colorado, 20 birds and 70 percent. 

In Montana, two wild pairs of peregrines 
nested, producing five young. One wild 
pair in Wyoming produced three young. 
Successful breeding pairs in Utah in- 
creased from one pair in 1985 to four in 
1986, producing seven young. 



(continued on next page) 



6 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 

The FWS, Wyoming Game and Fish De- 
partment, and University of Wyoming hope 
to be able to fund a survey effort this year 
in an attempt to locate the Wyoming toad 
(Bufo hemiophrys baxteri), which is found 
within the Laramie Basin in Albany County, 
Wyoming. It is thought to be a relic species 
left as glaciers retreated. No toads were 
found in 1985 and 1986 surveys. If 
searchers are able to survey this year and 
succeed in locating toads, recovery strat- 
egy and actions for this Endangered am- 
phibian must be developed and imple- 
mented as soon as possible. 

FWS field offices in Colorado and Utah 
are beginning a 3-year study of lead con- 
tamination of bald eagles {Haliaeetus leu- 
cocephalus) in those States. The purpose 
of the study is to develop baseline con- 
taminant levels to monitor the effective- 
ness of steel shot in reducing lead poison- 
ing in eagles. 

* * * 

Region 8 (Research) — Approximately 
50 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta cana- 
densis leucopareia) were found dead at 
their wintering grounds near Los Banos, 
California, in January-February 1987. 
Avian cholera is suspected as the cause of 
death for most of these birds. Of the 1 1 
that have been necropsied at the National 
Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), avian 
cholera was confirmed in nine geese and 
lead poisoning in two. This is the first time 
lead poisoning has been documented in 
this Endangered species. 



*"* ft 







* 



Aleutian Canada goose 

A Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus cana- 
densis pulla) was found injured at the Mis- 
sissippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife 
Refuge near Gautier, Mississippi, on Janu- 
ary 13, 1987. The bird had been trau- 
matized by other cranes. Despite support- 
ive therapy by local veterinarians, refuge 
personnel, and eventual treatment at Pa- 
tuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC), 
the crane never regained the ability to walk 
normally or rise on its own. It died Febru- 
ary 12 at PWRC. Necropsy at NWHC re- 
vealed a tumor along the cervical ver- 
tebrae. This is the fourth tumor identified 
during necropsy of 15 free-flying Mis- 
sissippi sandhill cranes. Tumors are rare in 
wild birds; a prevalence of 27 percent is 
highly unusual. 

* * * 

The last wild California condor, AC-9, 
was captured April 19 on the new Bitter 
Creek National Wildlife Refuge. Both this 



m^Mk 



) £ 



bird and AC-5, which was captured Febru- 
ary 27, were taken to the San Diego Wild 
Animal Park for addition to the captive 
breeding program. 

California condors UN-1 and AC-4, a 
captive pair at the San Diego Wild Animal 
Park, have been making vigorous court- 
ship displays to one another. Personnel at 
the park have observed up to five such dis- 
plays in a single 2-hour period. 

* * * 

For the first time, the captive flock of 
Puerto Rican parrots {Amazona vittata) at 
Patuxent's Puerto Rico Research Station 
aviary has produced fertile eggs from more 
than two breeding pairs. A new (third) pair 
has formed and produced at least two fer- 
tile eggs. Egg laying began in the wild on 
February 18; three nests have already pro- 
duced eggs. Two of these nests will be 
double-clutched to maximize egg produc- 
tion. 



Buyer Beware! 

Each year, more than 10 million Ameri- 
cans travel abroad, many of them to re- 
gions of the globe that support a flourish- 
ing trade in exotic birds and animals, 
fashionable jewelry and furs, and unique 
tropical plants. American globetrotters 
spend an estimated $14 billion while trav- 
eling, much of it for souvenirs, curios, and 
other collectibles commonly fashioned 
from foreign wildlife and plants. 

While some of these products are legal 
to import into the United States, many 
others run afoul of Federal and interna- 
tional laws protecting animals and plants 
that are facing extinction, even when sold 
legally in their country of origin. Often what 
begins as an enjoyable vacation ends with 
a bitter lesson as these illegal items are 
confiscated, leaving the traveler with 
nothing more than a depleted bankroll and 
a receipt for seized property. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), in 
cooperation with the World Wildlife Fund — 
U.S., has developed a new brochure alert- 
ing travelers to the pitfalls of buying wildlife 
products abroad. Buyer Beware! de- 



scribes the animal and plant products that 
are most commonly sold in foreign coun- 
tries and whose importation into the U.S. is 
illegal. It also explains the Federal and in- 
ternational laws and treaties under which 
the FWS seeks to stem the growing trade 
in illegal products and to promote the con- 
servation of the world's endangered wild- 
life. Because of the complexity of regula- 
tions governing wildlife importations, 
Buyer Beware! advises travelers with spe- 
cific questions about certain countries they 
will be visiting, or about the legality of im- 
porting certain products, to contact the 
FWS or the World Wildlife Fund well in ad- 
vance of their trip to obtain more detailed 
information. 

Single copies of the brochure are avail- 
able free from the Publications Unit, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Room 148, 
Matomic Building, 1717 H Street NW, 
Washington, DC 20240. Limited bulk 
quantities are being made available to 
travel agents and tour operators as a serv- 
ice to their customers. Requests should be 
sent on letterhead to the Office of Public 
Affairs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Room 3447, 18th and C Streets NW, 
Washington, DC 20240. 



BULLETIN 
Available by 
Subscription 

Although we would like to send the 
BULLETIN to everyone interested in 
endangered species, budgetary con- 
straints make it necessary for us to 
limit general distribution to Federal 
and State agencies and official con- 
tacts of the Endangered Species Pro- 
gram. However, the BULLETIN is be- 
ing reprinted and distributed to all 
others, on a non-profit subscription 
basis, by the University of Michigan 
To subscribe, write to the Endan- 
gered Species Technical Bulletin 
Reprint, School of Natural Re- 
sources, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48109-1115, or tele- 
phone 313/763-1312. The price for 
12 monthly issues is $15.00 (in Can- 
ada, $18 US). 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



New Publications 

Vida Silvestre Neotropical is a new jour- 
nal, published biannually by the World 
Wildlife Fund, on wildlife and wildland re- 
search and management in the neotropics. 
It focuses on the conservation of endan- 
gered plant and animal species and their 
habitats, sustainable use management, 
control of pest species, maintenance of bi- 
ological diversity, indigenous uses of wild- 
life, methods for designing protected area 
systems, and related topics. Feature arti- 
cles, notes, and announcements are pub- 
lished in the language in which they were 
subrn$0^ Spanish, Portuguese, or Eng- 
raft. Revests for information about sub- 
^'•'l^-rifltTdnns and guidelines for submitting 
' • "rt&efriuscripts should be addressed to Curtis 
Freese, Cc*£ditor, Vida Silvestre Neo- 
'■■' tropical* .World Wildlife Fund, 1255 23rd 
■ S/treeVN.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. 
' Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bald 
Eagle {Breeding Season), developed by 
Allen Peterson, synthesizes habitat use in- 
formatloh on this species into a framework 
appropriate for field application. It is scaled 
to produce an index value between 0.0 
(unsuitable habitat) and 1 .0 (optimum hab- 
itat). The index is based upon an analysis 
of four habitat variables': 1 ) lake size, 2) 
lake productivity, 3) amount of mature for- 
est, and 4) amount of human disturbance. 
Single copies of the report are available 
free of charge from the Publications Clerk, 
National Ecology Center, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 2627 Redwing Road, Fort 
Collins, Colorado 80526. 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

26 

61 

8 

5 

39 
3 

23 

4 

8 

119 

296 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



Foreign 

Only 

242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 





1 

466 



U.S. 

Only 

5 

3 

10 
3 

22 
5 

1 
5 

26 

80 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 

15 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


315 





223 


13 


101 





16 





82 





9 





25 





5 





13 


2 


I 157 


37 


I 946 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

43 

7 

21 

1 

12 

54 

243" 



"Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, American alliga- 
tor, green sea turtle, Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 209 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 27 animals 

30 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 96 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

26 plants 

March 31, 1987 



April 1987 



Vol. XII No. 4 



us 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior u s Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington. D C 20240 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4 (1987) 



^.n-ja/s-j c, 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 
DC P 03ITQFU llhM 



May-June 1987 



Vol. XII No. 5-6 




-AUG 4 ^aai 



l IRRARX— 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC. 20240 



Two Animals and 
Four Plants 
Proposed for 
Listing Protection 



During April 1987, the following species 
were proposed by the Fish and Wildlife 
Service (FWS) for addition to the Federal 
list of Endangered and Threatened wildlife 
and plants: 

California Freshwater Shrimp 

(Syncaris pacifica) 

The loss or deterioration of habitat, 
along with predation by introduced fishes, 
has eliminated the California freshwater 
shrimp from about half of its known histor- 
ical range. Because most of this crusta- 
cean's remaining habitat is vulnerable, the 
species was proposed for listing as Endan- 
gered (F.R. 4/22/87). 

S. pacifica is the only surviving member 
of its genus. The only other Syncaris spe- 
cies, S. pasadenae, occurred in southern 
California until the lining of stream habitat 
with concrete for flood control purposes 
caused its extinction. Stream channeliza- 
tion and lining already has eliminated S. 
pacifica from Santa Rosa Creek, and de- 
mand for stream modification as a means 
of flood control is likely to increase as rapid 




California freshwater shrimp are nearly 
transparent in water and can reach 2.5 
inches (5 cm) in length. 



Dusky Seaside Sparrow 
Becomes Extinct 



The dusky seaside sparrow (Am- 
modramus maritimus nigrescens) 
became extinct June 1 6, 1 987, when 
the last bird of this subspecies, an 
aging male, died at Walt Disney 
World's Discovery Island Zoological 
Park in Orlando, Florida. 

The cause of death was not deter- 
mined, although the bird was at least 
13 years old, an extremely ad- 
vanced age for any sparrow. It was 
one of the last five duskies, all 
males, brought into captivity during 
1 979-1 980 while biologists searched 
in vain for surviving females (the last 
of which was seen in 1975). 

The dusky was one of several 
subspecies of seaside sparrows na- 
tive to Florida that have suffered 
from extensive losses of coastal salt 
marsh habitat. One subspecies, the 
Smyrna seaside sparrow (A. m. pel- 
onata), is believed to have become 
extinct some time ago, while an- 
other, the Cape Sable seaside spar- 
row (A. m. mirabilis), was listed as 
Endangered in 1967 (the same year 
as the dusky). In an effort to con- 
serve at least some of the dusky's 
genetic resources, Discovery Island 
biologists attempted for several 
years to cross the remaining duskies 




dusky seaside sparrow 

with birds of a more abundant sub- 
species, the Scott's seaside sparrow 
{A. m. peninsulae). Some hybrids 
have been produced, but there will 
be no more "pure" duskies. 



urban growth in the region north of San 
Francisco Bay continues. 

The California freshwater shrimp, S. pa- 
cifica, is endemic to permanent, free-flow- 
ing streams in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma 
Counties. Within these streams, the spe- 
cies inhabits quiet, treelined pools with un- 
dercut banks, exposed tree roots, and sub- 
merged vegetation. Although once 
common in the three-county area, the 
shrimp has seriously declined in numbers 
and range. In addition to stream channeliz- 
ation, habitat is being damaged by siltation 
and other water quality problems. Certain 
agricultural practices destabilize stream 
banks, and residential development can 
lead to the erosion of soil into area 
streams. Annual construction of temporary 
gravel dams to provide summer swimming 
areas is another threat because of direct 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



habitat loss at the sites and interruption of 
downstream flows. The low reproductive 
rate of S. pacifica also makes it vulnerable 
to extirpation in creeks with exotic preda- 
tory fishes. 

Various combinations of these factors 
have extirpated the shrimp from Semple 
Creek, Laguna de Santa Rosa Creek, 
Santa Rosa Creek, and Atascadero Creek. 
The species survives within restricted por- 
tions of 1 1 streams that comprise approx- 
imately half of its historically known hab- 
itat. Except for parts of Lagunitas Creek 
within Samuel P. Taylor State Park and 
Golden Gate National Recreation Area, all 
remaining stream habitat is on privately 
owned land. 



(continued on page 4) 

1 




Endangered species program re- 
gional staff members have reported the 
following activities for the months of 
April and May: 

Region 1 -In early April, the Marble Bluff 
Fish Facility opened for passing fish up 



Nevada's Truckee River. Shortly after the 
Lahontan cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki 
henshawi) run began, a run of cui-ui 
(Chasmistes cujus) joined the passage. 
So far, over 4,400 cui-ui have been passed 
over the dam. Cui-ui larvae have begun 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director tor Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Acting Chief 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Richard L. Jachowski, Acting Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg , Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom. Regional Director; William F 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg , Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500), Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director, John S 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director, 
James M Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B Russell Federal Bldg , 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta. GA 30303 
(404-331 -3580); James W Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director; John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486. Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D. Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E Tudor Rd., Anchorage. 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 

Assistant Regional Director; Dennis 
Money, Endangered Species Special- 
ist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California. Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada. Oregon. Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona. New 
Mexico. Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana. Iowa, Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri. Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama, Arkansas. Florida, Georgia. Kentucky. Louisiana. Mississippi, North Carolina. South Carolina. Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut. Delaware, Maine, Maryland. Massachusetts. New 
Hampshire. New Jersey, New York. Pennsylvania. Rhode Island, Vermont. Virginia and West Virginia Region.6: Colorado, 
Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 20240. 



out-migration. 

* * * 

The FWS Sacramento Endangered 
Species Office (SESO) assisted in the in- 
vestigation of a potential violation of the 
Endangered Species Act in Sacramento 
County, California. Valley elderberry long- 
horn beetle (Desmocerus californicus di- 
morphus) habitat was cut down along the 
east levee of the American River. The local 
reclamation district claims that all vegeta- 
tion must be removed from the flood con- 
trol levees. Unfortunately, little habitat for 
the beetle remains elsewhere. Both sides 
have agreed on an off-site area to be set 
aside as compensation. The district will 
pay for revegetation, fencing, and mainte- 
nance of the parcel. 

Recent surveys found valley elderberry 
longhorn beetle emergence holes in elder- 
berry plants along the Feather, Cosumnes, 
and upper Sacramento Rivers. Also, one 
female beetle was observed feeding on 
elderberry bushes along the American 
River bike trail. A survey by California De- 
partment of Fish and Game staff for the 
beetle from the Nimbus Dam area to the 
foothills found evidence of beetle activity in 
dense stands of elderberry plants but not 
in the isolated plants near the foothills. 
SESO staff examined two stands of elder- 
berry plants in an area that is to be de- 
veloped for housing near Roseville and did 
not find any evidence of beetles. The trees 
were nearly dead and heavily infested with 
larvae of leaf-roller insects. These surveys 
and other studies have revealed new life 
history information about the beetle. 

* # * 

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has 
agreed to undertake mitigation in a re- 
cently completed Biological Opinion to off- 
set effects of construction and use of the 
Caliente Creek Flood Control System to 
the San Joaquin kit fox and blunt-nosed 
leopard lizard. These measures include 
purchase of 705 acres of alkali sink lands 
to provide long-term habitat protection for 
the two species and additional pre-con- 
struction surveys to reduce mortality dur- 
ing construction. 

* * * 

The SESO staff completed a "no jeo- 
pardy" Biological Opinion for the proposed 
Santa Nella Water Treatment Facility. The 
project is the first step allowing for addi- 
tional urban growth in this Merced County, 
California, community along Interstate 5. 
The project indirectly affects a small group 
o' kit foxes and would eliminate about 60 
acres of prime foraging habitat. Mitigation 
consists of setting aside and protectively 
managing approximately 1 00 acres of for- 
merly heavily grazed range and agri- 
cultural land. 

* * * 

Twenty-two new invertebrates have 
been recommended to be added to the 
candidate list for California. The majority 
are caddisflies, followed by butterflies and 
beetles. Two rare ants endemic to oak 
(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



Approved Listing Actions 



During April 1987, two plants and seven 
animals were added to the list of Endan- 
gered and Threatened species, and one 
animal was reclassified. These approved 
listing actions are summarized below: 



Wide-leaf Warea (Warea 

amplexifolia) 

This summer annual is endemic to the 
Lake Wales Ridge of central peninsular 
Florida, where it occupies sunny openings 
in long-leaf pine woodlands. Only two pop- 
ulations could be verified during the latest 
survey. The species' decline primarily has 
resulted from urbanization and the conver- 
sion of scrub habitat to citrus groves. W. 
amplexifolia was proposed for listing as 
Endangered on May 16, 1986 (see story in 
BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 6), and the final rule 
was published in the April 26, 1987, Fed- 
eral Register. 

Scrub Lupine (Lupinus 
aridorum) 

Another plant endemic to the dwindling 
scrub habitat of the central Florida sand 
ridge, the scrub lupine's known distribution 
has been reduced to only about 350 indi- 
vidual plants scattered among 16 sites. All 
of these remaining sites have been 
damaged and are within some of the most 
rapidly growing areas of Florida. The 
lupine was proposed for listing as Endan- 
gered on April 24, 1986 (see BULLETIN 
Vol. XI No. 5), and the final rule appeared 
April 7, 1987. 

Five Tombigbee River 
Mussels 

Marshall's mussel (Pleurobema mar- 
shalli), Curtus' mussel (P. curtum), Judge 
Tait's mussel (T. taitianum), the stirrup 
shell (Quadrula stapes), and the penitent 
mussel (Epioblasma ( = Dysnomia) pen- 
ita), all freshwater mussels or clams, are 
endemic to the Tombigbee River system in 
Alabama and Mississippi. These filter- 
feeding mollusks require riverine habitat 
with clean water and a moderate-to-swift 
current. Much of their historical habitat has 
been heavily modified by reservoir and 
barge canal construction (primarily relating 
to the Tennessee - Tombigbee Waterway). 
The remaining mussels are in remnants of 
the Tombigbee River bypassed by the 
project and in a few tributaries. Threats to 
this habitat include gravel dredging and sil- 
tation from a variety of sources. The five 
mussels were proposed April 7, 1986, for 
listing as Endangered (see BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 5), and the final rule was published 
April 7, 1987. 



Cave Crayfish (Cambarus 
zophonastes) 

An obligate cave dweller, this crusta- 
cean lacks pigment in the body and the 
eyes (which are reduced). It is known to 
exist in a pool within a single cave in the 
Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, and the 
species' entire population is estimated at 
fewer than 50 individuals. A tract contain- 
ing the cave entrance was purchased re- 
cently by the Arkansas Natural Heritage 
Commission and The Nature Conser- 
vancy. However, the cave's recharge area 
is large, and groundwater contamination is 
a major potential threat to the crayfish. The 
possibility of illegal collecting and the spe- 
cies' extremely small population size also 
make it vulnerable to extinction. C. 
zophonastes was proposed May 5, 1986, 
for listing as Endangered (see BULLETIN 
Vol. XI No. 6), and the final rule appeared 
April 7, 1987. 

Waccamaw Silverside 
(Menidia extensa) 

Also known as the skipjack or glass min- 
now, the small fish is endemic to Lake 
Waccamaw in eastern North Carolina. In 
addition to its restricted range, the species 
is threatened because its one-year life cy- 
cle makes it vulnerable to even short-term 
water quality problems. Lake Waccamaw 
already is incipiently eutrophic, and con- 
tinued high rates of phosphorous input 
could lead to massive algal blooms and re- 
duced oxygen levels for the fish. The 
November 7, 1985, proposed rule to list 
the Waccamaw silverside as Threatened 
contained a recommendation for designat- 
ing the lake as Critical Habitat (see BUL- 
LETIN Vol. X No. 12). This designation 
was included in the final listing rule, pub- 
lished April 8, 1987. 

Tinian Monarch Flycatcher 
(Monarcha takatsukasae) 

This small, forest-dwelling bird is found 
only on the island of Tinian within the Com- 
monwealth of the Northern Mariana Is- 
lands in the western Pacific Ocean. It orig- 
inally was listed as an Endangered 
species because its 1945 numbers were 
thought to be critically low due to the re- 
moval of native forests for sugarcane pro- 
duction and the destructive impacts of 
World War II. Since the war, Tinian has 
been revegetated by a shrubby legume, 
Leucaena leucocephala, to which the 
monarch has adapted well. In 1982, the 
bird's numbers were estimated at 40,000, 
evidence of a recovery to apparently pre- 
disturbance levels. 

Because the population appeared to be 
healthy once again, the FWS proposed on 



November 1, 1985, to delist the Tinian 
monarch (see BULLETIN Vol. X No. 12). 
However, recent changes led the FWS to 
believe it would be more prudent to re- 
classify the species from Endangered to 
Threatened rather than to remove it com- 
pletely from Endangered Species Act pro- 
tection. One new threat is posed by the re- 
cent accidental introduction of an insect 
that is defoliating the Leucaena on Tinian. 
The increased boat and trade traffic be- 
tween Tinian and the island of Guam (a re- 
sult of increased military and civilian de- 
velopment) could lead to the accidental 
introduction of another exotic species that 
is extremely harmful to forest birds: the 
brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis). This 
snake is believed responsible for the extir- 
pation or near eradication of many native 
birds on Guam. For these reasons, the 
FWS has reclassified to Threatened, 
rather than delisted, the Tinian monarch 
(F.R. 4/6/87), a decision in accordance 
with the wishes of the Commonwealth gov- 
ernment. 

Both the Commonwealth and the U.S. 
Navy have advised the FWS that they 
have instituted rigorous programs to pre- 
vent the spread of the brown tree snake to 
Tinian. (Approximately two-thirds of Tinian 
has been leased to the Navy, including 
most of the monarch's habitat.) 

These listed animals and plants are now 
protected under the Endangered Species 
Act, the terms of which are summarized in 
this BULLETIN at the end of the story on 
species newly proposed for listing. 

Updated List 
Available 

The updated List of Endangered and 
Threatened Wildlife and Plants, current 
through April 10, 1987, is now available 
from the Publications Unit, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 148 Matomic Building, 
Washington, D.C. 20240. 



Buyer Beware! 

The April 1987 BULLETIN carried 
a notice for Buyer Beware\, a new 
brochure developed to alert trav- 
elers to the pitfalls of buying pro- 
tected wildlife products abroad. In- 
advertently left out of the notice was 
mention of the National Fish and 
Wildlife Foundation, which was a 
major sponsor of the brochure. We 
regret the omission. 

Copies of the brochure can be re- 
quested from the Publications Unit, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 148 
Matomic Building, Washington, D.C. 
20240. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 1) 

The only direct Federal activity that may 
affect the California shrimp is the authori- 
zation by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
neers (COE) to build temporary dams on 
Austin and East Austin Creeks. A private 
organization has a COE permit to con- 
struct 3 such temporary dams on East 
Austin Creek and 24 on Austin Creek an- 
nually until 1990. This permit, however, 
can be modified or revoked if any of its 
restrictions (e.g., number, size) are not 
met. The FWS has been in contact with the 
COE about the status and habitat require- 
ments of the shrimp. 

Louisiana Pearlshell 
(Margaritifera hembeli) 

This large freshwater mussel or clam is 
known to occur in 1 1 headwater streams of 
the Bayou Boeuf drainage in south-central 
Louisiana (Rapides Parish). Its historical 
range apparently has been reduced due to 
flooding by impoundments. Most of the re- 
maining populations are small, localized, 
and threatened by sedimentation and 
other water quality problems. In an effort to 
prevent this mussel's extinction, the FWS 
proposed listing it as Endangered (F.R. 
4/24/87). 

The Louisiana pearlshell has a generally 
elliptical shell approximately 3.9 inches 
(100 millimeters) long. Its preferred habitat 
is stable sand and gravel substrate in 
small, clear, free-flowing streams. An ex- 
tensive search of 39 streams in Rapides 
Parish during 1985 by biologists with the 
Louisiana Natural Heritage Program found 
the species in 1 1 streams. Of the total pop- 
ulation (estimated in 1985 at 10,000 indi- 
viduals), nearly 90 percent were concen- 
trated in four streams: Long Branch, 
Bayou Clear, Loving Creek, and Little Lov- 
ing Creek. The scattered distribution of M. 
hembeli suggests that the species orig- 
inally occurred throughout the Bayou 
Boeuf headwater system and that im- 
poundments eliminated populations in in- 
tervening areas. Now, the entire Louisiana 
pearlshell population of a small stream 
may occur in only several yards of stream 
length. Because most of the remaining 
populations are so small and localized, 
even beavers appear to be a significant 
threat; M. hembeli individuals found at one 
site in 1 985 were later extirpated when the 
stream was inundated by a beaver pond. 

Sedimentation resulting from off-road 
vehicle (ORV) use and clear-cut logging is 
the main current threat to the Louisiana 
pearlshell. Most of the species' range is 
within Kisatchie National Forest and clear 
cutting, especially if it occurs up to stream 
banks, increases erosion. This practice 
also results in higher rainfall runoff, which 
increases water velocity and scours the 
stream channel, making the substrate too 



unstable for the mussel. (The U.S. Forest 
Service has already taken steps to reduce 
impacts to the mussel from ORVs and tim- 
ber management.) There is some evi- 
dence that water pollution from upstream 
houses and farms is another threat facing 
at least the Brown's Creek mussel popula- 
tion. Waste runoff may contain such harm- 
ful substances as motor oil, sewage, and 
agricultural pesticides. The FWS plans to 
advise residents of means to reduce or 
eliminate impacts on nearby streams. 

Two Puerto Rico Plants 

The following rare species of trees na- 
tive to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
were proposed for listing as Endangered 
(F.R. 4/24/87): 

A medium-sized tropical evergreen tree 
in the verbena family (Verbenaceae), Cor- 
nutia obovata (known locally as the Palo 
de Nigua) is endemic to forests in the lime- 
stone hills and lower mountains of north- 
western and central Puerto Rico. This spe- 
cies can reach 33 feet (10 meters) in 
height with a trunk diameter of 6 inches (15 
centimeters). Its leaves are opposite, obo- 
vate in shape, and covered with fine hairs 
on the lower surface. The flowers are clus- 
tered at the ends of stems, tubular in 
shape, and purplish in color. 

Although C. obovata was never known 
to occur in large numbers, the clearing of 
forests for a variety of land uses has elimi- 
nated some individuals and populations. 
Only seven individual trees are known to 
survive. Five of them are within the Rio 
Abajo Commonwealth Forest, and they 
would be in danger if forest management 
policies were to change in ways that would 
adversely affect the natural vegetation. 
The other two trees grow on private land, 
one near a trail heavily used by squatters 
and the other near a communication facil- 



ity that also receives heavy use. It is the 
species' extreme rarity rather than immi- 
nent habitat destruction that is the main 
threat to the survival of C. obovata. Only 
mature specimens are known and, al- 
though abundant flowers have been ob- 
served, there is no evidence of recent re- 
generation. 

Trichilia triacantha is an evergreen 
shrub or small tree endemic to low eleva- 
tion semideciduous dry forests in south- 
western Puerto Rico. This species, a 
member of the mahogany family 
(Meliaceae), can reach 30 feet (9 m) in 
height with a trunk 3 inches (8 cm) in diam- 
eter. Its dark green, leathery leaves are 
palmate and three- to seven-parted, with 
the leaflets bearing three sharp spines at 
their apex. The flowers are white. Cur- 
rently, 18 T. triacantha individuals are 
known to exist at 5 sites within Guanica 
Commonwealth Forest. 

Widespread deforestation for agricul- 
ture, grazing, and charcoal production has 
had a significant effect on the native flora 
of Puerto Rico; the forests in which T. tria- 
cantha now is known to occur are largely 
second growth. In addition to suffering the 
generalized impacts of wood cutting, the 
species traditionally has been selectively 
taken for the qualities of its wood (hard- 
ness, durability, and appearance). It is not 
known to what extent this practice con- 
tinues but at least one population has been 
lost to cutting in recent years. Because the 
species is usually found along dry stream- 
beds and ravines that carry periodic tor- 
rential rains, destruction of the few remain- 
ing specimens by flash flooding also poses 
the threat of extinction. Further, rapid de- 
velopment in the small remaining areas of 
similar, privately owned habitat could de- 
stroy any undiscovered individuals or pop- 
ulations. 

(continued on next page) 




The white-haired goldenrod is an upright-to-slightly-arching plant that attains a 
height of up to 39 inches (98 cm). Its deeply veined leaves are dark green above and 
pale below, and the stem is covered with fine white hairs. Clusters of small, yellow 
flowers begin blooming in late August. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



White-haired Goldenrod 
(Solidago albopilosa) 

An herbaceous plant in the aster family 
(Asteraceae), S. albopilosa is endemic to 
outcrops of Pottsville sandstone found 
within eastern Kentucky's Red River 
Gorge area of Menisee, Powell, and Wolfe 
Counties. It grows primarily in rockhouses 
(natural, shallow, cave-like formations) 
and beneath overhanging ledges. Inten- 
sive recreational use of these outcrops is 
damaging S. albopilosa habitat, and the 
FWS has proposed to list the species as 
Endangered (F.R. 4/24/87). 

Most of the Red River Gorge is within 
Daniel Boone National Forest, and it has 
been designated a National Geological 
Area for its unusual topography. (There 
are several small, private inholdings within 
the gorge, but the U.S. Forest Service 
plans to acquire those judged most signifi- 
cant.) The geological features (rock- 
houses) with which S. albopilosa is associ- 
ated are common in this area, but only a 
small number currently support the spe- 
cies. 

Red River Gorge is a recreational area 
that draws approximately 240,000 "visitor- 
use days" per year. The rockhouses are 
very popular destinations or sites for hik- 
ing, camping, climbing, and picnicking. 
Also, because of the presence of Indian ar- 
tifacts, collectors dig in even the most re- 
mote rockhouses. These activities have 
resulted in intensive disturbance to S. al- 
bopilosa habitat. The species has been 
extirpated from some sites and is being 
damaged at most of the others. 

A threat of a more potential nature is the 
proposed Red River Lake project. Al- 
though the high-water level would not in- 
undate rockhouses, the species' habitat 
could be damaged by associated con- 
struction and recreational activities. The 
proposed impoundment, however, is op- 
posed by the State of Kentucky and is no 
longer being pursued as a viable project by 
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, in the 
event that the proposal is someday re- 
vived, plans for protecting S. albopilosa 
would need to be incorporated; however, 
reauthorization is not expected. 

If the species is listed, effects on Forest 
Service management should be minimal. 
They would consist primarily of measures 
to reduce visitor damage at the most im- 
portant S. albopilosa sites and careful 
planning of any future logging operations. 

Aleutian Shield-fern 
(Polystichum aleuticum) 

P. aleuticum, a perennial in the fern fam- 
ily (Polypodiaceae), is an extremely rare 
plant known from only two sites in Alaska's 
Aleutian Islands. This diminutive species 
arises from a stout, dark brown rhizome 
and sends out fronds that reach only about 
6 inches (15 cm) high. There are no 
closely related ferns in North America or 



northern Asia. Grazing, soil instability, and 
the species' low numbers threaten it with 
extinction, and the fern has been proposed 
for listing as Endangered (F.R. 4/24/87). 

For many years, P. aleuticum was 
known only from a 1932 collection on Atka 
Island. Surveys conducted in 1984 and 
1985 were not successful in finding the 
population, although the original collection 
site is not known and could have been 
overlooked. On the other hand, reindeer, 
non-native animals introduced to Atka in 
1914, have overgrazed the west end of the 
island and may have contributed to the 
fern's apparent disappearance. In 1975, a 
second P. aleuticum population of only 15 
plants was discovered on Adak Island near 
the summit of Mt. Reed. The site consists 
of treeless, alpine talus slopes vegetated 
with low-growing herbs and prostrate 
shrubs. 

Caribou were introduced on Adak in 
1958, and up to 400 now occur on the is- 
land. Because they are present in the Mt. 
Reed area, caribou may be affecting P. al- 
euticum by grazing or trampling. A more 
likely limiting factor is the instability of the 
alpine habitat on Mt. Reed due to wind ero- 
sion and solifluction (soil movement). 

Both Atka and Adak Islands are within 
the Aleutian Islands Unit of the Alaska 
Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. 
However, part of Atka was selected and 
conveyed to the Atxam Native Corporation 
under the Alaska Native Claims Settle- 
ment Act of 1 971 . The northern half of 
Adak (including Mt. Reed), though still 
within the refuge, is a U.S. Naval Reserva- 
tion within which the Navy has develop- 
ment rights. These rights can be exercised 
if compatible with the refuge, and discus- 
sions with the Navy have revealed no con- 
flicts. 

The listing proposal identified several 
immediate measures to conserve and re- 
cover P. aleuticum, and some have al- 
ready begun. Intensive surveys for the 
plant are under way, and "wanted" posters 
have been distributed to all refuge and 
Naval personnel and interested private cit- 
izens. Future activities may include fenc- 
ing of fern sites to exclude caribou and 
propagation of the plant to create a supply 
for reintroduction. 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits 
provided by a listing as Threatened or En- 
dangered under the Endangered Species 
Act are: protection from adverse effects of 
Federal activities; prohibitions against cer- 
tain practices; the requirement for the 
FWS to develop and implement recovery 
plans; the possibility of Federal aid to State 
and Commonwealth conservation depart- 
ments that have signed Endangered Spe- 
cies Cooperative Agreements with the 
FWS; and the authorization to seek land 
purchases or exchanges for important 



habitat. Listing also lends greater recogni- 
tion to a species' precarious status, which 
encourages further conservation efforts by 
State and local agencies, various organi- 
zations, and individuals. Section 7 of the 
Act directs Federal agencies to use their 
authorities to further the purposes of the 
Act by carrying out conservation programs 
for listed species. It also requires these 
agencies to ensure that any actions they 
authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely 
to jeopardize the survival of a listed spe- 
cies. If any agency finds that one of its ac- 
tivities may affect a listed species, it is re- 
quired to consult with the FWS on ways to 
avoid jeopardy or adverse modification of 
Critical Habitat. For species that are pro- 
posed for listing and for which jeopardy or 
adverse modification is found, Federal 
agencies are required to "confer" with the 
FWS, although the results of such a con- 
ference are non-binding. Potential conflicts 
almost always are avoided by planning 
early and using the Section 7 process. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or engage in in- 
terstate or international trafficking in listed 
animals, except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For listed plants, the 
rule is different; the trafficking restrictions 
apply, but collecting of listed plants without 
a permit is prohibited only on lands under 
Federal jurisdiction. Some States, 
however, have their own laws protecting 
listed plants and animals that may be more 
restrictive. 



Parvovirus and 

Heartworm Found 

in Minnesota 

Wolves 

L. David Mech and Steven H. Fritts 1 

Just when it looked like the main threat 
to the Minnesota wolf (Canis lupus) popu- 
lation was long-term human development 
of habitat, two new, more immediate prob- 
lems have appeared. Canine parvovirus 
(CPV) and heartworm {Dirofilaria immitis) 
recently were documented in Minnesota 
wolves. Both are potentially fatal and are 
new to wild gray wolves. Their threat to the 
population is unknown but could be se- 
rious. 

CPV is a newly discovered disease 
thought to be an escaped laboratory ar- 
tifact, and was first found in 1 976 in do- 
mestic dogs. It raced through the dog pop- 
ulation and killed numerous pets — 
especially pups — before a vaccine was 
developed. Affecting primarily the diges- 
tive system, it is spread via infected feces. 
CPV had reached the dog population in 
Ely, the heart of the Minnesota wolf range, 
(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



Minnesota Wolves 

(continued from page 5) 

by 1 979. In 1 983, CPV killed 1 1 of 1 2 wolf 
pups and yearlings in a captive wolf colony 
just north of Minneapolis, thus demonstrat- 
ing that CPV could be just as serious to 
wolves as to dogs. 

Serologic studies of wolves live-trapped 
in northern Minnesota then showed that 
CPV had hit the wild wolf population. By 
testing serum for antibodies to the dis- 
ease, we were able to conclude that about 
half of the surviving wolves in northern 
Minnesota had been exposed to CPV from 
1977 through 1983. This technique, 
however, does not indicate how many of 
Minnesota's 1 ,200 wolves might have per- 
ished from the disease, and that remains a 
mystery. 




gray wolf 



That CPV does adversely affect wild 
wolves was documented in nearby 
Wisconsin in 1985. There, Wisconsin De- 
partment of Natural Resources biologist 
Dick Thiel found a dead, emaciated wolf 
that a few months earlier had had an active 
CPV infection. A single mortality may not 
seem like much of a problem, but, to a crit- 
ically low wolf population that has not been 
able to exceed 30 members since it began 
to recolonize the State about 1975, the 
loss of one animal can be critical. 

The Minnesota wolf population can with- 
stand considerable mortality from many 
causes; however, fatalities along the pe- 
riphery of the Minnesota range, where wolf 
numbers are lowest, would minimize con- 
tinued dispersal of animals to Wisconsin. 
This could then impede or prevent wolf re- 
covery in Wisconsin and Michigan. 

The same potential problems also could 
result from heartworm. This parasite is 
spread from animal to animal via mos- 
quitoes and has gradually made its way 
northward from the southern United 
States. It has infected dogs in central Min- 
nesota for several years, and was first 
found in Ely dogs (within the wolf range) 
during 1986. On December 31, 1986, a 
blood sample from an 8-year-old wild wolf 
in the Ely region, No. 6021, showed larval 
heartworm. The wolf died as a result of 
capture in an illegal snare, and an autopsy 
showed several large adult worms in her 
heart. 

Heartworm larvae are shed by the adult 
worms that inhabit the heart chambers, al- 
though they also can live elsewhere. As 
the host ages, the worm enlarges and the 
chances of new infections via more mos- 
quito bites also increase. Thus, greater 
and greater strain is placed on the heart. 
For animals like the wolf that earn their liv- 
ing by running, this strain might greatly re- 
duce chances of catching prey and result 
in premature death. 

In 1975, Glynn Riley and Roy McBride 
wrote about the red wolf, just before its de- 
mise in the wild from several possible 



causes: "Heartworms {Dirofilaria immitis) 
have been present in all 27 wolves exam- 
ined...," and "Red wolves three years of 
age and older usually were heavily para- 
sitized by heartworms, sometimes to the 
point that the heart valves could not close" 
("A Survey of the Red Wolf," pp. 263-277 
in The Wild Canids by M. W. Fox). 

Conceivably, either heartworm or CPV 
could diminish productivity of an affected 
animal or survival of its offspring by limiting 
its hunting abilities. In this respect, Wolf 
6021 's breeding history is of interest. Born 
about 1979, Wolf 6021 produced surviving 
pups in summer 1982 and 1983, and prob- 
ably also in 1984. In 1985 and 1986, if 
6021 bore pups, none survived beyond the 
first month, even though the wolf held the 
same territory and mate. No evidence is 
available connecting this animal's de- 
creased productivity with her heartworm 
infection, but the possibility of such a link is 
strong. 

Without more information about the nat- 
ural history of both heartworm and CPV in 
wild hosts, and the hosts' responses to 
them, it is impossible to predict the ulti- 
mate consequences of these pathogens. 
Fortunately, in at least part of Minnesota, 
20 years of baseline information on natural 
wolf population fluctuations is available to 
compare with any changes these two dis- 
eases may bring in wolf numbers. 

Such a comparison can indicate 
whether medical measures must be de- 
veloped to deal with these two new threats 
or whether the wolf population can con- 
tend with them. The answer should be- 
come apparent within the next few years. 
Meanwhile, the Patuxent Wildlife Re- 
search Center, in collaboration with the 
National Wildlife Health Laboratory, will 
continue to monitor the incidence of these 
pathogens in the wolf population. 



'Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, Maryland 
20708 



The Role of Captive Propagation in the Recovery of the 

Mississippi Sandhill Crane 



Janet L. McMillen 1 , 

David H. Ellis 1 , and 

Dwight G. Smith 2 

The Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus 
canadensis pulla), darkest colored of all 
G. canadensis populations, was described 
as a distinct subspecies in 1972. Although 
its range formerly extended at least from 
Louisiana into Alabama, the single remain- 
ing wild population is confined to southern 
Jackson County in southwestern Mis- 
sissippi. 

The Mississippi sandhill crane was of- 
ficially listed in 1973 as Endangered be- 
cause of its small population (less than 50 
individuals), its limited distribution, and the 



lack of suitable habitat. Habitat destruction 
and human disturbance led to its decline. 
Thousands of acres of nesting habitat 
were altered for private and commercial 
development. More important, large tracts 
of habitat were drained and planted in 
dense stands of slash pine (Pinus eliottii) 
for pulpwood. Access roads, drainage 
ditches, and highways were built across 
savannas, increasing disturbance, inter- 
rupting the natural flow of water, and sub- 
jecting the bird to increased human-related 
mortality. 

A recovery program is under way to pre- 
serve the bird in captivity and augment the 
wild population. Key components of the 



effort include: (1) acquisition and manage- 
ment of habitat on the Mississippi Sandhill 
Crane National Wildlife Refuge; (2) de- 
velopment of a captive flock at the Patux- 
ent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, 
Maryland, for production of eggs and 
young; and (3) release of Patuxent- 
produced stock into the wild. 

Habitat Acquisition 
and Management 

The Mississippi sandhill crane NWR 

was officially established in Jackson 

County, Mississippi, in 1975 when the Fish 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



Crane 

(continued from page 6) 

and Wildlife Service (FWS) purchased 
1 ,709 acres (692 hectares) acquired by 
the Nature Conservancy in 1974. Addi- 
tional purchases and leases have been 
made, and the refuge currently encom- 
passes about 18,000 acres (7,285 ha). Fu- 
ture plans call for the acquisition of an ad- 
ditional 2,500 acres (1,012 ha). 

The habitat management objective is to 
restore sufficient nesting, feeding, and 
roosting habitat to support a population of 
100 birds (30 breeding pairs and 40 non- 
breeding birds). To meet this objective, 
efforts are being made to 1) acquire addi- 
tional potentially suitable habitat, 2) cut, 
bulldoze, and/or burn timber and brush to 
provide open areas for feeding and roost- 
ing while maintaining sufficient woody 
vegetation to provide buffers between ter- 
ritories, 3) improve water economy by 
plugging ditches and digging small ponds 
near nesting territories, 4) increase winter 
food sources on the refuge by planting 
crops and improving the soil to increase in- 
vertebrate abundance, and 5) control 
predators to improve natural production 
and adult survival. 

Captive Propagation 
at Patuxent 

Patuxent established its captive Mis- 
sissippi sandhill crane flock in 1966 with 
four chicks reared by John Lynch from 
eggs collected in Jackson County in 1 965- 
1966. The purposes of maintaining this 
flock are to guard against extinction due to 
loss of the wild population, increase ge- 
netic diversity, and provide captive-pro- 
duced cranes and eggs for introduction 
into the wild. The Patuxent flock has grown 
from three birds in 1966 to 40 in late 1986 
as more eggs have been collected from 
the wild and produced in captivity. This 
flock's current composition is 9 juveniles 
and 31 adults/subadults, including 8 pro- 
ductive females. The goal is to increase 
the captive flock to 15 pairs so that, by 
1990, 20 cranes each year can be shipped 
to Mississippi for release. 

To date, 56 eggs have been removed 
from the wild (an average of 2.6 annually). 
The removal of one egg from many of the 
two-egg clutches probably has not dimin- 
ished recruitment in the wild because pairs 
typically produce two eggs in a clutch but 
do not successfully fledge two chicks. Of 
the eggs that hatched, 74 percent (23 of 
31) of the young birds were successfully 
fledged at Patuxent. Recent wild egg ac- 
quisitions have been from pairs whose 
progeny are not represented in the captive 
flock. We hope that this will increase ge- 
netic diversity in both the captive breeding 
birds and those destined for reintroduction. 

The first Patuxent-produced eggs were 
laid in 1968; however, they came from un- 
serviced females and were infertile. Artifi- 







This Mississippi sandhill crane chick is being fed from the bill of a taxidermically 
prepared crane head in an effort to sexually imprint it on cranes rather than hu- 
mans. 



cial insemination was begun on the crane 
in 1970. The first fertile egg was produced 
in 1973 and the first juvenile fledged in 
1974. This bird was the first of its sub- 
species successfully raised in captivity 
from an egg fertilized and laid by captive 
adults. 

Since 1970, 178 known fertile Mis- 
sissippi sandhill crane eggs have been 
produced at Patuxent, all but three of them 
by artificial insemination. Out of that total, 
167 remained at Patuxent; 128 (77 per- 
cent) of these hatched, and 85 (66 per- 
cent) resulted in fledglings. The mean 
number of young fledged per year, 1 .8 be- 
fore 1980, rose to 10.4 between 1980 and 
1986. Peak years were 1984 and 1985, 
with 17 and 16 young fledged. 

The major problems encountered in 
raising Mississippi sandhill cranes in cap- 
tivity were 1) low fertility, 2) low hatch- 
ability, 3) debilitating toe/leg deformities, 
and 4) disease. Through the use of Florida 
(G. canadensis pratensis) and greater (G. 
canadensis tabida) sandhill cranes as re- 
search surrogates, these problems have 
largely been resolved. Improved artificial 
insemination techniques resulted in a 95 
percent fertility rate for eggs from 1983 
through 1986. The use of a disinfectant 
egg dip and frequent egg collections have 
decreased the loss of fertile eggs to bacte- 
rial contamination. The mean hatchability 
of fertile eggs from 1973 through 1979, 30 
percent, was increased to 86 percent from 
1980 through 1986. Deformed toes and 
legs in hand-reared crane chicks have vir- 
tually been eliminated by limiting daily food 
intake when weight gain is excessive, and 
by increasing the chick's activity level 
through swim therapy. Disease has been 
significantly reduced through annual pen 



rotation, the administration of antibiotics 
and other treatments for fungi and para- 
sites, continuous monitoring of chicks, and 
annual examinations of adults. 

Reintroduction Efforts 

A "gentle release'' program providing 
captive, parent-reared cranes for release 
into the wild began in 1975. Eggs laid by 
Mississippi sandhill cranes at Patuxent are 
collected and placed under captive foster 
parents, which rear the young until they 
are about 120 days old. Contact with hu- 
mans is limited to ensure that natural im- 
printing and socialization can occur. At ap- 
proximately 60 days of age, the chicks' 
wings are brailed (restrained with a soft 
plastic strap) to prevent flight. 

When the birds are 4 months old, the 
brails are removed and the birds are trans- 
ferred to community flight pens where they 
develop social bonds. The birds are gradu- 
ally weaned from pelletized food to a diet 
supplemented by corn to prepare them for 
the food they will encounter in the wild. 
Prior to shipment to the refuge in Mis- 
sissippi, the young are again brailed, ad- 
ministered antibiotics, and given a physical 
examination. Upon arrival at the release 
site in Mississippi, the young are confined 
to pens for about one month, where they 
further strengthen cohort bonds, develop 
site fidelity, and learn to forage for corn 
and natural foods. The scattered grain also 
attracts wild cranes, which interact with the 
captives and aid their integration into the 
wild flock after release. After a period of 
acclimation, the wing brails are removed, 
and the juveniles are allowed to leave the 
holding pens. Supplemental feeding is 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



Crane 

(continued from page 7) 

continued until the young become inde- 
pendent. 

Captive-reared cranes have been re- 
leased to the wild annually since 1981. 
Overall, their social integration and sur- 
vivorship have been good. Of the 45 birds 
released since 1981, 19 (45 percent) still 
survive, and Patuxent-reared birds cur- 
rently make up approximately 38 percent 
of the wild flock. Of those that have died, at 
least one bird was found shot, but most 
have been killed by avian or mammalian 
predators (including bobcats, coyotes, and 
dogs). Several nesting attempts of re- 
leased birds have occurred. In 1985, a 
male that had hatched in 1979 paired and 
nested with a wild female. Two eggs were 
laid, and the birds were sharing incubation 
until they abandoned the nest after an ac- 
cidental human disturbance. Unfor- 
tunately, the male was found dead in De- 
cember 1 985. Several other released birds 
have paired with wild birds, and in 1986, 



although no nesting occurred, three pairs 
(two with one Patuxent member and one 
with two Patuxent birds) established ter- 
ritories. Finally, in April 1987, a pair with 
one member of Patuxent origin was ob- 
served with a small chick. 

In all, four pairs with at least one mem- 
ber of Patuxent origin were observed in 
1987. 

The future of the Mississippi sandhill 
crane, while not yet fully secure, is brighter 
now than in 1972 when the bird was de- 
scribed as a distinct subspecies. A size- 
able National Wildlife Refuge now exists 
and its staff is actively involved in habitat 
restoration. A captive flock, now well est- 
ablished at PWRC, serves as a gene res- 
ervoir and a continuing source of eggs and 
young to bolster the wild population. The 
near future calls for additional habitat mod- 
ification and enlargement of the captive 
flock until 15 breeding pairs annually pro- 
duce 20 young for release. Eventually, the 
wild population must become self-sustain- 
ing. If current management efforts con- 
tinue successfully, this goal may be 
reached in as few as 1 years. 



Two additional programs recently have 
been employed to augment the wild flock. 
Beginning in 1982, viable eggs laid at Pa- 
tuxent have been placed in the wild nests 
that contain infertile eggs. To date, 1 1 Pa- 
tuxent eggs have been substituted, of 
which 10 have hatched. The feasibility of 
conducting foster-parenting at the refuge 
also is being investigated. Five pairs of 
Florida sandhill cranes have been placed 
in pens at the refuge and, if these pairs can 
successfully, routinely rear young, their 
eggs could be replaced with Mississippi 
sandhill crane eggs from Patuxent or the 
wild. Some Mississippi young could, there- 
fore, be raised in their native environment. 
To date, none of the Florida pairs have 
nested, although courtship behavior has 
been observed. 



1 U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Patuxent 

Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Mary- 
land 20708 

2 Southern Connecticut State University, 

New Haven, Connecticut 06515 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

woodlands were recommended for addi- 
tion to the list as well. The ants are threat- 
ened by the exotic Argentine ant and hab- 
itat loss in valley oak riparian areas. A 
recent survey of the butterflies of California 
revealed that the Pheres blue butterfly 
(Icaricia icarioides pheres), which was 
once believed to be extinct, does exist but 
is not abundant. 

* * * 

Grazing and geothermal development 
appear to threaten several caddisfly spe- 
cies in the eastern Sierra Nevada that are 
confined to springs on public range land. 
One species {Desmona pethula) has a lar- 
val stage that leaves the water and crawls 
on land (with its case attached to its body) 
to feed on streamside vegetation. This is 
very unusual because most caddisflies 
spend their entire larval and pupal stages 
in the water. 

* * * 

The owner of the Rio Verde Estates par- 
cel is preparing to develop his property on 
San Bruno Mountain, and a permit applica- 
tion has been received by Daly City. The 
SESO has advised Daly City that the ap- 
plication generally conforms to the Habitat 
Conservation Plan agreement, but that the 
addition of one acre of permanent disturb- 
ance will likely require an amendment to 
the plan. The owner has agreed to add an 
acre from his adjacent Rio Verde Heights 
parcel as habitat compensation. 

An agreement is being developed to 
guide long-term management of the Cal- 
ifornia least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) 
at Oakland Airport. This agreement is re- 
quired by the Corps of Engineers through 



8 



a Section 7 consultation on the airport's 
proposed fill of 450 acres of wetlands. Un- 
less the agreement is accomplished within 
one year of permit issuance, the airport 
cannot construct its proposed runway and 
taxiway extension through the existing 
least tern colony site. 

* * * 

An informal consultation with the Corps 
of Engineers on the proposed replacement 
of the Mud Slough bridge by Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad will result in some positive 
benefits. The loss of about 0.19 acres of 
wetlands and possible salt marsh harvest 
mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) hab- 
itat will be offset by development of a plan 
that calls for: (1 ) 0.25 acres of new habitat, 
(2) long-term monitoring to ensure suc- 
cessful revegetation, and (3) permanent 
protection of all salt marsh harvest mouse 
habitat on the railroad right-of-way. 

The Warner sucker (Calostomus warn- 
erensis) has recently been documented in 
the potholes area in northern Warner Val- 
ley, Oregon. This area is under considera- 
tion for acquisition by the Bureau of Land 
Management (BLM) to help conserve the 
species. 

Seedlings of Malheur wirelettuce (Sfep- 
hanomeria malheurensis) were placed in 
an enclosure built by the BLM's Burns Dis- 
trict Office in southeast Oregon. Eight vol- 
unteers assisted in the project. 

A Cooperative Agreement with the State 
of Idaho was signed for conservation of 
rare, endangered and threatened plants. 
The Idaho Department of Parks and Rec- 
reation is now eligible to participate in the 
Endangered Species Grant-in-Aid Pro- 
gram under Section 6 of the Endangered 
Species Act. Idaho's first project will con- 



sist of status surveys for seven candidate 
plants. 

* * * 

Through May 20, 1987, production of 
Endangered raptors at the World Center 
for Birds of Prey near Boise, Idaho, for the 
season included approximately 414 per- 
egrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs and 
10 Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus) 
eggs. 

The U.S. Forest Service requested infor- 
mal consultation on a proposed timber har- 
vest adjacent to the Golden Trout Wilder- 
ness Area in the Sequoia National Forest, 
California, to obtain input on the placement 
of harvest units, location of roads, timing 
and intensity of cuts, and other technical 
matters. The Sequoia Forest staff has ex- 
pressed a strong desire to design and 
carry out the sale in a manner that will 
avoid impacts to the Little Kern golden 
trout (Salmo aguabonita whitei). 

* * * 

The spring population census of the 
Borax Lake chub (G/7a boraxobius) 
showed that cattle grazing and recrea- 
tional use are becoming major concerns. 
About 250 head of cattle were enclosed 
within the designated Critical Habitat, and 
damage to salt crusts and marsh vegeta- 
tion was evident. Because of these prob- 
lems, The Nature Conservancy is stepping 
up its negotiations for acquisition of the 
area. The BLM has been requested to lock 
gates into the Critical Habitat. 

* * * 

The single Hawaiian crow (Corvus 
hawaiiensis) egg reported laid April 30, 
1987, at the Olinda Endangered Species 
Facility on the island of Maui has been 
candled and found to contain a dead 
embryo. Olinda's aviculturist estimated 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



that the embryo survived for 2 to 3 days. 
The cause of death has not yet been deter- 
mined. A dummy egg placed in the nest 
has been removed to encourage produc- 
tion of another egg. Two other pairs of 
crows at the facility have built nests. 

Field surveys to determine the current 
distribution and population size of the 
Hawaiian crow in the wild have focused on 
locating individual birds and breeding pairs 
on the island of Hawai'i, within koa forests 
3,500 to 5,500 feet in elevation on the 
western slopes of Hualalai and Mauna 
Loa. Two birds were found on the State- 
owned Waiea Tract in the South Kona dis- 
trict. Surveys during the next quarter will 
examine lower elevation wet ohia forests 
and other geographic areas that formerly 
were occupied by the crow. 

* * * 

A forest bird survey conducted during 
April on the island of Rota, Commonwealth 
of the Northern Mariana Islands, showed 
that populations appeared to be healthy 
and have remained stable since the 1982 
survey. The status of the Rota bridled 
white-eye (Zosterops conspicillata ro- 
tensis), a Category 2 listing candidate, and 
the Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi), an En- 
dangered species, appears unchanged. 
The Rota population of the Endangered 
Mariana fruit bat (Pteropus mariannus 
mariannus) has been slowly increasing in 
numbers since 1982 and is estimated at 
around 2,000. A moratorium on hunting, 
along with the presence of a conservation 
officer permanently stationed on the is- 
land, is believed to be responsible for the 
increase in numbers. 

Region 2 -Dr. James Lewis, FWS 
Whooping Crane Coordinator, attended 
the first meeting of Canada's Whooping 
Crane Recovery Team as the representa- 
tive for the U.S. Meeting participants re- 
viewed a draft of Canada's whooping 
crane (Grus americana) recovery plan, 
which is now approved in principle by Di- 
rector General Clarke. The Canadian Wild- 
life Service expects to publish the plan 
shortly. 

The Proceedings of the 1985 Crane 
Workshop have been published and 150 
copies distributed to FWS personnel work- 
ing on management or research of whoop- 
ing cranes and sandhill cranes (Grus can- 
adensis). The proceedings were edited by 
Dr. Lewis and Jerry W. Ziewitz, and jointly 
published by the Platte River Trust and the 
FWS. 



Surveys by Ernie Kuyts of the Canadian 
Wildlife Service located 30 whooping 
crane nests this spring at Wood Buffalo 
National Park, Canada. On May 21, one 
egg was removed from each of 24 nests 
for transfer to Grays Lake National Wildlife 
Refuge, Idaho, and the Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center, Maryland. As an experi- 
ment, an egg from a twenty-fifth nest was 



placed on a nest occupied by a female that 
previously had lost eggs to predators. La- 
ter observations revealed that the female 
continued to incubate the transferred egg. 
Twenty-nine active nests containing a total 
of 32 eggs remain at Wood Buffalo. 

A drought at Grays Lake was interrupted 
by over 3 inches of rain in late May. The re- 
cent rains will enhance whooping crane 
chick rearing conditions in early summer, 
but a resumption of the drought could still 
cause poor summer-long brood rearing 
conditions; therefore, only 12 whooping 
crane eggs were taken from Wood Buffalo 
to Grays Lake for use in the cross-foster- 
ing experiment. These eggs were placed 
in the nests of the more successful sandhill 
crane foster parents, with territories lo- 
cated on more permanent wetland sites 
where the chance for survival of the 
whooping crane chicks is greatest. Ten of 
the 12 eggs had living embryos. Biologists 
were uncertain about the other two, but 
their embryos may have been in early 
stages of development where viability is 
more difficult to confirm. 

Twelve Canadian whooping crane eggs 
sent to Patuxent to add to the captive flock 
included seven viable eggs, three that 
probably were infertile, and two of uncer- 
tain status. 

* * * 

Mid-May aerial surveys located 1 7 of the 
21 whooping cranes seen in Colorado dur- 
ing spring migration. In addition, the re- 
mains of one of last summer's fledged 
young was found a few hundred miles from 
Grays Lake, Idaho, where it died of an un- 
known cause during fall migration. Only 
two young were fledged in the summer of 
1986. The remaining young bird is doing 
well. Three of the four female whooping 
cranes translocated from isolated sum- 
mering sites and released at Grays Lake 
last summer were found during the aerial 
surveys. One had returned to the site 
where it was first captured in 1986, while 
the other two chose summering sites over 
100 miles from Grays Lake and from their 
capture sites of 1986. 

A new population of the Texas snow- 
bells (Sryrax texana) has just been planted 
in the Endangered shrub's native Hill 
County habitat west of San Antonio. Until 
now, only 39 wild plants were known, 
these mostly growing on cliffs where they 
were safe from livestock and deer brows- 
ing. The reestablishment project is being 
directed by the San Antonio Botanical 
Gardens, with help from Southwest Texas 
Junior College, Texas Natural Heritage 
Program, and the FWS. The new popula- 
tion is being started on a private ranch with 
full landowner cooperation and assistance 
from the ranch manager. The selected site 
seems ideal, having water, soils, and to- 
pography similar to other sites supporting 
the species. Twenty-five seedlings grown 
by the San Antonio Botanical Gardens 
were planted in protective wire cages at 
various cliffside localities. The young 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



plants will be monitored to determine 
which of the sites are most suitable for sur- 
vival and growth. 

A total of 34 thick-billed parrots 
(Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) have now 
been released in the Chiricahua Moun- 
tains of southern Arizona. Thirteen of the 
parrots overwintered in Arizona, but were 
becoming difficult to track because of 
failing radios. An additional five birds with 
radios were released into the existing flock 
this spring so that biologists could continue 
to use telemetry to monitor the birds' 
movements. As of early June, the flock 
had been more sedentary recently, which 
suggests that the birds may remain in the 
area throughout the summer and attempt 
nesting. The thick-billed parrot generally 
nests in midsummer to coincide with the 
increase in the availability of pine seeds, 
its primary food. This project is a coopera- 
tive program with the Arizona Game and 
Fish Department, U.S. Forest Service 
(Coronado National Forest), FWS, Los An- 
geles and San Diego Zoos, Jersey Wildlife 
Preservation Trust (United Kingdom), and 
International Council for Bird Preservation 
(U.S.). 

* * * 

Four new bald eagle (Haliaeetus leuc- 
ocephalus) nesting territories were dis- 
covered in Arizona this spring. A total of 23 
sites were occupied in Arizona, with 19 of 
them active. As of May 29, 23 nestings of 
fledglings survived. If all 23 fledge, the 
1987 nesting season will be a record level 
of productivity for the southwest popula- 
tion. 

Two adult Endangered Colorado squaw- 
fish (Ptychocheilus lucius) were captured 
from the San Juan River, New Mexico, by 
an interagency team of biologists from the 
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, New Mexico 
Department of Game and Fish, University 
of New Mexico, and FWS. The fish, cap- 
tured by electro-fishing, represent the first 
confirmation of the species in New Mexico 
in over 25 years. Additional surveys are 
planned for this summer and fall. A similar 
survey effort is being conducted concur- 
rently on the Utah portion of the river by 
the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 

* * * 

The BLM, in cooperation with the FWS 
and Arizona Game and Fish Department, 
has initiated a program directed toward re- 
moval of exotic fish species from stock 
tanks on BLM lands within the Aravaipa 
Creek watershed of Arizona. Removal of 
such exotics as green sunfish (Lepomis 
cyanellus) and bullheads {Ictalurus spp.) 
is necessary to prevent movement of 
these fish into Aravaipa Creek where they 
would prey upon the Threatened 
spikedace (Meda fulgida) and loach min- 
now (Tiaroga cobitis). 

* * * 

Twenty-one Endangered Chihuahua 

chubs (G/7a nigrescens) were captured 

(continued on page 10) 



9 



Regional News 

(continued from page 9) 



from the Mimbres River, New Mexico, and 
taken to Dexter National Fish Hatchery. 
The chubs will be used to supplement the 
existing broodstock, which originated from 
10 fish captured from the Mimbres River in 
1979. Future plans involve stocking their 
offspring into selected tributaries of the 
Mimbres River after an agreement is 
reached among the FWS, U.S. Forest 
Service, and New Mexico Department of 
Game and Fish. 

* * * 

The Nature Conservancy has pur- 
chased 1 1 ,503 acres of Matagorda Island, 
Texas, and the FWS recently paid $3 mil- 
lion for a portion of the acquisition. As 
funds become available, the balance will 
be purchased from the Conservancy over 
the next 2 years. This portion of Matagorda 
Island contains winter territories of several 
whooping crane family groups and has 
suitable habitat for expansion of the Aran- 
sas flock. The Conservancy portion of the 
tract will be managed by the FWS under a 
lease management agreement. 

The New Mexico ramshorn snail 
(Pecosorbis kansasensis), a native of 
southeastern New Mexico, will be the sub- 
ject of a status and distribution study this 
summer. The study is jointly funded by the 
U.S. Forest Service, New Mexico Depart- 
ment of Game and Fish, and FWS, and will 
be conducted by Dr. Richard Smartt of the 
New Mexico Museum of Natural History 
and Dr. Art Metcalf of the University of 
Texas at El Paso. This minute (1/4-inch) 
snail lives in small pools within bedrock 
basins in ephemeral stream channels, and 
is currently known from only two localities. 
Potential threats to the existence of the 
snail at those two locations include gravel 
mining, pesticide spraying, and oil and gas 
development. 

* * * 

The annual meeting of the Region 2 her- 
petological team was held in Phoenix, Ari- 
zona, on April 1 and 1 1 . The team re- 
viewed recently completed status work on 
the Chihuahuan mud turtle (Kinosternon 
hirtipes murrayi) and Sonoran tiger sala- 
mander (Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi. 
The team recommended that the turtle be 
moved from candidate Category 2 to 3C as 
a result of that work, and that the sala- 
mander be retained in Category 2 pending 
further clarification of its taxonomic status. 
(Category 2 taxa are those for which there 
is evidence that a listing proposal possibly 
is appropriate but for which there is not yet 
enough evidence to support publication of 
a proposal. Category 3C comprises taxa 
once under consideration for listing but 
now thought to be more abundant and/or 
less subject to threat.) The draft revision of 
the FWS Notice of Review of animal candi- 



date species was examined and changes 
in the status of several species were rec- 
ommended. 

The primary topic of the meeting con- 
cerned the apparent decline of leopard 
frogs in the U.S., particularly in the South- 
west. Populations of several species of 
leopard frogs and other Rana species are 
disappearing. Some are experiencing sud- 
den, complete adult die-offs. The team 
recommended that the FWS pursue tox- 
icological studies, concentrating on the 
lowland leopard frog {Rana yavapaiensis), 
which may be experiencing the same type 
of adult mortalities that resulted in the ex- 
tirpation of the Tarahumara frog (Rana tar- 
ahumarae) from the U.S. Any persons 
having information on declines of leopard 
or other ranid frogs in the U.S. or Mexico 
are urged to contact the Region 2 Endan- 
gered Species Office (address and phone 
number on BULLETIN page 2). 

Implementation of the Stacy Dam bio- 
logical opinion in west-central Texas is un- 
der way. A herpetologist, Okla Thornton, 
has been hired by the Colorado River Mu- 
nicipal Water District and is already in the 
field implementing the alternatives neces- 
sary to eliminate jeopardy to the Threat- 
ened Concho water snake (Nerodia harteri 
paucimaculata). Exceptionally high rainfall 
and a late spring should provide excellent 
habitat for the snake and its principal food 
source — fish. Habitat manipulation to im- 
prove juvenile feeding areas (riffles) and 
guaranteed stream flows make up the ma- 
jor alternatives to be implemented by the 
water district. The U. S. Army Corps of En- 
gineers has issued the Section 404 and 
Section 10 permits that authorize Stacy 
Dam, and construction will begin soon. Be- 
fore construction is completed in 1990, 
over 100 miles of suitable habitat on the 
Colorado River are to be created or im- 
proved, and at least one tributary stream, 
Ash Creek, will be protected for the Con- 
cho water snake. 

Recent investigations have revealed 
that the Endangered woundfin minnow 
(Plagopterus argentissimus) is facing se- 
rious threats. It is being completely re- 
placed by an exotic species, the red shiner 
(Notropis lutrensis). The woundfin minnow 
is found only in the Virgin River of Nevada, 
Arizona, and Utah. In the 1970's, intro- 
duced red shiners began increasing in 
abundance in the Nevada portion of the 
river. By 1980, they had completely re- 
placed woundfin there and become in- 
creasingly common in collections from the 
Arizona portion of the river. It was hoped, 
however, that the Virgin River Narrows, a 
10-mile-long canyon, would restrict move- 
ment of the red shiner into the Utah portion 
of the river because the Narrows is nor- 
mally dry and only contains water during 
the spring runoff or after summer storms. 
However, red shiners were discovered 
above the Narrows in the Utah portion of 



the river in 1984. By fall 1986, red shiners 
represented 84 percent of the fish col- 
lected near St. George, Utah. In contrast, 
woundfin represented only 3.2 percent. 
The immediate concern is that red shiners 
will move above the Washington Fields Ir- 
rigation Dam and replace woundfin in the 
last 8 to 1 miles of the Virgin River, which 
currently is not contaminated. Immediate 
action must be taken to prevent the further 
spread of red shiners. Chemical renova- 
tion of the river from the Washington Field 
Diversion to the Narrows may be the only 
solution. 

Region 4 -A cooperative effort by the Al- 
abama Department of Conservation and 
Natural Resources, Samford University, 
and the FWS has resulted in the identifica- 
tion of six potential transplant sites for re- 
establishment of watercress darter (Eth- 
eostoma nuchale) populations. This darter 
is known from only three locations, all 
spring ponds in urban areas of Jefferson 
County, Alabama. Four of the six potential 
sites are receiving final consideration. 
Conservation agreements permitting the 
introduction of the darters to the springs 
have been developed with the landowners 
of two of the sites. Two additional springs 
may receive darter populations pending 
their designation as sites of "nonessential 
experimental populations." 

* * * 

The U.S. Forest Service has funded a 
$32,000 challenge grant proposal from the 
FWS, North Carolina and Tennessee 
Heritage Programs, and North Carolina 
Plant Conservation Program to assist in 
mountain bald (alpine meadow) manage- 
ment. Of special concern is a 10,000-acre 
area of the Roan Mountain Massif, located 
on the North Carolina/Tennessee border, 
which includes 13 candidates for Federal 
listing and numerous State-listed species. 
A meeting of all involved agencies was 
held in late March to plan this season's 
work and discuss hiring of field assistants. 

* * • 

The small captive colony of Choc- 
tawhatchee beach mice (Peromyscus pol- 
ionotus allophrys) at Auburn University in 
Alabama produced its first offspring on 
March 10, 1987. Establishment of captive 
Perdido Key (P. p. trissyllepsis) and Ala- 
bama (P. p. ammobates) beach mice colo- 
nies also is planned. 

Approval has been obtained from the 
U.S. Forest Service for prescribed burning, 
a habitat management technique, in North 
Carolina's Linville Gorge wilderness. Ten 
plots were burned in March to test the 
effects of fire on mountain golden heather 
(Hudsonia montana), which occurs only 
within this wilderness area. During the 
burning, the first sighting for the year was 
made of a territorial pair of peregrine fal- 
cons that had returned to the gorge, hope- 
fully to nest. 

(continued on next page) 



10 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



A long-standing Florida manatee (777- 
chechus manatus) consultation under 
Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act 
has been resolved. The firm of Ferinel, Inc. 
had requested a permit from the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers to develop a marina on 
the North Fork of the St. Lucie River in 
Florida, an area from which the FWS had 
no information concerning manatee use. 
As part of the resolution, Ferinel agreed to 
fund a survey of natural resources and 
manatee use in the area. The results indi- 
cated no verifiable manatee use within a 
5-mile (8-kilometer) radius of the project 
site, most likely due to the absence of food 
and other suitable habitat characteristics. 

A study has begun in an effort to deter- 
mine the impact of boat wakes on sea- 
grasses in Hobe Sound (Martin County, 
Florida), a manatee feeding area. The 
study is a cooperative effort of the Beaufort 
Laboratory of the National Marine Fish- 
eries Service, the Marine Research Labo- 
ratory of the Florida Department of Natural 
Resources (DNR), the FWS Jacksonville 
Office, and the Sirenia Project. The 3-year 
study will determine the hydrological fac- 
tors influencing seagrass productivity, 
composition, and distribution within Hobe 
Sound. The Florida DNR will use the data 
to evaluate the necessity for establishing a 
"no-wake zone" in Hobe Sound. 

* * * 

This spring, the Jacksonville Office was 
notified that a Florida Department of 

Traneportation (DOT) project would have 

an impact on the manatee. The project in- 
volved replacement of a 10-foot-wide 
culvert under South Patrick Road on Mer- 
ritt Island with two 5-foot-wide culverts. 
The length of the culvert would be in- 
creased from about 40 to 85 feet. Follow- 
ing an on-site meeting with DOT, the Jack- 
sonville Office consulted with the Florida 
DNR about the advisability of the project. It 
was decided that, to protect the manatee 
and eliminate the possibility of injury or 
death, the old culvert should be replaced 
with another that is 10 feet wide. This 
would permit manatees ample room to 
move through and provide enough air 
space in times of high water. As of June 4, 
a final decision had not been made by the 
Florida DOT to accept this recommenda- 
tion. No federal funding is involved in the 
project. 

The Jacksonville Office has received a 
final status survey report on the Florida 
scrub lizard (Sceloporus woodi). The sur- 
vey was conducted by the Florida Cooper- 
ative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit in 
Gainesville. An attempt was made to visit 
all remaining scrub sites within the histor- 
ical range of this endemic Florida species; 
529 sites were searched and 359 had 
scrub lizards. Many historical sites have 
disappeared because of conversion to 
citrus groves, housing, or commercial 
uses. The scrub lizard is nearly extirpated 
from the Gulf Coast of Florida, and its cen- 



tral and east coast scrub habitats have de- 
creased greatly. Secure populations re- 
main in Ocala National Forest, a State 
park, a State preserve, a National Wildlife 
Refuge, and several private conservation 
lands. While the scrub lizard is still wide- 
spread, its populations are expected to 
continue their decline. 

Eglin Air Force Base in Walton County, 
Florida, proposes to extend an existing 
golf course through Mill Creek, one of five 
streams that the Endangered Okaloosa 
darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) inhabits. 
Approximately 90 percent of the darter's 
range occurs on Eglin Air Force Base. 
Jacksonville Office biologists met with Air 
Force personnel this spring to discuss de- 
sign constraints and actions to minimize 
impacts to the creek. Okaloosa darters re- 
quire streams of small to medium size with 
a moderate to swift current and a clear, 
sandy substrate. Due to its limited range, 
the darter is especially vulnerable to hab- 
itat destruction. A Section 7 consultation is 
in progress. 

A helicopter survey of northern Georgia 
cliffs was conducted by the Asheville, 
North Carolina, Field Office and the U.S. 
Forest Service to determine the potential 
for peregrine falcon hacking sites and/or 
occupancy. Twenty-two cliffs were consid- 
ered, but only two (in addition to the two al- 
ready accepted for hacking) offered much 
potential. 



Region 5 - On March 27 and 28, a cave 
important to the Endangered Virginia big- 
eared bat (Plecotus townsendii virgin- 
ianus) was gated to prevent disturbance of 
bats by unauthorized visitors. The gating 
project was a combined effort by the FWS 
(biologists from the Annapolis, Maryland, 
and Asheville, North Carolina, Field Sta- 
tions), Cave Conservation Institute, West 
Virginia Department of Natural Resources/ 
Non-Game Program biologists, and volun- 
teers from Albright College in Reading, 
Pennsylvania. Located on Monongahela 
National Forest land in West Virginia, the 
cave houses the second largest known 
Endangered big-eared bat maternity 
colony. This is the first time that an angle 
iron design (zero air flow restriction) gate 
has been placed on an Endangered bat 
maternity colony site. The decision to use 
this gate design was based on the results 
of a Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 
(PWRC) study conducted at this cave, 
which indicated that the bats would fly 
through the angle iron bars. The cave also 
has an alternate entrance available to the 
bats. The bats' use of the gate will be care- 
fully monitored this summer. 

Biologists from the FWS Gloucester 
Point, Virginia and Annapolis Field Sta- 
tions, in collaboration with refuge person- 
nel and the PWRC, are conducting a study 
assessing the presence and impacts of 



several types of contaminants on the 
ecosystem of the Dismal Swamp National 
Wildlife Refuge and on the Threatened 
Dismal Swamp shrew (Sorex longirostris 
fisheri). An inactive landfill adjacent to the 
refuge is suspected as a source of these 
contaminants, which include the pesticide 
chlordane. Samples of sediments, fish, 
and small mammals will be analyzed to de- 
termine whether or not any of these toxic 
substances occur at levels that could pose 
a threat to the shrew or to other fish and 
wildlife resources at the refuge. 

Region 6 -Spring 1987 marked the sev- 
enth whooping crane migration during 
which aerial surveys were flown by the 
FWS Grand Island, Nebraska, Field Office. 
Fifty-four miles of whooping crane Critical 
Habitat along the Platte River between 
Grand Island and Lexington, Nebraska, 
are flown daily, weather permitting, during 
spring and fall migrations to determine 
whooping crane use and site characteris- 
tics. The earliest arrival and longest stay 
for a whooping crane in Nebraska was re- 
corded this spring; a juvenile crane, which 
became separated from its parents during 
the 1986 fall migration and spent the win- 
ter with sandhill cranes in Oklahoma, was 
observed in the Platte River Valley for 34 
days between March 17 and April 19. Dur- 
ing survey flights, 10 riverine roost sites 
used by the juvenile were identified, and 5 
site evaluations were completed. 

As part of the Greater Yellowstone Bald 
Eagle Research Project, a breeding pair of 
bald eagles is being monitored in Grand 
Teton National Park, Wyoming. The adult 
male from the territory was trapped March 
1, 1987, and fitted with a radio transmitter. 
The eagle was tracked until April 14, when 
it was determined that something was 
wrong. The researchers were able to cap- 
ture the bird, which had extensive damage 
to the basal portion of the upper mandible. 
It was apparent that the bird had been hit 
by a small caliber bullet. As a result of the 
injuries, the male will be euthanized, end- 
ing the pair's nesting attempt. The female 
remains in the area, exhibiting high fidelity 
to the territory. Within a week of the nest 
failure, a subadult male and adult male 
moved into the area. The Greater Yellow- 
stone research group will continue to 
monitor the long-term outcome of this terri- 
tory, which has been occupied for the last 
20 years. 

For the second year, a pair of peregrine 
falcons is nesting in a box on a ledge near 
the roof of the Hotel Utah in Salt Lake City, 
Utah. This year, the female returned with a 
new, younger mate. Four viable eggs have 
been found in the nest. 

* * * 

Good news about the black-footed fer- 
rets (Mustela nigripes) being held at the 
Wyoming Game and Fish Department's 
Sybille, Wyoming, captive breeding facili- 
ty: a litter of six young ferrets was born 
(continued on page 12) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



11 



Regional News 

(continued from page 1 1) 

June 6! As of mid-June, all six were gain- 
ing weight and appeared healthy. Several 
other litters are anticipated, and could ar- 
rive up through July 4. 

This success in the first year of the pro- 
gram is due to the efforts of the Captive 
Breeding Specialist Group; Dr. Don 
Kwiatkowski, the biologist assigned to the 
captive breeding facility; and Dr. Tom 
Thome, the Wyoming Game and Fish De- 
partment's wildlife veterinarian. 

The Colorado River Fishes Recovery 
Team met in Las Vegas, Nevada, April 1 5 - 
1 7, 1 987. The meeting was called primarily 
to revise and update the recovery plans for 
the Colorado squawfish, bonytail chub 
(G/7a elegans), and humpback chub (Gila 
cypha). Completed revisions should be 
ready for distribution at the end of calendar 
year 1987. The team believes that drastic 
measures will be necessary to prevent ex- 
tinction of the bonytail chub, among them 
collection of all individuals encountered in 
the wild for use in captive propagation. It 
will also be necessary to release their off- 
spring to augment existing populations as 
soon as possible. The team further recom- 
mended listing the razorback sucker (Xy- 
rauchen texanus) as an Endangered spe- 
cies throughout the Colorado River Basin. 

Region 8 (Research) - Another Aleutian 
Canada goose (Branta canadensis leuc- 
opareia) was found dead March 14, 1987, 
in the migration staging area near Cres- 
cent City, California. The FWS National 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

26 

60 

8 

5 

39 

3 

28 

5 

8 

121 

303 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



Foreign 

Only 

242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 





1 

466 



U.S. 
Only 

5 

4 
10 

3 
23 

5 



1 

5 

26 
82 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 

15 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


315 





223 


13 


101 





16 





83 





9 





30 





6 





13 


2 


159 


37 


955 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

45 

7 

21 

1 

12 

56 

247** 



'Separate populations of a species, listed Doth as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, American alliga- 
tor, green sea turtle, Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 213 

Number of species currently proposed for listing: 22 animals 

32 plants 
Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 97 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

27 plants 

May 31, 1987 



Wildlife Health Center's necropsy found 1 7 
lead shot pellets in the gizzard. A tentative 
diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed 



by liver lead analysis in early April. This is 
the third lead-poisoned Aleutian Canada 
goose to be diagnosed this season. 



May-June 1987 



Vol. XII No. 5-6 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior u S Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC 20240 



12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6 (1987) 



Hf.'/v : /<<, 

July 1987 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 
DEPPS ITQFY ITFM 



Vol. XII No. 7 




SEP 29 198 




LlH^Af^ 




Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, D.C. 20240 



Twelve New Listings Approved 



During June 1987, five animal and 
seven plant taxa were added to the Fed- 
eral list of Endangered and Threatened 
species. These approved listing actions 
are summarized below: 

Flattened Musk Turtle 
(Sternotherus depressus) 

A small freshwater turtle with a dis- 
tinctively flattened carapace, this species 
is endemic to the Black Warrior River sys- 
tem in Alabama. Its numbers and range, 
already reduced, are threatened by collec- 
tors, disease, and habitat degradation 
from siltation and water pollution. The flat- 
tened musk turtle was proposed for listing 
in the November 1 , 1 985, Federal Register 
(see summary in BULLETIN Vol. X No. 12) 
as a Threatened species, and the final rule 
was published June 1 1 , 1987. 

Alabama Red-bellied Turtle 
(Pseudemys alabamensis) 

Another freshwater turtle from Alabama, 
P. alabamensis inhabits the lower 
floodplain of the Mobile River drainage in 
Baldwin and Mobile Counties. The only 
known area repeatedly used for nesting is 
an island in the Tensaw River. Turtle popu- 
lations nesting at this site are threatened 
by high rates of egg predation (mostly by 
fish crows, Corvus ossifragus) and heavy 
disturbance by people that use the island 
beach for recreation. Both factors result in 
a low reproductive success rate for the tur- 
tle. Trapping and sale of turtles for food 
and the pet trade further threaten the spe- 
cies. The Alabama red-bellied turtle was 
proposed for listing on July 8, 1986 (sum- 
mary in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 8), and the 
final rule listing it as Endangered was pub- 
lished June 16, 1987. 

Mount Graham Red Squirrel 
(Tamiasciurus hudsonicus 
grahamensis) 

This subspecies is found only within 
Coronado National Forest in the Pinaleno 
Mountains of southeastern Arizona. The 
restricted and isolated habitat of the Mount 
Graham red squirrel has declined signifi- 
cantly over the past century and may face 
additional losses from logging, recrea- 



tional development, and construction of a 
major astrophysical facility. Other potential 
threats are the subspecies' small popula- 
tion size (about 265 individuals) and com- 
petition from an introduced, non-native 
squirrel species. The May 21, 1986, pro- 
posal to list the Mount Graham red squirrel 
as Endangered (summary in BULLETIN 
Vol. XI No. 6) was made final June 3, 
1987; however, final action on a Critical 
Habitat proposal has been delayed for fur- 
ther study. A final Critical Habitat decision 
must be reached no later than May 21 , 
1988. In the meantime, other habitat pro- 
tection measures under Section 7 of the 
Endangered Species Act are already in 
effect. 

Florida Scrub Jay 
(Aphelocoma coerulescens 
coerulescens) 

Found only in central peninsular Florida, 
this subspecies is another victim of the re- 
gion's loss of native scrub habitat. The 
Florida scrub jay occurs in some of the 



most rapidly developing real estate in Flor- 
ida. At least 40 percent of former sites no 
longer support the bird, and the total popu- 
lation has declined by one-half over the 
past 100 years. This subspecies was pro- 
posed May 21 , 1986, for listing as Threat- 
ened (summary in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 
6), and the final rule was published June 3, 
1987. 

Blackside Dace 

(Phoxinus cumberlandensis) 

The blackside dace is a 3-inch, brightly 
colored fish that inhabits small streams 
within the upper Cumberland River basin 
in extreme southeastern Kentucky and 
northeastern Tennessee. Its range is be- 
lieved to have declined substantially due to 
siltation and other water quality problems. 
Surveys indicate that segments of only 9 
streams, totalling 8 stream-miles, still con- 
tain healthy populations. Because of con- 
tinuing threats to the fish, the Service pro- 
posed May 21, 1986, to list it as a 
(continued on page 7) 



Alligator Reclassified Rangewide 



The American alligator (Alligator mis- 
sissippiensis), a reptile once in danger of 
extinction, has recovered to the point that 
the Fish and Wildlife Service recently re- 
moved if from classification as a Threat- 
ened and Endangered species (F.R. 
6/4/87). It will remain, however, under a 
"Threatened due to Similarity of Ap- 
pearance'' (T/SA) classification as a 
means of protecting still-jeopardized croc- 
odilian species that have similar hides. 

Concern about poorly regulated or unre- 
gulated exploitation for the hide industry 
led the Service in 1967 to federally list the 
alligator as Endangered. Its comeback has 
been a major success story. Under State 
and Federal protection, the alligator began 
to recover in areas of Louisiana, Texas, 
and Florida as early as 1975. As its num- 
bers increased, the alligator was re- 
classified to Threatened in coastal areas of 
Georgia and South Carolina, and T/SA in 
Louisiana, Texas, and Florida. The June 4, 
1987, reclassification of the remaining 
areas to T/SA recognizes the recovery of 
the species rangewide. 



Under the T/SA classification, States are 
responsible for management of alligators 
and may conduct commercial hunting sea- 
sons. Data gathered in recent years by 
Louisiana and Florida wildlife agencies in- 
dicate that, with proper management, past 
mistakes can be avoided and overhunting 
should no longer be a threat. 

Although the American alligator is no 
longer believed to be in danger of extinc- 
tion, a number of other crocodilian species 
with hides of similar appearance remain 
very vulnerable. The category of T/SA, de- 
scribed in Section 4(e) of the Endangered 
Species Act, permits Federal controls and 
monitoring in the trade of species thus 
classified in order to facilitate the protec- 
tion of other species still listed as Endan- 
gered or Threatened. A tagging system will 
allow law enforcement personnel to dis- 
tinguish between legally taken alligators 
and illegally taken crocodilians. 

Further details on the reclassification 
are available in the June 4, 1987, Federal 
Register. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 




Endangered species program re- palmatus), containing about 800 plants, 



gional staff members have reported the 
following activities for the month of 
June: 

Region 1 - A second colony of the pal- 
mate-bracted bird's-beak (Cordylanthus 



was confirmed at the Mendota Wildlife 
Area in California's Central Valley. The 
original colony, which was transplanted, 
was apparently destroyed by a flood in 
1984. The native habitat of the bird's-beak 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Acting Chief 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Richard L. Jachowski, Acting Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R Bavin. Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender. Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg . Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom. Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S White, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist 



Region 3. Federal Bldg . Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities. MN 55111 (612-725-3500); Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director, John S 
Popowski. Assistant Regional Director, 
James M Engel. Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B Russell Federal Bldg , 
75 Spring St., S W Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331 -3580); James W Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director, John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700. 
Newton Corner. MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100), Howard Larson. Regional Direc- 
tor; Stephen W Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist 

Region 6. P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director, Barry S Mulder. En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 101 1 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director; Dennis 
Money. Endangered Species Special- 
ist 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1; California, Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana. Iowa, Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri. Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama. Arkansas. Florida, Georgia, Kentucky. Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina. Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut. Delaware. Maine. Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire. New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island. Vermont. Virginia and West Virginia Region 6: Colorado, 
Kansas. Montana. Nebraska, North Dakota. South Dakota. Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. 



on the Mendota Wildlife Area occurs in a 
remnant alkali-scrub community. 



The Sacramento Endangered Species 
Office staff investigated a new locality for 
the rough sculpin (Cottus asperrimus) in 
Lost Creek, part of the Hat Creek drainage 
in Shasta County, California. This locality 
was reported in a survey undertaken for 
the permit applications for three small hy- 
droelectric projects. The rough sculpin is 
listed by the State of California as threat- 
ened and is a Category-2 candidate for a 
future Federal listing. Voucher specimens 
have been sent to taxonomic authorities 
for confirmation of the field identification. 



One of the nine Hawaiian crows (Corvus 
hawaiiensis) at the Olinda Endangered 
Species Breeding Facility on the island of 
Maui died from egg impaction in the 
oviduct on June 10, 1987. It was the only 
bird at the facility to lay any eggs this year. 
It's two eggs were fertile, but the embryos 
survived for only about 2 days. The adult 
crow's carcass is being sent to the Na- 
tional Wildlife Health Lab in Madison, 
Wisconsin, for a more thorough necropsy. 
It is estimated that fewer than 18 of the 
species remain. 



The Environmental Protection Agency 
has approved an Animal and Plant Health 
Inspection Service proposal to spray the 
island of Rota, Commonwealth of the 
Northern Mariana Islands, with a mixture 
of a pheromone and malathion for the con- 
trol of fruit flies. The Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice believes the fruit fly eradication effort 
will not likely adversely affect the Endan- 
gered Mariana crow {Corvus kubaryi), the 
only listed species known to be on the is- 
land. 



The first group of peregrine falcons 
(Falco peregrinus) were sent from the Per- 
egrine Fund's facility in Boise, Idaho, to 
hack sites in Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, 
Oregon, and Washington. The Peregrine 
Fund anticipates that a total of 125 birds 
will be placed at hack sites or used to aug- 
ment natural eyries this year. 



Since the outmigration of cui-ui (Chas- 
mistes cujus) larvae has been completed, 
flows for this fishery from Stampede Res- 
ervoir on Nevada's Truckee River have 
been terminated. About 100,000 cubic feet 
of water was used for this year's cui-ui 
spawning run. 



* * * * 



Recent surveys have documented that 

the Delta smelt (Hypomesus trans- 

(continued on page 3) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



pacificus) is experiencing a significant de- 
cline. On the basis of information pre- 
sented at the annual meeting of the 
California-Nevada Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Fisheries Society, the Sacramento Of- 
fice recently recommended the addition of 
this fish to the Notice of Review of Verte- 
brate Wildlife as a Category-1 listing candi- 
date. The Sacramento splittail also was 
recommended as a candidate species 
(Category 2). 

Region 2 - June surveys by Canadian 
Wildlife Service biologists indicated at 
least 24 whooping crane (Grus americana) 
chicks had hatched at Wood Buffalo Na- 
tional Park, Canada. Two late nests, es- 
tablished by new pairs, were discovered, 
making a new total of 32 nests. During the 
May egg transfers, biologists discovered a 
female whooping crane sitting on a nest al- 
though a predator had destroyed the eggs. 
They placed in the nest a good egg from 
another nest that contained two eggs. The 
pair of whoopers who lost their own eggs 
to a predator now have a big chick from the 
substitute egg. All of the 12 eggs trans- 
ferred from Canada to Grays Lake Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, have suc- 
cessfully hatched. Water conditions in 
Canada, and at Grays Lake (where there 
were 5 inches of rainfall in late May and 
early June), are satisfactory for chick rear- 
ing. 



Since 1975, individuals involved in 
sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and 
whooping crane research and manage- 
ment have met for a workshop every 3 
years. Meeting announcements and the in- 
vitations for papers have been mailed for 
the next workshop, which is scheduled for 
late February 1988 near Orlando, Florida. 
Dr. James Lewis, the Service's Whooping 
Crane Coordinator, and Steve Nesbitt of 
the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission will be the co-chairmen of this 
workshop. 



The Wyoming Cooperative Fishery and 
Wildlife Research Unit completed its sec- 
ond spring monitoring sandhill crane colli- 
sions with powerlines in Nebraska. In this 
project, the sandhill cranes are being used 
as a research surrogate species, substitut- 
ing for the much rarer whooping crane. 
Collisions with powerlines are the number 
one cause of fledged whooping crane 
losses. The study is investigating factors 
that influence collisions and sections of 
lines suitable for testing the efficiency of 
line identifying markers in reducing colli- 
sions. The researchers found 75 dead 
sandhill cranes beneath lines this spring 
and observed collisions on 6 occasions in 
which the cranes were injured but able to 
leave the vicinity of the lines. Unit person- 
nel have prepared a proposal for coopera- 

(continued on page 4) 



Texas Plant Proposed 
for Listing Protection 



The large-fruited sand-verbena (Abronia 
macrocarpa), a herbaceous perennial in 
the four-o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae), is 
endemic to Leon County in eastern Texas. 
Only one small population is known, and it 
faces threats from residential develop- 
ment, recreation, and commercial use. Be- 
cause this species is believed to be in dan- 
ger of extinction, the Fish and Wildlife 
Service has proposed to list it as Endan- 
gered (F. R. 6/16/87). 

Restricted to actively blowing sand 
dunes in the post oak and grassland 
mosaic vegetation types, the large-fruited 
sand-verbena is one of the many herb- 
aceous species that temporarily dominate 
the bare sands during spring. The only 
known population occurs on dunes that lie 
entirely within a residential resort com- 
munity. Although the dunes cover approx- 
imately 30 acres, the area occupied by A. 
macrocarpa is much less. In 1986, the 
Service estimated that the population con- 
tained about 250 plants. Residential ex- 
pansion and recreational activities (e.g., 
horseback riding, off-road vehicle use) as- 
sociated with the surrounding resort com- 
munity already have destroyed some hab- 
itat. The landowner has been informed of 
the species' presence, and the Service 
plans to develop a cooperative manage- 
ment strategy that will accommodate A. 
macrocarpa habitat. Nevertheless, be- 
cause the plant is so rare and is restricted 
to such a small area, it remains vulnerable 
to extinction. 

Comments on this listing proposal are 
welcome, and should be sent to the Re- 
gional Director, Region 2 (address on 
page 2 of this BULLETIN), by August 16, 
1987. 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits 
provided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; prohibitions against certain prac- 
tices; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to seek land purchases 
or exchanges for important habitat; and 
the possibility of Federal aid to State or 
Commonwealth conservation departments 
that have signed Endangered Species Co- 
operative Agreements with the Service. 
Listing also lends greater recognition to a 
species' precarious status, which encour- 
ages further conservation efforts by State 
and local agencies, independent organiza- 
tions, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 



cies. It also requires these agencies to en- 
sure that any actions they authorize, fund, 
or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
survival of a listed species. If an agency 
finds that one of its activities may affect a 
listed species, it is required to consult with 
the Service on ways to avoid jeopardy. For 
species that are proposed for listing and 
for which jeopardy is found, Federal agen- 
cies are required to "confer" with the Serv- 
ice, although the results of such a con- 
ference are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule is 
different; the prohibition against collecting 
applies only to listed plants found on lands 
under Federal jurisdiction. Some States, 
however, have their own laws against take 
of listed plants. 




Showy pink-purple flower clusters make 
Abronia macrocarpa an attractive part 
of the spring wildf lower display in 
Texas. From 20 to 75 flowers are ar- 
ranged in each spherical nodding head, 
which is about the size of a golf ball or 
larger. The plant's stems bear hairy 
leaves and can reach 20 inches in 
height. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



Changes in Classification of Zimbabwe Crocodiles 



In the June 17, 1987, Federal Register, 
the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service pub- 
lished a final rule reclassifying ranched 
populations of the Nile crocodile (Croco- 
dylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe from Endan- 
gered to Threatened. Also published was a 
proposal to give the same classification to 
wild crocodile populations in that country. 

Originally, the Service had proposed to 
reclassify ranched crocodile populations in 
Zimbabwe to the special category of 
"Threatened due to Similarity of Ap- 
pearance" or T/SA (see summary in BUL- 
LETIN Vol. XI No. 4). Such a designation 
would have recognized their recovery but 
regulated trade in ranched Nile crocodiles 
in order to protect wild populations of this 
species as well as other crocodilians that 
still need protection. However, because 
the crocodile ranches remain somewhat 
dependent on wild eggs for replenishing 
their stock and because wild populations 
are still threatened to a degree by poach- 
ing, the Service now believes that a re- 
classification of ranched populations to the 
category of Threatened (rather than T/SA) 
is more appropriate. 

At the 1983 meeting of parties to the 
Convention on International Trade in En- 



dangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 
(CITES), both ranched and wild popula- 
tions of the Nile crocodile in Zimbabwe 
were moved from Appendix I to the less 
restrictive Appendix II. The Service's re- 
classification of ranched Nile crocodiles in 
Zimbabwe under the Endangered Species 
Act from Endangered to Threatened is 
consistent with the new CITES classifica- 
tion. Under a special rule, it is now legal to 
import live ranched Zimbabwe crocodiles 
or whole skins into the U. S., provided that 
all applicable CITES regulations and Zim- 
babwe laws are met. Even though ranched 
populations still face some threats, the 
Service believes they can withstand regu- 
lated commercialization. 

Simultaneously with the final rule on 
ranched Nile crocodiles in Zimbabwe, the 
Service proposed to reclassify wild popu- 
lations in Zimbabwe also to Threatened. 
Wild as well as ranched Nile crocodiles 
have benefitted from management as a 
sustainable resource under Zimbabwe law 
and, although current population levels are 
probably lower than historical ones, the 
Service believes that wild crocodiles in that 
country are no longer in imminent danger 
of extinction. 



If the proposal is made final, importation 
into the U. S. of sport-hunted crocodile tro- 
phies from wild populations in Zimbabwe 
will become legal under Section 9(c)(2) of 
the Endangered Species Act, provided 
that all Zimbabwe laws and CITES rules 
are followed. However, because the Serv- 
ice continues to believe that there is not 
enough information to demonstrate that 
wild Nile crocodile populations can with- 
stand commercialization, commercial im- 
port into the U.S. of skins from wild popula- 
tions will remain prohibited. 



Comments on the proposal to reclassify 
wild Nile crocodile populations in Zim- 
babwe from Endangered to Threatened 
are welcome, and should be sent to the 
Assistant Director, Fish and Wildlife En- 
hancement, Office of Endangered Spe- 
cies, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Washington, D.C. 20240, by September 
17, 1987. 

The Endangered classification for all 
Nile crocodile populations in countries 
other than Zimbabwe remains in effect. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

five research along the Platte River with 
several utility companies in central 
Nebraska. If the companies respond 
favorably, the testing of line markers will 
occur in 1988 and 1989. 



Dr. R. Douglas Slack and Howard Hunt, 
Texas A&M University, have completed 
their studies of managed grazing and pre- 
scribed burning at Aransas National Wild- 
life Refuge in Texas. These experimental 
practices were directed at improving up- 
land habitat for whooping cranes. Crane 
use increased on recently burned units, 
apparently in response to the increased 
ability of the birds to walk about and see 
potential predators, and because of the 
more accessible foods (acorns, insects, 
berries). They recommended eliminating 
grazing from the upland habitats because 
it reduces the abundance of crane foods 
and may be contributing to brush en- 
croachment. 



Early reports from the Kemp's ridley sea 
turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) nesting beach 
at Rancho Nuevo, Mexico, indicated that 
the number of nests was alarmingly short 
of previous years' production by about 40 



percent. Happily, late nesting activity has 
increased the number of nests to levels 
comparable to other seasons. Over 570 
nests were protected as of June 24, 1987. 
The total number of nests for this season 
will be known by September. 



Prototype satellite transmitters used to 
track movements on an 8-to-1 0-day inter- 
val were attached to two Kemp's ridley 
females at Rancho Nuevo on May 10 and 
May 29, 1987, by Richard Byles, Region 
2's Sea Turtle Biologist. The transmitters 
were placed on the turtles after they had 
nested; both animals then swam from 
shore normally and headed north. Unlike 
previous models, the prototype transmitter 
is capable of measuring the temperature of 
the water where the turtles are swimming 
and provides a summary of diving informa- 
tion over 12-hour periods. The tempera- 
ture and diving data can be obtained daily. 
In the future, software will be added to the 
transmitters so that depth information also 
can be collected. The data will provide an- 
swers to basic biological questions about 
where the turtles go, how much time they 
spend on the surface, and what types of 
water they prefer. 



The U. S. Forest Service Research Sta- 
tion at Nacogdoches, Texas, recently com- 
pleted an examination of red-cockaded 



woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies 
on the Angelina, Sabine, and Davy 
Crockett National Forests in eastern 
Texas. Researchers visited all known colo- 
nies on each forest: 62 on Angelina Na- 
tional Forest, 62 on Sabine National For- 
est, and 134 on Davy Crockett National 
Forest. Of the 258 colonies visited, re- 
searchers found only 22 active nests on 
the Angelina National Forest, 6 on Sabine 
National Forest, and 27 on Davy Crockett 
National Forest. Records from the An- 
gelina National Forest indicate that the 
number of active colonies has decreased 
from 38 in 1 983 to 22 in 1 986, a 43 percent 
decrease in a 4-year time span. A mini- 
mum of 25 active colonies were present on 
the Sabine National Forest in 1978, and 
only six active colonies remain in 1 987 — a 
76 percent decrease in a 9-year time span. 
The Angelina, Davy Crockett, and Sabine 
National Forest's experienced average an- 
nual declines of 10.5 percent, 8.6 percent, 
and 8.4 percent, respectively. These re- 
sults show that the red-cockaded wood- 
pecker populations on the three forests are 
in a severe decline and are in great danger 
of extirpation in the near future. The pri- 
mary causes of this decline appear to be 
insufficient maintenance of old-growth 
stands of pine, encroachment of hard- 
woods, and excessive pine tree densities. 

Region 5 - During the last 2 weeks of 

June, 22 bald eagle (Haliaeetus leuc- 

ocephalus) young were donated by Can- 

(continued on page 5) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



ada to the U.S. Eight of the eaglets went to 
Massachusetts and the rest to Pennsyl- 
vania. They will be hatched out into the 
wild this August. 



A Biological Opinion on Carbofuran, a 
granular insecticide used on corn and 
other crops, was signed and sent to the 
Environmental Protection Agency. Inter- 
agency consultation with the Service un- 
der Section 7 of the Endangered Species 
Act was reinitiated last year because of the 
poisoning death of two bald eagles in Vir- 
ginia. The Biological Opinion contained 
conservation recommendations to mini- 
mize Carbofuran impacts on bald eagles. 

Region 6 - In May, the U.S. District 
Court, Great Falls Division, Montana, de- 
cided against plaintiffs Richard P. Chn'sty, 
Thomas B. Guthrie, and Ira Perkins in their 
suit against the Department of the Interior 
and Secretary of the Interior Donald P. 
Hodel. The plaintiffs had argued that the 
Endangered Species Act (Act) and Service 
protection of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos 
horribilis) violated their constitutional rights 
to "possess and protect property." The 
plaintiffs had lost a number of sheep to 
grizzly bears. Christy killed one grizzly 
bear, was charged with violation of the Act, 
and fined $2,500. He was seeking to have 
the original decision dismissed, and the 
other plaintiffs were supporting him in his 
endeavors. The court disagreed with the 
plaintiffs' charges and affirmed the fine. 



Peregrine falcon hacking efforts are 
paying off in Utah. Four towers previously 
used to release young falcons into the wild 
along the shores of the Great Salt Lake are 
occupied by pairs this year. Young birds 
have been produced at three of the four 
towers. The fourth pair did not produce any 
eggs, possibly because the female was 
not sexually mature. The objective of the 
hacking effort at these towers is to re- 
establish occupancy at historical eyries on 
the cliffs of the Wasatch Mountains to the 
east. 

Region 8 (Research) - A 5-year-old 
whooping crane at the Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center laid eggs for the first time 
on May 18. This is the first new female to 
produce eggs since 1982. A total of five 
Patuxent females have produced six eggs 
this year, and the first whooping crane 
chick of the 1987 breeding season 
hatched on May 8. The chick is being 
reared by a female Florida sandhill crane 
(Grus canadensis pratensis) that is a 
proven foster parent. 



On May 8, three fertile greater sandhill 
crane (Grus canadensis tabida) eggs 
were flown from Patuxent to Florida for 
fostering into wild nests. The eggs are part 
of the ongoing cross-fostering experiment 
to determine the feasibility of introducing 
whooping cranes into a nonmigratory Flor- 
ida sandhill crane flock. 



The captive breeding flock of bald 
eagles at Patuxent produced a total of 42 
eggs in 1987; 15 eaglets were produced. 



As part of the endangered Hawaiian for- 
est birds research project, the first rat and 
predator survey on Mauna Kea has been 
completed by staff at Patuxent's Mauna 
Loa Research Station on the island of 
Hawaii. Data are being analyzed to deter- 
mine if there is any difference in the fre- 
quency of capture of these species be- 
tween areas of high and low bird 
abundance. 



A total of 21 eggs were produced by 4 
known pairs of wild Puerto Rican parrots 
(Amazona vittata) in 1987; all eggs were 
fertile and 1 1 eggs hatched (8 chicks are in 
wild nests and 3 are in Patuxent's Puerto 
Rico Research Station aviary). In captivity, 
4 breeding pairs have produced 37 eggs; 
13 were fertile and 4 chicks have been pro- 
duced. (See story in this BULLETIN on the 
Puerto Rican parrot.) 



Biologists at Patuxent's Minnesota Re- 
search Station have determined that, in 
the winter of 1986-1987, the wolf (Canis 
lupus) population in the Superior National 
Forest experienced a 12 percent decline 
while the deer population increased 17 
percent. 



Court Halts Project Pending Reinitiation of Consultation 
and Disposition of Claims to "Mitigation" Lands 

Laguna Niguel (California) Field Office 



Acting only 5 weeks after oral argu- 
ments, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals 
directed the District Court for the Southern 
District of California to enjoin work on the 
Sweetwater River Flood Control Channel 
and the widening of Interstate Highway 5 
(known together as the Combined Federal 
Project) in southern California. 

The appeal was granted on the grounds 
that the local District Court earlier had 
looked only at whether or not damaging 
mpacts to promised "mitigation" lands 
[quotations added) were imminent. Such 
mpacts could result from another area de- 
/elopment, the Chula Vista Bayfront Proj- 
3Ct. The Appeals Court ruled that impacts 
nvolving habitat of two Endangered birds, 



the California least tern (Sterna antillarum 
browni) and light-footed clapper rail 
(Rallus longirostris levipes), had been 
overlooked, and that reinitiation of con- 
sultation was required because of a 
change in effects of the action that had not 
been anticipated during the earlier con- 
sultation. 

The Ninth Circuit held "that the Corps of 
Engineers is in violation of Section 7 (a) (2) 
by allowing destruction or adverse modi- 
fication of any part of the birds' habitat 
without first insuring the acquisition and 
preservation of the mitigation lands." 

The conclusion of the ruling states: 
"...the statute dictates that if an agency 
plans to mitigate its project's adverse 



effects on an endangered species by ac- 
quiring habitat and creating a refuge, it 
must insure the creation of that refuge be- 
fore it permits destruction or adverse modi- 
fication of other habitat. The Sierra Club is 
entitled to (1) an injunction against any 
work west of I-5 until the Federal defend- 
ant's cross claim is resolved, (2) a declara- 
tion that the Corps of Engineers violated 
the Endangered Species Act by refusing to 
reinitiate consultation, and (3) an injunc- 
tion against all work on the project unless 
the Corps of Engineers reinitiates con- 
sultation within 30 days of the issuance of 
the mandate in this appeal, with the injunc- 
tion continuing until such time as consulta- 
tion is reinitiated." 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



History And Status Of The Endangered 
Puerto Rican Parrot 



Sandra L. MacPherson 

Endangered Species Research Branch 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 



The Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vit- 
tata) has been on the verge of extinction 
for over 20 years. Its status, however, was 
once very different. Historical records 
show that it was abundant throughout the 
island of Puerto Rico and indicate that it 
once inhabited the adjacent Islands of 
Culebra, Vieques, and Mona. Biologists 
speculate that parrot numbers formerly 
may have exceeded one million individ- 
uals. 

With European colonization of Puerto 
Rico in the 1500's, the parrot population 
began to decline steadily. The parrot's 
fruit-eating and cavity-nesting habits make 
it very dependent upon forests for its exist- 
ence, and deforestation in the late 1800's 
increased the severity of its decline. A few 
decades later, parrots could no longer be 
found on any of the adjacent islands and 
were only known to exist in five areas of 
Puerto Rico. 

By about 1940, Puerto Rican parrots 
could only be located in the Luquillo Moun- 
tains of eastern Puerto Rico, particularly 
within the 1 1 ,000-hectare (27,180-acre) 
Caribbean National Forest, the largest 
area of native vegetation left on the island. 
In addition to habitat destruction, taking of 
birds for pets, shooting of birds as farm 
pests, and illegal hunting contributed to the 
decline. Today, just over 80 parrots remain 
in existence — approximately 41 in the 
wild and 42 in captivity. 

Concern for the parrot's plight led the 
Fishery and Wildlife Section of the Puerto 
Rican Commonwealth Department of Agri- 
culture and Commerce (now the Puerto 
Rico Department of Natural Resources), 
with support from the U.S. Forest Service 
and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to 
conduct an intensive study of the parrot 
and its nesting areas from 1953 to 1956. 
Following the decline of the parrot from an 
estimated 200 individuals in 1954 to 70 in 
1966, the parrot was declared an Endan- 
gered species (1967). In 1968, the Fish 
and Wildlife Service and the Forest Serv- 
ice, with initial support from the World 
Wildlife Fund, began an intensive research 
program for Puerto Rican parrot recovery 
that continues today. 

In spite of this research program, the 
wild parrot population continued to decline 
until it reached its lowest level in 1975, 
when only 13 individuals were known to 
exist. Since then, however, through the 
concerted efforts of dedicated biologists, 
the wild population has slowly increased to 
approximately 41 individuals today. Nest 
site improvements (e.g., measures to pre- 



vent the entrance of water into tree cav- 
ities), provision of artificial nest sites, ex- 
clusion of honeybees from nest sites, 
reduction of nest site competition from the 
more aggressive pearly-eyed thrasher 
(Margarops fuscatus), and combatting 



warble fly (Philornis pici) parasitism have 
allowed for enhanced reproduction of wild 
pairs. Also, parrot nests have been 
guarded during the breeding season for 
the past several years to provide protec- 
tion to the breeding parrots, and their eggs 
and young, against predators like the red- 
tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). In 1987, 
the nest watching effort was increased 
when' the National Audubon Society 
provided seven volunteers to protect par- 
rot nests as well as to collect information 
on parrot movements and behavior (see 
accompanying story). 

Another conservation effort that has 

been very successful has been the manip- 

(continued on page 7) 



Volunteer Nest Watchers on the 
Puerto Rican Parrot Project Recognized 



A ceremony was held in Puerto Rico on 
May 8 to recognize the significant contribu- 
tion of seven National Audubon Society 
volunteers on the Patuxent Wildlife Re- 
search Center's Puerto Rican parrot proj- 
ect. The volunteers honored were Mark 
Duff, Gail Morgan, David McLain, Karen 
Wilson, Becky Abel, Greg Harris, and Greg 
Burkett. These individuals volunteered for 
3 months or more to assist project biolo- 
gists guarding Puerto Rican parrot nests 
and assisted in caring for birds at the 
Puerto Rico Research Station aviary. The 
ceremony, held at the U. S. Forest Serv- 
ice's Institute of Tropical Forestry, was at- 
tended by 18 individuals representing all of 
the cooperators on the parrot research and 
management project (U. S. Forest Service, 
Puerto Rico Department of Natural Re- 
sources, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 



and National Audubon Society). Whitney 
Tilt, wildlife specialist with the National Au- 
dubon Society and initiator of the volunteer 
program, was in attendance to pay tribute 
to the volunteers. In addition to project 
staff, the Fish and Wildlife Service was 
represented by Doug Buffington, Deputy 
Regional Director, Region 8 (Research); 
Marshall Jones, Chief, Endangered Spe- 
cies Division, Region 4; and Randy Perry, 
Chief, Endangered Species Research 
Branch, Patuxent Wildlife Research Cen- 
ter (Region 8). Each volunteer was pre- 
sented with a specially-designed parrot 
shirt, a small stipend from the National Au- 
dubon Society, and a certificate of appre- 
ciation from the Fish and Wildlife Service 
to formally recognize their exemplary serv- 
ice. 




Front row, left to right: Whitney Tilt, Greg Harris, Gail Morgan, Becky Abel, Mark 
Duff, Karen Wilson, and Raul Perez-Rivera. 

Back row, left to right: Randy Perry, Marc Bosch, Doug Buffington, Kelly Brock, 
Jose Colon, Gerald Lindsey, Jose Vivaldi, Frank Wadsworth, Wayne Arendt, Mar- 
shall Jones, Dan Nolan, and Bernie Rios. 



6 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



ulation of some wild nests to stimulate 
pairs to produce two clutches of eggs a 
year, rather than the one clutch usually 
produced under natural circumstances. 
This technique, known as "double-clutch- 
ing," involves removing the first clutch of 
eggs from a nest and taking the eggs into 
captivity for incubation. Removal of the 
eggs stimulates the pair to produce a sec- 
ond clutch, thereby greatly increasing 
yearly production. In 1987, this technique 
was used on two of the four active wild 
nests. 

As a measure to prevent extinction of 
the species, as well as to learn more about 
its reproductive biology, a decision was 
made to established a captive population 
of Puerto Rican parrots. The effort began 
in 1971 with the transfer of two adult birds 
from the Puerto Rico Zoo at Mayaguez to 
an aviary in the Luquillo Mountains. Since 
1973, the captive population has been in- 
creased by the collection of eggs from the 
wild for incubation and captive rearing, the 
salvaging of chicks from a variety of mis- 
haps in the wild, and the production of 
young by captive pairs. Between 1981 and 
1987, only two pairs produced fertile eggs. 
This year, however, for the first time, two 
other captive pairs produced fertile eggs 
— an exciting event for the parrot project. 
In addition, the development of an artificial 
insemination technique has resulted in the 
first fertile egg produced from a captive 
pair of the Hispaniolan parrot (Amazona 
ventralis), a less threatened species being 
used as a research surrogate. Once per- 



•' ' ' 



• 



* 



tp&jjF* J 




Puerto Rican parrots at nest in the Carib- 
bean National Forest, Puerto Rico 



fected, the technique will be used on the 
Puerto Rican parrot. Recent changes at 
the aviary, including pair manipulations, 
modifications of husbandry practices, and 
changes in the aviary's physical structure 
give hope for even greater production of 
Puerto Rican parrots in the future. 

Unfortunately, despite the fact that the 
parrot population has been slowly increas- 
ing over the past decade, the parrot's long- 
term survival is still not secure. A major 
concern is that, with the location of both 
the wild and captive flocks in the Luquillo 
Mountains, the species could be lost to a 
hurricane, disease, or fire. Therefore, 
plans are under way by the Puerto Rico 
Department of Natural Resources to es- 
tablish a second captive population of par- 
rots on the island away from the Luquillo 
Mountains. Additional plans include the 
establishment of a second wild population 
of parrots in the Rio Abajo forest owned by 
the Commonwealth. 

The outlook for the recovery of the 
Puerto Rican parrot is optimistic; however, 
there is still much to learn about the spe- 
cies before comprehensive and long-term 
management strategies can be effective. 
Critical steps toward recovery will continue 
to include captive propagation, release of 
captive-produced parrots to bolster the 
wild population, protection of the wild pop- 
ulation, management and protection of 
habitat (including nests), increased law en- 
forcement and public awareness, and con- 
tinued research on the requirements of 
captive and wild populations. 



Twelve Listings 

(continued from page 1) 

Threatened species (summary in BUL- 
LETIN Vol. XI No. 6). The final rule was 
published June 12, 1987. 

Two Puerto Rico Plants 

The elfin tree fern (Cyathea dryop- 
teroides) and Cook's holly (Ilex cookii) 

are rare plants native to the Central Cor- 
dillera of Puerto Rico. As a result of habitat 
loss, only about 70 of the tree ferns are 
thought to survive, and the total known 
holly population now stands at one mature 
tree and approximately 35 sprouts or 
seedlings. The few remaining plants are 
vulnerable to further degradation of their 
delicate mountaintop habitat by con- 
struction of communications facilities, road 
building and maintenance, and military 
training exercises. Both species were pro- 
posed September 25, 1986, for listing as 
Endangered (summary in BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 10), and the final rule was published 
June 16, 1987. 

Running Buffalo Clover 
(Trifolium stoloniferum) 

Although it is historically documented 
from seven States, with populations of at 
least local abundance, only four individ- 



uals of this species survive at one site in 
West Virginia. The owner of the property 
containing the site has been very coopera- 
tive with the Service in protecting the spe- 
cies; however, any population this small 
could be extirpated by such activities as 
trampling or other inadvertent destruction 
by humans or other animals; competition 
or diseases from introduced plants; and 
vandalism or unauthorized collecting. The 
Service proposed March 10, 1986, to list 
the running buffalo clover as Endangered 
(summary in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 4), and 
the final rule was published June 5, 1987. 
Live shoots from the wild population have 
been propagated and viable seeds pro- 
duced at the University of Kentucky. Some 
of these propagules will soon be ready for 
reintroduction into the clover's range as 
part of an overall recovery effort. 

Jesup's Milk-vetch 
(Astragalus robbinsii var. 
jesupi) 

Only three populations of this perennial 
herb are known to exist, all of them along 
the banks of the Connecticut River in Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire. The species, 
which has always been vulnerable to ex- 
tinction because of its rarity, recently has 
come under more tangible threats. One 
danger is the increasing recreational use 



of the sites. Another threat is the potential 
for future hydropower projects that could 
either inundate the plants or adversely al- 
ter the scouring river flows each spring that 
maintain the open bedrock habitat upon 
which the species depends. The Service 
proposed December 19, 1985, to list the 
Jesup's milk-vetch as Endangered (sum- 
mary in BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 1), and the 
final rule was published June 5, 1987. 

Sacramento Mountains 
Thistle (Cirsium vinaceum) 

This perennial grows on steep calcium 
carbonate deposits immediately adjacent 
to flowing springs in the Sacramento 
Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. 
Recent data indicate that there are 20 pop- 
ulations of the species with a total of 
10,000 - 15,000 individuals. The thistle, 
which depends on springs and streams, is 
vulnerable to developments that would re- 
duce or eliminate surface water. Trampling 
by livestock is another threat. A proposal 
to list the Sacramento Mountains thistle as 
Threatened and to designate its Critical 
Habitat was published in the May 16, 
1984, Federal Register (summary in BUL- 
LETIN Vol. IX No. 6). The final listing rule 
was published June 16, 1987; however, 
the Critical Habitat proposal was with- 
(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



Twelve Listings 

(continued from page 7) 



drawn on the grounds that it covered too 
broad an area. Even so, the U. S. Forest 
Service, which administers the land (Lin- 
coln National Forest) containing about 90 
percent of the thistle's sites, will work with 
the Service under other provisions of the 
Endangered Species Act to protect impor- 
tant habitat. The Forest Service already 
has given protection to several of the sites. 

Rough-leaved Loosestrife 
(Lysimachia asperulaefolia) 

A perennial herb with showy yellow 
flowers, the rough-leaved loosestrife is en- 
demic to the coastal plain and sand hills of 
North and South Carolina. Within this re- 
gion, the species occurs in the fire-main- 
tained ecotones between long-leaf pine 
woodlands and pond pine pocosins (wet- 
lands). Only 9 of the historically known 19 
populations survive today, all of them in 
North Carolina. The others were elimi- 
nated by suppression of naturally occur- 
ring wildfires, which maintained the open 
areas needed by the plant; drainage and 
conversion of wetlands to silvicultural, ag- 
ricultural, and other uses; residential and 
industrial development; impoundment of 
wetlands for recreational uses; and other 
factors. Because the remaining popula- 
tions are vulnerable to these same threats, 
the rough-leaved loosestrife was proposed 
for listing as an Endangered species on 
April 10, 1986 (summary in BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 5). The final rule was published 
June 12, 1987. 

Geocarpon minimum 

This plant, the only species in a mono- 
typic genus, is a small, succulent annual. 
Although 17 populations exist in Arkansas 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

27 

60 

8 

5 

39 

3 

28 

5 

8 

126 

309 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



I 

Foreign ] U.S 



Only 

242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 







Only 
5 
5 

10 
3 

24 

i : 

i 1 

I 5 



1 I 28 
466 I 86 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 

15 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


316 





224 


13 


101 





16 





84 





9 





30 





6 





13 


2 


166 


37 


965 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

45 

7 

21 

1 

12 

56 

247** 



'Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, green sea turtle, 
Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 213 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 17 animals 

26 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 97 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

27 plants 

June 30, 1987 



and Missouri, only 5 are considered vig- 
orous. They are vulnerable to conversion 
of natural habitat to pasture lands, the im- 
pacts of off-road vehicles, and silvicultural 
practices. Because G. minimum is a pi- 
oneer species that tolerates little competi- 
tion, overcrowding and shading from other 
plants — a consequence of vegetational 
succession — is another major threat. The 
Service proposed April 10, 1986, to list G. 
minimum as Threatened (summary in 



BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 5), and the final rule 
was published June 16, 1987. 



These listed species now are protected 
under the Endangered Species Act, the 
benefits of which are summarized in this 
BULLETIN at the end of the story on the 
proposal to list a Texas plant as Endan- 
gered (page 3). 



July 1987 



Vol XII No. 7 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior US. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered species Program, Washington, DC. 20240 





FIRST CLASS 




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 


U.S. 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




PERMIT NO. G-77 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 7 (1987) 



^f- 7 7 : /<?/<8- 



7 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

DE ^ iiJ ^(TEM Vol. XII No. 8 

— DEC 1 1 

Department of Interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, D.C. 20240 



August 1987 






Technical Bulletin 



Listing Protection Proposed for Eleven Plants and Animals 



During July 1987, seven plant and four 
animal taxa were proposed for addition to 
the Federal lists of Endangered and 
Threatened wildlife and plants. If the list- 
ings become final, Endangered Species 
Act protection will be extended to the fol- 
lowing: 



Chisos Mountain Hedgehog 
Cactus (Echinocereus 
reichenbachii var. 
chisoensis) 

Native to the southwestern United 
States, the Chisos Mountain hedgehog 
cactus is very restricted in numbers and 
distribution. Its entire population of approx- 
imately 1 ,000 plants is known from only a 
few places in southern Brewster County, 
Texas. Fortunately, these sites are pro- 
tected as part of Big Bend National Park. 
The species' low numbers and localized 
occurrence nevertheless make it vulner- 
able to extinction from collecting or habitat 
disruption. To help increase its protection, 
the Service has proposed to list the Chisos 
Mountain hedgehog cactus as Threatened 
(F.R. 7/6/87). 

This cactus grows amid sparse Chihua- 
huan Desert vegetation on alluvial flats 
near the Chisos Mountains, the local range 
from which the cactus takes its name. Be- 
tween World War I and World War II, be- 
fore the park was established, this area 
was heavily overgrazed by livestock. Re- 
moval of the native short grass cover may 
have altered the preferred habitat condi- 
tions for establishment of Chisos Mountain 
hedgehog cactus seedlings. The return of 
native grasses may create an environment 
more favorable to the cactus seedlings; 
however, recovery of overgrazed desert 
rangelands is a slow process and some 
desert plant communities never return to 
their former composition. 

Because the Chisos Mountain hedge- 
hog cactus is so rare and has such attrac- 
tive flowers, some private and commercial 
collectors find it desirable. Although col- 
lecting any cacti in the park without a per- 
mit is prohibited, taking of the Chisos 
Mountain hedgehog cactus probably has 
occurred in recent years, and any illegal 
collecting is detrimental to such small pop- 
ulations. They also are potentially vulner- 



mi : 




The Chisos Mountain hedgehog cactus 
is a small, barrel-shaped variety with 
deep green to bluish-green stems up to 
6 inches (15 centimeters) tall. Its attrac- 
tive flowers have petals that are red at 
the base, white at mid-length, and 
fuschia at the tips. 

able to harm from road maintenance and 
trail building unless these activities take 
the species' presence into account. No 
Federal activities that might adversely af- 
fect the cactus are known or expected. 



Two Southwestern Bats 

Two other residents of the southwest 
also have been proposed for listing (F.R. 
7/6/87), this time as Endangered: the Mex- 
ican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris 
nivalis and Sanborn's long-nosed bat 
(L. sanborni). Both species occur as far 
south as Central America and reach the 
U.S. at the northern end of their ranges. 
They have declined dramatically in recent 
years, primarily the result of killing by hu- 
mans and overexploitation of the bats' 
food plants. 

Bats in the genus Leptonycteris are 
small, weighing at most one ounce (28 
grams). They differ strikingly from most 
others in the U.S. in having an elongated 
muzzle with a small nose "leaf" at the tip. 
The long tongue, an adaption to feeding on 







ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



flowers, measures up to 3 inches (76 milli- 
meters), compared to a maximum head 
and body length of about 3.75 inches (90 
mm). Both L. nivalis and L. sanborni are 
adapted for life in arid country, and are 
found mainly in desert scrub habitat in the 
northern parts of their ranges; farther 
south, however, they sometimes occur at 
high elevations on wooded mountains. For 
roosting during the day, these bats depend 
almost entirely on caves and abandoned 
mine tunnels. Populations in the U.S. and 
northern Mexico apparently migrate south- 
ward in the fall and return in the spring, 
with groups occupying the same roosting 
sites year after year. 

The only known L. nivalis roosting site in 
the U.S. still in use is a shallow cave within 
Big Bend National Park in Texas. Even 
though the cave is protected, its L. nivalis 
population has plunged from an estimated 
10,650 bats in 1967 to about 1,000 in 
1983. A recent FWS-funded survey indi- 
cated that populations in Mexico also are 

(continued on page 5) 

1 




Endangered species program regional 
staff members have reported the fol- 
lowing news for the month of July: 

Region 1 — An interagency rescue 
effort was carried out during the first week 



of July to salvage Lahontan cutthroat trout 
{Salmo clarki henshawi) from sections of 
By-Day Creek (Mono County, California), 
which is drying up because of this year's 
low runoff. Over 200 fish were rescued and 
taken to a headwater stream (Horse 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Acting Chief 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Richard L. Jachowski, Acting Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender. Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Region 3. Federal Bldg . Fort Snellmg, Twin 
Cities. MN 55111 (612-725-3500), Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director, John S. 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director, 
James M Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 4, Richard B Russell Federal Bldg , 
75 Spring St , S W Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580). James W Pulham. Re- 
gional Director. John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 021 58 (61 7-965- 
5100), Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor, Stephen W Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director. Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist 

Region 6, P O Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920), Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector, John D Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director, Barry S Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 



Regional Offices 

Region 1 , Lloyd 500 Bldg , Suite 1692, 500 
N.E Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118), Rolf L Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director, 
Wayne S White, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306. Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California. Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada. Oregon. Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico. Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana, Iowa. Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri. Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama. Arkansas, Florida, Georgia. Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi, North Carolina. Soulh Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut. Delaware. Maine, Maryland. Massachusetts. New 
Hampshire, New Jersey. New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island. Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia Region-6: Colorado 
Kansas, Montana, Nebraska. North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U S Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 20240 



Region 7, 1011 E Tudor Rd . Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director. Dennis 
Money. Endangered Species Special- 
ist 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment). Washington, D C 20240; 
Richard N Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



Creek) in the East Walker River drainage. 
The salvaged fish will be held in that gla- 
cial-fed stream until they can be used for a 
planned reintroduction into Slinkard Creek 
later this year. 



Dr. Jack Williams, of the Fish and Wild- 
life Service's Sacramento (California) En- 
dangered Species Office, recently pre- 
sented a draft protocol for conducting 
introductions of Endangered and Threat- 
ened fishes at the American Society of Ich- 
thyologists and Herpetologists meeting in 
Albany, New York. A manuscript describ- 
ing the protocol will be submitted to the 
American Fisheries Society for official 
adoption. 



Four bald eagle (Haliaeetus leuc- 
ocephalus) nestlings removed from nests 
along coastal British Columbia, Canada, 
were released at key hack sites in Califor- 
nia by the Ventana Wilderness Sanctuary. 



Three productive bald eagle nests were 
observed at Cascade Reservoir near 
Boise, Idaho. Idaho's 1987 total includes 
26 productive nests and 31 active nests. 



The 1987 southern sea otter {Enhydra 
lutris nereis) census was completed re- 
cently by the Service and the California 
Department of Fish and Game. The total of 
1 ,650 included 220 pups and was up from 
last year's total of 1,570. Although this 
year's census appears promising, the indi- 
cated upward trend has not been statis- 
tically substantiated. 

Editor's note: A final rule authorizing es- 
tablishment and containment of an experi- 
mental population of southern sea otters in 
the vicinity of San Nicolas Island, off the 
coast of southern California, was pub- 
lished in the August 11,1 987, Federal 
Register. Future editions of the BULLETIN 
will contain more news on this recovery 
effort. 



A recent 3-acre fire at California's Anti- 
och Dunes National Wildlife Refuge could 
enhance Antioch Dunes evening-primrose 
(Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii) propa- 
gation by opening overgrown habitat. For- 
tunately, the fire occurred in an area where 
there were not any Antioch Dunes eve- 
ning-primroses, Contra Costa wallflowers 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

(Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum), or 
host plants of the Lange's metalmark but- 
terfly (Apodemia mormo langei). 



Results from the latest transect surveys 
at the Coachella Valley Preserve in south- 
ern California show a decline in numbers 
of the Threatened Coachella Valley fringe- 
toed lizard (Uma inornata) observed, but 
not nearly as great as that for the desert 
iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) and the 
zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus drac- 
onoides). The reason for the apparent de- 
cline in the number of all lizards presum- 
ably has been the extremely dry conditions 
in the area this year. 



Extremely high water temperatures are 
the apparent cause of a die-off of Endan- 
gered Borax Lake chubs {Gila boraxobius) 
in southeastern Oregon. High air tempera- 
tures, coupled with cloudless and windless 
conditions, intensified the naturally warm 
water conditions. Expected cooler air tem- 
peratures should lead to more moderate 
water temperatures in the lake. 

Region 2 — Studies on the status of two 
New Mexico salamanders, the Sacra- 
mento Mountains salamander (Aneides 
hardii) and the Jemez Mountains sala- 
mander (Plethodon neomexicanus) are 
currently being conducted by the Service 
(Region 2), the U.S. Forest Service, and 
the New Mexico Department of Game and 
Fish. Both salamanders have been under 
study for several years to determine their 
range, abundance, ecological and biolog- 
ical needs, distribution in relation to ongo- 
ing timber management, and the effects of 
timber harvest on the salamanders. The 
current study will be completed in the fall of 
1988. 

These salamanders inhabit higher 
elevation, old-growth, mixed conifer wood- 
lands. The Sacramento Mountains sala- 
mander is endemic to the Sacramento, 
Capitan, and Sierra Blanca Mountains of 
Lincoln and Otero Counties; the Jemez 
Mountains salamander is endemic to the 
Jemez Mountains of Sandoval and Los Al- 
amos Counties. Study results will be used 
to determine the needs for Federal protec- 
tion and to determine methods for minimiz- 
ing the impacts of timber harvests on the 
salamanders' habitat. 



A new Ozark big-eared bat (Plecotus 
townsendii ingens) maternity colony was 
discovered in Adair County, Oklahoma, in 



Protection Approved for Gopher Tortoise 
and Audubon's Crested Caracara 



The gopher tortoise (Gopherus poly- 
phemus), a large terrestrial turtle that digs 
extensive burrow systems, occurs along 
the coastal plain from South Carolina 
through Florida to southeastern Louisiana. 
Widespread reductions of its well-drained 
pine woodland habitat due to urban and 
agricultural uses have eliminated the tor- 
toise from more than 80 percent of its 
western range. Certain timber manage- 
ment practices (fire suppression and clear 
cutting) threaten much of the remaining 
habitat, and collecting of tortoises for food 
and the pet trade is another danger. 
Among the other animals affected by the 
gopher tortoises's decline are up to 29 ver- 
tebrates that use the burrows for refuge 
from predators and as a cool, moist micro- 
environment. On July 8, 1986, the Fish 
and Wildlife Service proposed to list the 
gopher tortoise's western population (ex- 
tending from the Tombigbee and Mobile 
Rivers in Alabama to southeastern Loui- 
siana) as Threatened (see summary in 
BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 8-9). The final list- 
ing rule was published in the July 7, 1987, 
Federal Register. 

Audubon's crested caracara (Polyborus 
plancus audubonii) is a hawk about the 



size of an osprey that occurs primarily from 
Panama through Central America and 
Mexico to Cuba and the southwestern 
United States. There also is an isolated 
population in peninsular Florida. Once 
common on the State's central prairie re- 
gion, the Florida caracara population has 
declined to an estimated maximum of 500 
birds, less than one-third the number exist- 
ing in 1900. Again, habitat alteration is the 
main problem. The crested caracara in 
Florida is a bird of the open prairie country 
and nearby wetter areas with scattered 
cabbage palms for nesting. Large areas of 
this habitat type have been lost to citrus 
groves, other agricultural uses, and real 
estate development. In an effort to prevent 
the bird's extinction, the Service proposed 
June 23, 1986, to list the Florida popula- 
tion of Audubon's crested caracara as 
Threatened (see feature in BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 7). The final rule was published July 
6, 1987. 

Both of these listed animals now receive 
protection under the Endangered Species 
Act, the terms of which are summarized in 
this edition of the BULLETIN at the end of 
the story about species newly proposed for 
listing. 



Requirements for Turtle Excluder Devices 

are Approved 



The National Marine Fisheries Service 
of the U.S. Department of Commerce has 
published final regulations to require the 
use of turtle excluder devices (commonly 
referred to as TEDs) by shrimp trawlers in 
the Gulf of Mexico and in the Atlantic 
Ocean off the southeastern United States 
(F.R. 6/29/87). These rules were designed 
to reduce the incidental capture and 
drowning of Threatened and Endangered 



sea turtles in shrimp trawls while minimiz- 
ing regulatory effects on shrimpers. 

Specific information on the various 
zones, seasons, TED specifications, and 
restrictions on tow times is contained in the 
June 29, 1987, Federal Register, pp. 
24244-24262. The September BULLETIN 
will summarize modifications in the final 
rules from the version originally proposed 
on March 2, 1 987 (see earlier feature in 
BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 4). 



June. Based on emergence counts, biolo- 
gists estimated that about 260 of the bats 
are using the cave. The newly discovered 
colony is one of the largest known mater- 
nity colonies of this Endangered sub- 
species. 



Through a Section 6 agreement with the 
Service, Paul Knight and Anne Cully of the 
New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural 
Resources Department have been work- 
ing on several Threatened and Endan- 



gered plants. Monitoring plots have been 
established at populations of Kuenzler's 
cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. 
kuenzleri), Knowlton's cactus (Ped- 
iocactus knowltonii), Mesa Verde cactus 
(Sclerocactus mesae-verdae), McKittrick 
pennyroyal (Hedeoma apiculatum), Zuni 
fleabane (Erigeron rhizomatus), Mancos 
milk-vetch (Astragalus humillimus), and 
gypsum wild buckwheat (Eriogonum gyp- 
sophilum). Data being collected on these 
plants include information on pollination, 
(continued on page 9) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Perdido Key Beach Mouse Relocation 



Mike Dawson 
Jackson (Alabama) Field Office 

An additional Perdido Key beach mouse 
(Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) pop- 
ulation has been established on Gulf Is- 
lands National Seashore in Florida. Listed 
as Endangered in June 1985, the Perdido 
Key beach mouse was originally found on 
much of Perdido Key, which extends along 
the Gulf Coast of Baldwin County, Ala- 
bama, and Escambia County, Florida. 
Designated Critical Habitat for the species 
now consists of 1 .8 miles (2.9 kilometers) 
of occupied habitat (Gulf State Park, Ala- 
bama) and 9 miles (14.5 km) of currently 
unoccupied habitat (Perdido Key State 
Preserve and Gulf Islands National Sea- 
shore, both in Florida). 

In July 1979, researchers estimated that 
there was a population of 26 Perdido Key 
beach mice at Gulf State Park (Florida 
Point, Alabama) and an estimated popula- 
tion in Florida of 52 individuals on Gulf Is- 
lands National Seashore at the eastern 
end of Perdido Key. However, Hurricane 
Frederick, which hit the coast in Septem- 
ber 1979, apparently destroyed the entire 
eastern population of the subspecies, and 



the Florida Point population to the west 
was so low that only one individual was 
trapped there during a 1981 survey. By 
April 1986, the population apparently had 
increased slightly but still consisted of no 
more that 31 individuals. 

Because of the precarious status of the 
Perdido Key beach mouse, a top recovery 
priority was to establish an additional pop- 
ulation. A release site was selected on 
Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 
approximately 0.9 mile (1.5 km) from the 
eastern end of Perdido Key. This site was 
chosen because of well developed dunes, 
a productive stand of seed oats (Uniola 
paniculata), and limited human disturb- 
ance. Trapping surveys over the preceding 
3 years had verified the absence of beach 
mice in the area. 

To provide initial protection from preda- 
tors and to hold the released mice in one 
location for an adequate time to permit 
burrow establishment, a large enclosure 
was constructed in the primary dunes. The 
enclosure had a circumference of approx- 
imately 1 64 feet (50 meters). Its walls were 
made of sheet aluminum, 4 feet (1 .2 m) 
wide, which was buried about 18 inches 









T 



1 



.' 



This enclosure was built to protect the reintroduced Perdido Key beach mice until 
they established burrows. 



(46 centimeters) in the sand and arranged 
to encircle most of a dune. Chicken wire 
(1-inch mesh) was attached to the upper 
edge of the aluminum, resulting in a wall 
extending about 6 feet (1 .8 m) above the 
ground. Posts were placed along the ridge 
of the dune, and the entire enclosure was 
covered with plastic bird mesh to exclude 
potential avian predators. 

A November 1986 survey of the existing 
Perdido Key beach mouse population at 
Gulf State Park (Florida Point) indicated 
that its numbers had increased slightly 
from the April 1986 estimate. On Novem- 
ber 15, three pairs of beach mice were 
trapped at Florida Point for relocation to 
Gulf Islands National Seashore. These 
mice were transported to the enclosure 
and released on November 16, 1986. 

The mice explored the enclosure briefly, 
then entered existing ghost crab burrows 
or constructed burrows of their own. Sup- 
plemental food (sunflower seeds) and wa- 
ter were provided. On November 17, a 
check of the enclosure revealed evidence 
that some mice had escaped. Frequent 
checks over the next few weeks continued 
to note mouse tracks inside and outside of 
the enclosure. On January 13, 1987, one 
additional pair of beach mice was captured 
at Florida Point and moved to the en- 
closure. Several openings were made in 
the enclosure in February so that mice 
could freely move in and out. On April 1 1 , 
three additional pairs of beach mice from 
Florida Point were relocated to the en- 
closure. Openings in the enclosure were 
closed temporarily until their burrows were 
established. Supplemental food has been 
provided throughout the relocation effort. 

Recent surveys have indicated that the 
relocated mice have dispersed to sur- 
rounding dunes and established new bur- 
rows. There are plans to conduct live-trap- 
ping at these areas in November 1987 to 
determine if the new beach mouse popula- 
tion is reproducing. 



Proposal to List Thornber's Fishhook Cactus is Withdrawn 



Thornber's fishhook cactus (Mam- 
millaria thornberi), a small, cylindrical suc- 
culent with hooked spines, is known from 
the Sonoran Desert in Pima and Pinal 
Counties, Arizona. It was proposed in 
1984 for listing as a Threatened species 
on the basis of data that the cactus was 
imperiled by low numbers, a limited dis- 
tribution, and a variety of threats to the 
habitat. (See story in BULLETIN Vol. IX 
No. 5). 



Subsequent to the proposal, the Fish 
and Wildlife Service received new informa- 
tion indicating that listing M. thornberi cur- 
rently is not warranted under the terms of 
the Endangered Species Act. Estimates of 
the species' numbers have been revised 
upward and threats to the habitat have 
been judged less severe than originally 
thought. Accordingly, the Service pub- 
lished a notice in the July 27, 1987, Fed- 
eral Register withdrawing the listing pro- 
posal. 



Thornber's fishhook cactus and its hab- 
itat will nonetheless receive management 
protection on four sites: Saguaro National 
Monument, Organ Pipe Cactus National 
Monument, Tucson Mountains County 
Park, and a tract of land in Avra Valley set 
aside by the Bureau of Reclamation as 
mitigation for construction of a Central Ari- 
zona Project aqueduct. In addition, the col- 
lection of all cacti, including M. thornberi, 
from the wild without a permit is prohibited 
by Arizona State law. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Proposed Species 

(continued from page 1) 

severely declining. The other species, L. 
sanborni, once occurred from central Ari- 
zona and southwestern New Mexico 
through much of Mexico to El Salvador. In 
recent decades, this species has disap- 
peared from most of its former roost sites 
in the U.S., including southern Arizona's 
Colossal Cave, which contained as many 
as 20,000 of the bats until the 1950s. A 
survey of historical roosting sites in Mexico 
located the species in only three places, 
and found very few bats in two of those. To 
the south of Mexico, L. sanborni is known 
only by a single specimen collected in El 
Salvador in 1972. 

Although the reasons for the decline of 
the long-nosed bats are not entirely clear, 
habitat disruption is suspected as the ma- 
jor cause. The two most important habitat 
components for these bats are roosting 
sites and food sources. There are only a 
limited number of caves and mines that 
provide the proper environment for roost- 
ing, and most of these sites are in- 
creasingly subject to destruction and dis- 
turbance. Vandals have been known to kill 
large numbers of these bats for fun. Also, 
in some parts of Mexico, all bats are con- 
sidered possible vampire bats, and control 
operations often destroy all species of bats 
in a cave. 

The other main limiting factor for the 
bats is the dependability of their food sup- 
ply. Instead of insects, Leptonycteris de- 
pends on the night-blooming flowers of 
certain paniculate agaves (century plants) 
and columnar cacti. The bats feed on the 
highly caloric nectar and protein-rich pol- 
len of these plants to fuel their high metab- 
olism. Both bat species have adapted long 
muzzles and tongues for reaching deep 
into the flowers. 





This Sanborn's long-nosed bat is pollinating on Agave palmeri flower as it feeds on 
the plant's pollen and nectar. 



Mexican long-nosed bat 



There is an apparent close interdepend- 
ence between these bats and their food 
plants. Annual bat migrations seem to be 
associated with the times that certain 
agaves and cacti are flowering in certain 
areas. The plants benefit, too; long-nosed 
bats are thought to be the most important 
pollinator of the giant saguaro (Cereus gi- 
ganteus) and organ pipe (C. thurberi) 
cacti, as well as some agaves, in the north- 
ern part of the bats' ranges. As they mi- 
grate southward into northern Mexico, the 
only food plants available to the bats are 
agaves. These same agaves, however, 
are being intensively harvested by "moon- 
shiners" for small-scale production of te- 
quila and other alcoholic beverages made 
from the plants. Excess harvest and other 
factors resulting in elimination of agaves 
may have contributed substantially to the 
drastic decline in long-nosed bat popula- 
tions. In turn, the drop in bat numbers has 
coincided with a decline in the reproduc- 
tive success of some agave species, pos- 
sibly because of inadequate pollination. 
Other agaves, along with the saguaro and 
organ pipe cacti, also may be affected. 
This apparent linkage could lead to a 
downward spiral with further declines in 
both the bats and their food plants, with se- 
rious implications for the entire southwest 
desert ecosystem. 

Kearney's Blue-Star 
(Amsonia kearneyana) 

Only eight individuals of Kearney's blue- 
star, a herbaceous perennial plant in the 
dogbane family (Apocynaceae), are 
known to exist. All eight are restricted to a 
single canyon in the Baboquivari Moun- 
tains of southern Arizona, a site that is 
within the Tohono O'odham (formerly Pa- 



pago) Indian Reservation. The current A. 
kearneyana population, which is down 
from the 25 plants found in 1982, is threat- 
ened with extinction from the effects of 
overgrazing and (possibly) insect preda- 
tion. Accordingly, the Service has pro- 
posed listing this species as Endangered 
(F.R. 7/10/87). 

A single Kearney's blue-star has up to 
50 erect or ascending stems that give the 
plant a hemispherical shape. Lance- 
shaped leaves with soft hairs are arranged 
alternately on the stems, which can reach 
as high as 32 inches (81 cm). The plant's 
white flowers are borne in clusters at the 
ends of branches. 

Kearney's blue-star grows in the riparian 
vegetation zone along a dry, rocky wash. 
This habitat has been severely modified by 
cattle grazing. Although cattle apparently 
do not eat this plant, they contribute to in- 
creased erosion by disturbing the topsoil, 
and they may trample A. kearneyana 
seedlings. Overgrazing of other vegetation 
also can lead to a decline in floral diversity, 
which in turn may be accompanied by a re- 
duction in pollinator numbers and species. 
Poor pollination success could explain, at 
least in part, the fact that the Kearney's 
blue-star population is showing very little 
reproduction. Another explanation may be 
seed predation by stinkbugs (Chlorochroa 
ligata), which are known to damage the 
seeds of a related plant. 

Sacramento Prickly Poppy 
(Argemone pleiacantha ssp. 
pinnatisecta) 

A robust perennial in the poppy family 
(Papaveraceae), this plant has attractive 
white and yellow flowers, long, relatively 
(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Proposed Species 

(continued from page 5) 

narrow leaves, and up to 12 prickly stems 
that can grow as high as 60 inches (15 
decimeters). It is known only from several 
canyons in the Sacramento Mountains of 
south-central New Mexico. A 1982 survey 
located three colonies containing fewer 
than 170 individuals. Because of evidence 
that these small populations are declining, 
the Service has proposed to list A. p. ssp. 
pinnatisecta as Endangered (F.R. 
7/13/87). 

Within its limited range, the Sacramento 
prickly poppy requires relatively moist soils 
found on north-facing slopes, in canyon 
bottoms, along roadsides, and near leaks 
in water pipelines. About half of the plants 
are on New Mexico State or Otero County 
highway rights-of-way. The rest occur on 
private property, a State park, and Lincoln 
National Forest. 



Colonies of the species that occur along 
roadsides are vulnerable to road widening 
and maintenance, roadside mowing, and 
herbicide applications. 

The U.S. Forest Service manages Lin- 
coln National Forest, on which several 
populations of the prickly poppy occur. As 
a matter of policy, the Forest Service al- 
ready gives consideration to such Federal 
listing candidates in its environmental as- 
sessments and other planning. If this plant 
is listed, the existing protection will be 
strengthened; the Forest Service will, 
under Section 7 of the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act, ensure that none of its activities 
(e.g., construction and maintenance of 
roads and trails, designation of water 
rights and grazing allotments) will jeopard- 
ize the species. The Federal Highway Ad- 
ministration also will protect the species 
when it funds any State or county road 
work by ensuring that such roadwork will 
not jeopardize the prickly poppy. No major 
impacts on Federal activities are expected. 




The Sacramento prickly poppy has attractive white and yellow flowers. 



Cattle grazing can have both direct and 
indirect effects on the Sacramento prickly 
poppy. When cattle stocking rates are 
high, some plants of this species are eaten 
while others are trampled. Overgrazing not 
only reduces plant cover, it also disturbs 
topsoil and increases erosion. This degra- 
dation in the local watershed can increase 
the probability and severity of flash floods. 
The Sacramento prickly poppy is par- 
ticularly vulnerable to flooding because 
many of the plants occur in drainages. For 
example, one population of the plant was 
nearly eliminated during a flash flood in 
1978. 

The diversion of permanent spring water 
from drainages in the Sacramento Moun- 
tains to pipelines for human and livestock 
use creates artificially dry conditions in 
some places where the moisture-depend- 
ent prickly poppy occurs. Installation of a 
pipeline in one canyon, with subsequent 
drying of the habitat, probably caused the 
greatest decline in the plant's numbers. 



Mathis Spiderling (Boerhavia 
mathisiana) 

The Mathis spiderling is a small peren- 
nial herb with small, bright pink flowers. 
This member of the "four o'clock" family 
(Nyctaginaceae) is known to grow only on 
outcrops of caliche (calcium carbonate) in 
the south Texas plains. Although caliche 
outcrops occur at various places within the 
region, B. mathisiana has been found at 
only two sites. 

Fewer than 250 individuals of the spe- 
cies are known to exist. Most are in the 
San Patricio County population, which ap- 
parently was fragmented by caliche mining 
into four colonies. Because the demand for 
caliche gravel is expected to increase, fur- 
ther habitat loss is probable. The Live Oak 
County population, which consists of fewer 
than 10 plants, is thought to be a remnant 
of a once larger population that was 
greatly reduced by residential develop- 
ment. Further residential and commercial 



development of this area, which is near a 
recreational lake, could eliminate addi- 
tional plants. Both populations are on pri- 
vate lands, and the Service plans to seek 
landowner cooperation for conserving of 
the remaining plants. 

Pitcher's Thistle (Cirsium 
pitcheri) 

C. pitcheri is a member of the composite 
or sunflower family (Asteraceae). It grows 
on sand beaches and open dune com- 
plexes along the Great Lakes shorelines of 
Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, and On- 
tario, Canada. Although the species also 
was reported historically from the shore of 
Lake Michigan in Illinois, it apparently has 
been extirpated from that State. Because 
of the vulnerability of its habitat, C. pitcheri 
has been proposed for listing as a Threat- 
ened species (F.R. 7/20/87). 

Pitcher's thistle apparently has a limited 
ability to disperse seed, along with other 
characteristics that restrict it to narrowly 
defined microhabitats along open lake- 
shores. This plant seems able to tolerate 
infrequent disturbances of its habitat (once 
every 5 to 10 years), and it can recolonize 
disturbed areas if a large enough colony 
remains. However, Pitcher's thistle cannot 
withstand frequent (monthly to annual) 
habitat disturbance. 

Shoreline development is reducing C. 
pitcheri habitat. In addition to the loss from 
construction activities, some dunes have 
been bulldozed to provide better lake 
views for cottage residents. Dune areas 
also are favorite places for the use of off- 

(continued on next page) 






'M / 




Pitcher's thistle bears dense, white- 
wooly, deeply divided leaves with long 
petioles and cream-colored or yellowish 
flowers. 



6 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



road vehicles, which probably cause as 
much damage to the species as anything. 
Some landowners also have attempted to 
eradicate the plant directly in the belief that 
it is an undesirable weed. Most of the re- 
maining Pitcher's thistle colonies are on 
public lands. The species is found on the 
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indi- 
ana), the Nordhouse Dunes area of the 
Huron-Manistee National Forest (Michi- 
gan), the Sleeping Bear Dunes and Pic- 
tured Rocks National Lakeshores (Michi- 
gan), a small stretch of Wisconsin 
shoreline on Lake Michigan managed by 
the U.S. Coast Guard, and several State 
parks. Although maintaining quality 
shoreline habitat is an objective of the 
agencies that manage these lands, C. 
pitcheri colonies could be damaged if sub- 
jected to heavy, frequent recreational use. 
Habitat management practices 
employed by the National Park Service are 
intended to improve the condition of 
Pitcher's thistle colonies on National 
Lakeshores. No known Federal activities 
are expected to interfere with conservation 
of the species on Federal or other lands. 

Daphnopsis hellerana 

This plant has no known common name, 
perhaps because it is so rare. Historical 
records refer to four populations of the 
species on the island of Puerto Rico, but 
only two remain and they contained only 
seven individuals each at last count. Be- 
cause of the species' low numbers and 
continued vulnerability from habitat loss, 
the Service has proposed to list D. 
hellerana as Endangered (F.R. 7/6/87). 

D. hellerana, a member of the 
mezereum family (Thymelaeaceae), is an 
evergreen shrub or small tree that can 
reach up to 20 feet (6 meters) in height. It 
is a dioecious species, meaning that the 
male and female flowers are borne on sep- 
arate plants. D. hellerana is endemic to 
subtropical moist forests in the limestone 
hill region of northern Puerto Rico. 

Nearly all of the historical and surviving 
populations of this plant have been located 
near Puerto Rico's main human population 
center, the San Juan/Bayamon area. Ur- 
ban and industrial development, quarrying 
of limestone for use in construction, land- 
fills, and the clearing of forests by yam 
planters all have contributed to the decline 
of D. hellerana. One of the two remaining 
populations is in the Dorado area on Com- 
monwealth of Puerto Rico (Land Authority) 
property; however, this land is not in pro- 
tective status and is subject to quarrying 
and the construction of roads and power 
lines. The other D. hellerana population is 
at Toa Baja on Federal land that is under 
the jurisdiction of the National Institutes of 
Health but leased to the University of 
Puerto Rico's School of Medicine. There 
are no known current activities on this 
property that are expected to jeopardize 
the species' survival. Nevertheless, the 
populations at Toa Baja and Dorado are 



extremely small, and observations suggest 
that there currently is not enough success- 
ful reproduction to sustain either popula- 
tion. 

Cumberland Sandwort 
(Arenaria cumberlandensis) 

Although a member of the "pink" family 
(Caryophyllaceae), the Cumberland sand- 
wort is a perennial with white flowers. This 
herbaceous plant reaches 6 inches (15 
cm) in height and has relatively long, nar- 
row leaves. A. cumberlandensis is named 
for the general region in which it grows, a 
limited portion of the Cumberland Plateau 
in north-central Tennessee and adjacent 
Kentucky. Only five populations are 
known, and their vulnerability has led the 
Service to propose A. cumberlandensis 
for listing as an Endangered species (F.R. 
7/6/87). 

Most Arenaria species in the south- 
eastern U.S. grow in hot, dry, sunny 
environments; A. cumberlandensis, how- 
ever, needs a very different habitat. This 
plant is restricted to the floors of rock- 
houses (shallow, cave-like openings in cliff 
faces), overhung ledges, and solution 
pockets in sandstone rock faces. These 
structures can provide the critical com- 
bination of shade, moisture, cool tempera- 
tures, and high humidity needed by A. 
cumberlandensis. 

Of the species' five known populations, 
four occur in Tennessee. The largest pop- 
ulation is in the Pickett State Park and For- 
est (Pickett County), where the habitat 
faces impacts from recreational activities 
(e.g., camping, hiking) and, potentially, 
from logging. A very small population of 
fewer than six clumps is located on the wa- 
tershed of a municipal water supply reser- 
voir in Fentress County. On public and pri- 
vate lands along the border of Fentress 
and Morgan Counties, another small popu- 
lation of A. cumberlandensis is vulnerable 



to trampling by hikers and habitat damage 
resulting from logging. A population of 
about 50 clumps is known from Scott 
County on the Big South Fork National 
River and Recreation Area, which is man- 
aged by the National Park Service. The 
Cumberland sandwort site has been se- 
verely damaged through trampling by rec- 
reational visitors, collectors of Indian ar- 
tifacts (who dig within the rockhouses), 
and trash dumping. Fortunately, the Park 
Service is now aware of the rare plant's 
presence, strongly supports listing, and 
will implement measures to conserve the 
species' habitat. 

Kentucky's lone A. cumberlandis popu- 
lation is in McCreary County on Daniel 
Boone National Forest. It is subject to the 
same threats facing the Tennessee popu- 
lations, although the U.S. Forest Service 
has expressed interest in protective meas- 
ures and plans no logging operations near 
the site. 

Shasta Crayfish 
(Pacifastacus fortis) 

Under the common name "placid 
crayfish" (so called because of its be- 
havior), P. fortis originally was proposed in 
1977 for listing as a Threatened species. 
The proposal was later withdrawn for pro- 
cedural reasons. Since a 1978 survey, the 
numbers of this vulnerable crustacean 
have dropped by about 50 percent in the 
face of habitat degradation and competi- 
tion from introduced crayfish species. Now 
commonly referred to as the Shasta 
crayfish, named after the northern Califor- 
nia county where it is found, P. fortis has 
been reproposed for listing, this time as 
Endangered (F.R. 7/10/87). 

Shasta crayfish are native to a small 
portion of the Pit River drainage system, 
including tributaries of the Fall River and 

(continued on next page) 




Cumberland sandwort 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Proposed Species 

(continued from page 7) 



Hat Creek subdrainages. They inhabit 
cool, clear, spring-fed lakes, rivers, and 
streams, usually at or near a spring inflow 
source where waters remain at a con- 
stantly cool temperature year-round. Un- 
like some other crayfish species, P. fortis 
seems most abundant where aquatic 
plants are absent. Another important hab- 
itat requirement appears to be the pres- 
ence of enough volcanic rubble substrate 
to provide cover for escape from preda- 
tors. 

Because of its specialized habitat 
needs, the Shasta crayfish is particularly 
vulnerable to changes in its aquatic en- 
vironment. Siltation of the rubble sub- 
strates, increases in water temperatures 
and turbidity, and other forms of water pol- 
lution not only make the habitat less hospi- 
table to P. fortis but actually favor the 
spread of introduced crayfish. These exo- 
tic species, which are more adaptive and 
have higher reproductive rates, are ex- 
panding into the range of the Shasta 
crayfish at an alarming rate, competing 
with it for food and living space. Two exo- 
tics have displaced native crayfish species 
in other regions and are doing the same to 
P. fortis. 

Activities that have led to alteration of 
the aquatic habitat include projects such 
as stream impoundments, diversions, and 
channelization. Other impacts are related 
to agriculture: the increasing demand for 
water has lowered the water table in some 
areas and reduced springflows; pesticides 
washed into the waterways harm aquatic 
invertebrates; and nutrient-rich run-off is 
increasing the growth of aquatic plants, 
rendering the habitat unsuitable for the 
Shasta crayfish. Water turbidity is increas- 
ing due to livestock grazing and certain 
forms of recreation near watercourses. 

Most of the land within the Shasta cray- 
fish range is privately owned. The U.S. 
Forest Service and Bureau of Land Man- 
agement administer less than 10 acres 
each, but these areas are being managed 
in ways consistent with conservation of the 
species. If P. fortis is listed by the Fish and 
Wildlife Service, the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers and Federal Energy Regulatory 
Commission will probably need to consult 
with the Service on their involvement with 
future water developments, but no signifi- 
cant conflicts are anticipated. The Service 
will investigate means of eliminating the 
exotic crayfish species and seek to work 
with landowners on ways to control poten- 
tially toxic runoff. A Federal listing would 
complement the protection already avail- 
able for the species under California's own 
endangered species legislation. 




Tipton kangaroo rat 

Tipton Kangaroo Rat 
(Dipodomys nitratoides 
nitratoides) 

Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys) are small 
mammals that, like Australian kangaroos, 
can travel rapidly by hopping about on 
their elongated hind legs, using their long, 
tufted tails as rudders. They mainly inhabit 
dry, open country in western North Amer- 
ica where they construct burrows for shel- 
ter and, often, for storing food. 

Three Dipodomys taxa are listed by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service as Endangered, 
and a number of others are candidates for 
future listing. One of these candidates is 
the Tipton kangaroo rat (D. n. nitratoides), 
which the Service recently proposed for 
listing as Endangered (F.R. 7/10/87). This 
subspecies has been eliminated from over 
96 percent of its former range, due mostly 
to conversion of its native scrub and grass- 
land habitat to agricultural uses. 



The Tipton kangaroo rat is restricted to 
the Tulare Lake Basin of the San Joaquin 
Valley in south-central California. Within 
this region, it inhabits the soft, friable soils 
of the basin floor that escape seasonal 
flooding. An integral member of its eco- 
system, the Tipton kangaroo rat influences 
floral distribution by dispersing native plant 
seeds, transporting them in external cheek 
pouches to underground food caches. The 
small rodents also serve as prey for a vari- 
ety of carnivores, including the Endan- 
gered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes mac- 
rotis mutica). Kangaroo rat burrows aerate 
the basin soils, another benefit to the veg- 
etation, and the burrows are used for ref- 
uge by a number of other species, one of 
which is the Endangered blunt-nosed leop- 
ard lizard (Gambelia silus). Extinction of 
the Tipton kangaroo rat therefore would 
have impacts beyond its own loss. 

The decline of the Tipton kangaroo rat 

(continued on next page) 




Typical habitat of the Tipton kangaroo rat on the Paine 

Wildf lower Memorial Preserve, owned by The Nature Conservancy. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



indicates how much native habitat in the 
Tulare Lake Basin has been altered. His- 
torically, the subspecies occurred over ap- 
proximately 1,700,000 acres (695,000 
hectares) in parts of Fresno, Kings, Tulare, 
and Kern Counties. By 1985, however, its 
range had fallen to 63,400 acres (25,700 
ha), less than 4 percent of the original 
amount. Conversion of habitat for agri- 
cultural production accounts for most of 
the past decline and continues to threaten 
much of the remaining range. 

Much of the remaining habitat consists 
of small fragments surrounded by agri- 
cultural lands on private property. 
However, approximately 6,400 acres 
(2,600 ha) are administered by local, 
State, and Federal agencies. These public 
lands currently contain low- to moderate- 
density populations of the Tipton kangaroo 
rat and are thought to be relatively secure 
from modification. Many of the extant oc- 
cupied habitats, however, may be too 
small to ensure the long-term survival of 
their individual Tipton kangaroo rat popula- 
tions. 

Possible Federal actions that may affect 
the Tipton kangaroo rat are issuance of 
agricultural leases on Bureau of Land 
Management holdings; construction by the 
Soil Conservation Service of evaporation 
ponds for agriculturaf runoff; issuance of 
permits by the Environmental Protection 
Agency for development of oil and natural 
gas reserves; and Bureau of Reclamation 
water projects that would assist in convert- 
ing native habitat to agricultural lands. 
Such actions also would be likely to affect 
the Endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard 
and San Joaquin kit fox, whose habitat is 
already protected under the Endangered 
Species Act. No major conflicts between 
Federal activities and conservation of 
these vulnerable animals are expected. 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided by a listing as Threatened or Endan- 
gered under the Endangered Species Act 
are: protection from adverse effects of 
Federal activities; prohibitions against cer- 
tain practices; the requirement for the 
Service to develop and implement recov- 
ery plans; the possibility of Federal aid to 
State and Commonwealth conservation 
departments that have signed Endangered 
Species Cooperative Agreements with the 
Service; and the authorization to seek land 
purchases or exchanges for important 
habitat. Listing also lends greater recogni- 
tion to a species' precarious status, which 
encourages further conservation efforts by 
State and local agencies, various organi- 
zations, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their authorities to further 
the purposes of the Act by carrying out 



conservation programs for listed species. 
It also requires these agencies to ensure 
that any actions they authorize, fund, or 
carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
survival of a listed species. If any agency 
finds that one of its activities may affect a 
listed species, it is required to consult with 
the Service on ways to avoid jeopardy or 
adverse modification of Critical Habitat. 
For species that are proposed for listing 
and for which jeopardy or adverse modi- 
fication is found, Federal agencies are re- 
quired to "confer" with the Service, al- 
though the results of such conferences are 
non-binding. Potential conflicts almost al- 
ways are avoided by planning early, con- 



sulting informally during initial planning 
phases, and using the Section 7 process. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or engage in in- 
terstate or international trafficking in listed 
animals, except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For listed plants, the 
rule is different; the trafficking restrictions 
apply, but collecting of listed plants without 
a permit is prohibited by the Act only on 
lands under Federal jurisdiction. Some 
States, however, have their own laws pro- 
tecting listed plants and animals that may 
be more restrictive. 



Land Donation Will Help 
Protect Endangered Bats 



Twin Cities, Minnesota, Regional Office 

A 90-acre tract of land in southeast Mis- 
souri was donated recently by the Pilot 
Knob Ore Company of St. Louis to the Fish 
and Wildlife Service as a refuge for an En- 
dangered species, the Indiana bat (Myotis 
sodalis). The tract includes an abandoned 
ore mine with multiple entrances, the result 
of iron ore mining around the turn of the 
century. Upon donation, the property be- 
came part of the National Wildlife Refuge 
System. 

Approximately 140,000 Indiana bats, an 
estimated one-fourth of the species' entire 
population, spend each winter in the mine 
system. These bats require hibernacula 
with an extremely narrow temperature 
range, ideally 40-47 degrees Fahrenheit 
with a maximum of 50 degrees Fahrenheit. 
After hibernation, the bats leave in the last 
part of April, returning in September. Little 
is known of the species' whereabouts dur- 
ing the summer months, but it is believed 
that Indiana bats from Pilot Knob Mine dis- 
perse throughout much of Iowa, Illinois, 



and northern Missouri. Thanks to the do- 
nation by Pilot Knob Ore Company, this In- 
diana bat colony has a better chance to 
survive. 

The donation of the tract on Pilot Knob 
Mountain has opened the way for the 
Service to construct barriers and signs at 
the mine entrances to prevent people from 
entering the caves, thereby offering a sub- 
stantial degree of protection for the bats. 
Disturbances from human intrusions 
arouse the bats from hibernation, thereby 
burning energy that they need to survive 
the winter. Such disturbances are believed 
to be a major cause of the species' Endan- 
gered status. The barriers and signs also 
will reduce the chances of accidental inju- 
ries to explorers. 

Pilot Knob Mine, along with two other 
cave sites in Missouri, two in Indiana, and 
two in Kentucky, house three-quarters of 
the world's population of hibernating Indi- 
ana bats. By the end of this year, it is ex- 
pected that all seven of these hibernation 
sites will have bat-protection barriers at 
their entrances. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

flowering, fruiting, recruitment of young, 
growth, mortality, threats, and loss of 
plants. Soil samples were taken from sev- 
eral monitoring plots to determine pH, tex- 
ture, organic content, and radioactivity. 
The long term benefits from this monitoring 
will provide a better understanding of the 
biology of these plants, as well as an in- 
dication of the populations' stability. These 
data can then be used to make decisions 
on management and recovery of the spe- 
cies. 

In addition to the monitoring efforts, new 
populations of the McKittrick pennyroyal, 
Mancos milk-vetch, and Kuenzler's cactus 
were discovered this year. 



After a 7-week absence, the thick-billed 
parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) 
that were released last fall in the Chi- 
ricahua Mountains of southern Arizona 
have returned. The birds disappeared in 
early June, but as of July 31 , one flock of 
unknown size was reported from Tonto 
Creek in central Arizona and another was 
back in the Chiricahuas. 

The masked bobwhite (Colinus virgin- 
ianus ridgwayi) releases on Buenos Aires 
National Wildlife Refuge in southern Ari- 
zona are being hampered by a lack of rain- 
fall. Dry conditions on the refuge are not 
favorable to the survival of the chicks, 
which are being held there in cages prior to 
release. The chicks, which were produced 
by the captive flock at the Patuxent Wildlife 
(continued on page 10) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 9) 

Research Center in Maryland, are being 
held longer than usual in anticipation of 
summer rains. 

Seven adult bobwhites carrying radio 
transmitters are being tracked at the ref- 
uge. Most adults are paired, but nesting 
will likely be delayed until there are better 
weather conditions. The single masked 
bobwhite nest found on the refuge in early 
June contained 1 1 eggs. At least seven 
chicks hatched, but they probably did not 
survive. 

Region 4 — An agreement to protect 
the first bald eagle nest to produce young 
in Tennessee since breeding eagles dis- 
appeared from that State has been 
reached between the private landowner, 
the Tennessee Wildlife Resources 
Agency, and the Service. Averett Lumber 
Company of Clarksville will protect the 
nest and its surrounding area, and will 
postpone construction of several goose 
hunting pits. The proposed hunting pits 
were to be constructed just outside the pri- 
mary protection zone around the nest, and 
it is not clear at this time whether or not 
they would have a significant impact on the 
nesting eagles. The agreement to delay pit 
construction will permit the Service to 
study the eagle pair using the site. The 
study, already underway, will continue for 
about one and a half years. 



A Center for Sea Turtle Research has 
been established at the University of Flor- 
ida by the Florida State Legislature and 
University Board of Regents. The goal of 
the center is to conduct research on all as- 
pects of sea turtle biology and to further 
sea turtle conservation through research 
and international education. Established in 
recognition of the outstanding achieve- 
ments and pioneering research of Dr. Ar- 
chie Carr, the center enhances the Univer- 
sity of Florida's international preeminence 
in sea turtle studies. Dr. Carr, the first di- 
rector of the center, died in May of this 
year. Dr. Karen Bjorndal recently was 
named associate director. Dr. Bjorndal 
also is Chairman of the Marine Turtle Spe- 
cialist Group, part of the Species Survival 
Commission of the International Union for 
Conservation of Nature and Natural Re- 
sources. 



Georgia's Fort Benning, which has the 
second highest number of red-cockaded 
woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in the 
State, is proposing to construct a para- 
chute drop zone. If the project goes as cur- 



rently planned, it will be necessary to clear 
all vegetation within the zone. An active 
woodpecker colony (with one bird) cur- 
rently existing in the proposed area would 
be destroyed. The Service recently en- 
tered into formal Section 7 consultation 
with the Army, and the Army has made a 
preliminary offer to attempt to relocate the 
impacted bird. 

The Asheville (North Carolina) Field Of- 
fice has been assisting the National Park 
Service in evaluating use by bats of sev- 
eral historical buildings and two aban- 
doned mine systems within Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park. A small popula- 
tion of eastern big-eared bats (Plecotus 
rafinesquii) was found in one building. This 
species appears to be declining 
throughout its range and may be proposed 
for addition to the Federal Endangered 
and Threatened species list within the next 
few years. The Service has recommended 
that the park provide alternate roost sites 
for all bats that would be displaced by 
building repair in the park. 

The largest known hibernating popula- 
tions of P. rafinesquii exist in two aban- 
doned sets of copper mines; a small ma- 
ternity colony (80 adults) was found in one 
of them, and a smaller, apparently non- 
productive, colony was found in the other. 
The Service is providing approximately 
$6,000 to the park to protect these colo- 
nies. Chain-link fences will be installed 
around five of the mine entrances, and a 
steel gate will be installed at another. The 
remaining entrances, which provide ac- 
cess to mines of no value as bat hiberna- 
tion or maternity sites, will be blasted shut 
by the Park Service. 



A representative of the Asheville Office 
has met with the city administrator for 
North Augusta, South Carolina, to discuss 
the Service's proposal to list the relict tri- 
llium (Trillium reliquum) as an Endangered 
species. The largest population of the spe- 
cies exists in and around the northern por- 
tion of the city, and the administrator had 
expressed concern that listing the plant 
might interfere with the city's planned im- 
provement of sewer facilities. The Service 
plans to work closely with the city during 
design and construction of the sewer lines 
to ensure the plant's protection. Another 
smaller population of relict trillium also is 
located on city-owned land. The city has 
no plans to sell or extensively develop this 
site and will probably register it as a Natu- 
ral Area if the plant is listed. A public hear- 
ing to list the relict trillium as an Endan- 
gered species was held in North Augusta 
in mid-June, and no significant problems 
were raised. 



The Service has received a status sur- 
vey report on seven mammals of Florida's 
east coast. Biologists from the University 
of Florida's Cooperative Fish and Wildlife 
Research Unit reached the following con- 
clusions: the beach cottontail rabbit (Syl- 
vilagus floridanus ammophilus), the sea- 
shore cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus 
littoralis), and the Anastasia Island mole 
(Scalopus aquaticus anastasae) are all 
secure; Goff's pocket gopher (Geomys 
pinetis goffi) and the Anastasia Island cot- 
ton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus ana- 
stasae) are presumed extinct; and the 
southeastern beach mouse (Peromyscus 
polionotus niveiventris) and Anastasia Is- 
land beach mouse (Peromyscus pol- 
ionotus phasma) have lost large amounts 
of habitat and continue to face severe 
threats. The Service is considering 
whether or not to propose listing the latter 
two taxa as Endangered or Threatened. 



Members of the Jacksonville (Florida) 
Field Office staff spent time searching for 
Bartram's ixia (Spenostigma coelestinum) 
last spring. This plant, a Category 2 candi- 
date for listing, is a member of the iris fam- 
ily (Iridaceae) with large flowers that open 
at dawn and close by noon. Endemic to 
northeastern Florida southwest of Jack- 
sonville, the plant is restricted to the moist, 
grass understory of pine flatwoods that ex- 
perience low intensity ground fires every 
few years. 

Bartram's ixia was'found at a dozen lo- 
calities in five of the seven counties where 
it historically occurred. At most localities, it 
occurred only as scattered plants at the 
edges of road rights-of-way or in small 
remnants of pine flatwoods that have not 
been converted to pine plantations. The 
largest populations were on an excep- 
tionally wide road right-of-way with a large 
flora of wildflowers, on road edges and va- 
cant lots in a large rural subdivision in Mid- 
dleburg, and in a remnant tract of flat- 
woods near Middleburg that has been 
preserved until now because it is used as a 
cattle range rather than for pulpwood pro- 
duction. The development of pine planta- 
tions and the cessation of regular burning 
of the pine woods appear to have extir- 
pated the ixia from much of its former hab- 
itat. 

Region 6 — On June 30, 1987, Service 
personnel met with representatives of the 
U.S. Air Force and The Nature Conser- 
vancy at Warren Air Force Base, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, to discuss the status 
of the Colorado butterfly plant (Gaura neo- 
mexicana ssp. coloradensis) as a listing 
candidate. The group visited several 
(continued on next page) 



10 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

Gaura populations, reviewed the existing 
Memorandum of Understanding and Man- 
agement Plan, and discussed future man- 
agement options. 



The eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis) 
has been thought by some people to be 
extinct or nearly so. A flurry of observa- 
tions in coastal Texas in the early 1960s 
raised speculation that the bird still sur- 
vived at that time. But few observations 
were made in the following years, and 
hopes again diminished. In the 1980s, 
however, there have been several obser- 
vations of this species on migration in the 
central and southern United States and in 
several areas of Canada. One bird was re- 
ported on the Platte River in Nebraska in 
mid-April 1987. At least two more were re- 
ported along the Texas coast in late April 



Francisco met to discuss ideas for re- 
covering the species from the brink of ex- 
tinction. Among the ideas mentioned were 
increasing public awareness that the spe- 
cies is not extinct; characterizing migration, 
winter, and nesting habitat; and protecting 
and managing known migration stopover 
areas. 



The Salt Lake City (Utah) Fish and Wild- 
life Enhancement Office has again been 
involved in a cooperative effort to protect 
American peregrine falcon (Falco per- 
egrinus anatum) fledglings from the haz- 
ards of learning to fly in a big city. As re- 
ported in BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6, a pair 
of peregrines nested on a ledge at the 
Hotel Utah again this year. Two eggs 
hatched. As the fledglings began to try 
their wings, they had to be rescued from 
the top of the Marriot Hotel, from a maple 
tree, and from a canopy over a downtown 
shop. One bird even spent the night in the 

















eskimo curlew 



and early May 1987. Finally, in late May, 
Canadian Wildlife Service biologists found 
a pair in the Canadian Arctic. Preliminary 
reports indicated that a nest may have 
been located. 

In response to the increased number of 
observations of eskimo curlews, a group of 
shorebird specialists from the United 
States and Canada at the recent Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union meeting in San 



garage of a wildlife agent from the Utah Di- 
vision of Wildlife Resources after it was lo- 
cated on the ground behind the hotel at 
midnight. 

Ten 5-week-old peregrine falcons that 
hatched in captivity at the Peregrine 
Fund's World Center for Birds of Prey in 
Boise, Idaho, were placed in nest boxes in 
the Great Salt Lake area recently as part of 
Utah's effort to reintroduce the species. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



Utah now has five active nesting pairs in 
the northern half of the state, including the 
pair mentioned in the paragraph above. 
The southern half of the State, with its 
many cliffs and canyons, has more than 40 
nesting pairs. 



On June 29, 1987, during a survey at 
Fort Peck Lake, Montana, for piping 
plovers {Chadrius melodus), two least 
terns (Sterna antillarum) were located on a 
small island. Although no nest was lo- 
cated, the terns appeared to be exhibiting 
nesting behavior. Further surveys of the is- 
land did not result in other least tern sight- 
ings; however, a nesting pair with a nest 
containing one egg was later observed on 
a nearby island. This is the first known oc- 
currence of nesting least terns in Montana. 
To avoid nest disturbance, the site was not 
revisited for about 3 weeks, at which time 
the least terns were again sighted, but nei- 
ther nest nor least tern young were ob- 
served. 

The Wyoming Game and Fish Depart- 
ment continues to report that black-footed 
ferrets (Mustela nigripes) born in the cap- 
tive breeding program are doing well. Six 
kits (four females and two males) born on 
June 6 are about one-half grown and now 
look much like their parents. They are ac- 
tive, move about freely in their cage, and 
are feeding independently. Another litter of 
two kits born on June 30 did not fare quite 
as well. One died, and the surviving female 
was weak and listless for a time but is now 
growing and appears to be getting 
stronger. This kit is being well cared for by 
its mother and should become more active 
and independent soon. Concern for the 
well-being of the young ferrets continues 
at the Sybille Wildlife Research Unit, but 
their growth and activity are very encour- 
aging. 

Region 8 (Research) — Several Coop- 
erative Research Units are involved in 
studies concerning the piping plover, 
which was listed in 1985. The South Da- 
kota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Re- 
search Unit is in the second summer of 
field work to determine nesting locations 
and population status of piping plovers 
along the Missouri River and its tributaries 
in South Dakota. Although nesting dates 
varied, nest sites were the same for both 
years. 

The Missouri Unit is engaged in studies 
in North Dakota to assess population dy- 
namics of breeding piping plovers. Vari- 
ability of recruitment rates and causes of 
the variability (e.g., predators) will be ex- 
amined. 

(continued on page 12) 



11 



Regional News 

(continued from page 1 1) 

Meanwhile, major North American win- 
tering sites of piping plovers are being lo- 
cated. Other objectives of this study are to 
determine physical attributes of habitats 
used by wintering piping plovers and to as- 
sess what factors (e.g., human disturb- 
ance) may be affecting wintering habitat. 
Surveys of piping plover habitat have been 
completed for the southern Atlantic coast; 
the Gulf Coast through Mexico to the 
Yucatan Peninsula will be surveyed next 
winter. 



Biologists on Patuxent's Kirtland's war- 
bler (Dendroica kirtlandii) research project 
participated for 3 days during the week of 
June 8 in the 1987 Kirtland's warbler sing- 
ing male census in Michigan. The census 
accounted for 167 singing males, a 20 per- 
cent decline from the 210 males counted 
last year. 



Fifteen bald eaglets were produced at 
the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in 
1987. The birds have been released into 
five States (Georgia, Missouri, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee). 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

27 

60 

8 

5 

39 

3 

28 

5 

8 

126 

309 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



Foreign I U.S. 
Only Only 



242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 





1 

466 



5 
6 

11 
3 

24 
5 

1 
5 

28 

88 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 

15 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


316 





225 


13 


102 





16 





84 





9 





30 





6 





13 


2 


166 


37 


967 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

47 

7 

21 

1 

12 

58 

251** 



'Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, green sea turtle, 
Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

"More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 217 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 19 animals 

32 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 97 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States: 47 fish & wildlife 

27 plants 

July 31, 1987 



August 1987 



Vol. XII No. 8 



TOfhnif*)l Dl lIlA^in Department of interior. U.S. Fish and wildlife Service 
I "til I ltd I DUIIwVII I Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC 20210 





FIRST CLASS 




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 


U.S. 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




PERMIT NO. G-77 



12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8 (1987) 



l rr* //- /*S7 



PUDL1C POfTMMFNTS 



September 1987 



DEPOSITORY ITEM 



Vol. XII No. 9 





CLEIvtSDIT 




Technical Bulletin 



Department ofJrrWeVr^u.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC. 20240 



Two Plants and Three Animals Proposed for Listing 



Five taxa were proposed by the Fish and 
Wildlife Service during August for addition 
to the Federal lists of Endangered and 
Threatened wildlife and plants. If the pro- 
posals are later made final, Endangered 
Species Act protection will be extended to 
the following: 

Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys 
acaulis var. glabra) 

Radiant masses of yellow blossoms 
make the Lakeside daisy one of Ohio's 
more spectacular wildflowers. This low- 
growing, herbaceous perennial with 
densely tufted leaves is a member of the 
aster family (Asteraceae). In the United 
States, the Lakeside daisy is currently 
known from one fragmented population on 
the Marblehead Peninsula of Ottawa 
County, Ohio. Former populations in 
Mason, Will, and Tazewell Counties of Il- 
linois were extirpated by the effects of 
quarrying, grazing, and industrial develop- 
ment on the plant's limited habitat. In On- 
tario, Canada, where it is considered rare, 
the Lakeside daisy occurs in small areas 
on Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Penin- 
sula. Because of this plant's limited dis- 
tribution and vulnerability, the Service has 
proposed to list it as Threatened (F.R. 
8/19/87). 

The most serious threat to the Lakeside 
daisy is habitat destruction. This plant 
grows only in dry, rocky prairie areas. In 
Ohio, the sole remaining U.S. population 
consists of seven scattered colonies on 
private land that is actively being quarried 
for limestone. Lakeside daisies occasion- 
ally reappear 15 to 20 years after quarry- 
ing operations have moved to a different 
site, but not abundantly. Another signifi- 
cant threat is the succession of woody 
growth, which reduces the amount of 
open, sunny prairie needed by the Lake- 
side daisy. 

Because none of the known Lakeside 
daisy populations are on public lands, the 
involvement of private landowners in man- 
agement and recovery activities will be es- 
sential. The landowners have been in- 
formed of the daisy's presence and pre- 
carious status, and the Service will seek 
their cooperation in conservation actions 
for the species. 



Houghton's Goldenrod 
(Solidago houghtonii) 

Another member of the aster family, 
Houghton's goldenrod is a perennial that 
grows up to 30 inches (77 centimeters) tall 
and produces clusters of relatively large 
yellow flowers in a more or less flat-topped 
inflorescense. This species is native to 
sand beach flats along the northern 
shorelines of Lakes Michigan and Huron, 
including some areas inhabited by two 
other listing candidates, the Pitcher's this- 
tle (Cirsium pitcheri) and dwarf lake iris 
(Iris lacustris). S. houghtoni habitat faces 
threats from residential development, off- 
road vehicles and other human-related 
disturbance, and hydrological changes in 
the Great Lakes (e.g., rising lake levels). 
Accordingly, this species has been pro- 
posed for listing as Threatened (F.R. 
8/19/87). 



Currently, there are 39 known S. 
houghtoni sites in 8 Michigan counties and 
2 sites in Ontario, Canada. Of the U.S. 
populations, 2 are on Federal lands, 1 1 are 
on State lands, and one is on property 
owned by The Nature Conservancy; the 
remaining 25 areas are on privately owned 
land subject to various types of habitat al- 
teration. Up to 10 formerly known S. 
houghtoni populations may have been ex- 
tirpated within the past 10 years. The sites 
on Federal lands — a small island in Chip- 
pewa County (administered by the Bureau 
of Land Management) and an area of 
Hiawatha National Forest in Mackinac 
County — are not imperiled by any known 
Federal activities. 

Two Klamath River Fishes 

The Lost River sucker (Deltistes lux- 
atus) and the shortnose sucker (Chas- 

(continued on page 8) 




Lakeside daisy 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 




Endangered species program regional 
staff members have reported the fol- 
lowing activities for the month of 
August: 



Region 1 — The woodland caribou 
(Rangifer tarandus caribou) translocated 
to northern Idaho from British Columbia, 
Canada, to augment an Endangered herd 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, DC. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Acting Chief 

Office of Endangered Species 

(703-235-2771) 

Richard L Jachowski, Acting Chief, 

Federal Wildlife Permit Office 

(703-235-1937) 

Clark R Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg , Suite 1692, 500 
N.E Multnomah St.. Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118), Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S White, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 2. P O Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist 



Region 3. Federal Bldg , Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500), Har- 
vey Nelson, Regional Director, John S 
Popowski, Assistant Regional Director, 
James M. Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist 

Region 4, Richard B Russell Federal Bldg , 
75 Spring St., S W Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W Pulliam, Re- 
gional Director, John I Christian, Assi- 
stant Regional Director; Marshall P. 
Jones, Endangered Species Specialist 

Region 5. One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100), Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor, Stephen W Parry, Assistant Re- 
gional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Di- 
rector; John D. Green, Assistant Re- 
gional Director, Barry S Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7. 101 1 E Tudor Rd . Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Jon Nelson, 
Assistant Regional Director, Dennis 
Money, Endangered Species Special- 
ist 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff, Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other ani- 
mals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1. California. Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada. Oregon. Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois. Indiana. Iowa. Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri. Ohio, and Wisconsin Re- 
gion 4: Alabama. Arkansas. Florida. Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi. North Carolina. South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee. Pueno Rico and the Virgin Islands Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware. Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire. New Jersey. New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island. Vermont. Virginia and West Virginia Region.6: Colorado. 
Kansas. Montana Nebraska, North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research 
and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U S Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 20240 



are being monitored through radio teleme- 
try. One female caribou was found dead, 
but the cause of death could not be deter- 
mined. The good news is that most of the 
transplanted animals are remaining in the 
area of the releases. 



While conducting a field examination of 
the proposed Shorelands project in the 
San Francisco Bay area with representa- 
tives of the project applicant, the Sacra- 
mento Endangered Species Office staff 
discovered that a 20-acre wetland on 
which two salt marsh harvest mice (Reith- 
rodontomys raviventris) were trapped in 
1985, recently had been disked. The site 
lies within the proposed right-of-way of a 
major access road to the proposed de- 
velopment. The landowner had been noti- 
fied by certified mail in 1986 that Endan- 
gered mice inhabited the area that now 
has been disked. 



The El Segundo blue butterflies (Euphi- 
lotes battoides allyni) began their mating 
flight about 3 weeks earlier this year than 
previously recorded. The population is up 
to approximately 2,000 adults. Lange's 
metalmark butterflies (Apodemia mormo 
langei) also started to fly earlier this sum- 
mer than in years past. Also, the popula- 
tion is expected to be higher than in the 
prior 9 years. 



The Sacramento Office issued a final Bi- 
ological Opinion addressing the explora- 
tion for oil reserves over a 27 square mile 
portion of the southern San Joaquin Val- 
ley. Species of concern included the fed- 
erally-listed San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes 
macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard liz- 
ard (Gambelia silus), and giant kangaroo 
rat (Dipodomys ingens). Measures incor- 
porated as project actions by the applicant, 
Chevron USA, included pre-project sur- 
veys, avoidance of sensitive areas, re- 
habilitation of temporarily disturbed hab- 
itats, and construction of barricades to 
prevent future vehicle intrusion. These 
measures were developed prior to issu- 
ance of the opinion through discussions 
among the applicant, consulting Federal 
agencies, and the Service. 

* * * 

The Bureau of Land Management re- 
ports 90 percent survival of the Malheur 
wire-lettuce (Stephanomeria malheur- 
ensis) planted in the recovery effort initi- 
ated earlier this year. Reduced survival 
was reported from plots where plants were 
placed with sage and cheat grass. Given 
the success of the recovery action, a 
change in the permit for collecting seeds 
will be initiated. 

The Region 1 Director has signed a find- 
ing that the information in a petition for list- 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



ing the northern spotted owl (Strix occi- 
dentalis caurina) as Endangered is "sub- 
stantial" under the terms of the Endan- 
gered Species Act. The Fish and Wildlife 
Service is now undertaking a status review 
on the owl, and asks that any pertinent in- 
formation be sent to the Regional Director, 
(address on BULLETIN page 2). 

Region 2 — Based on counts made in 
June, a minimum of 454 Ozark big-eared 
bats {Plecotus townsendii ingens) were 
present in previously known maternity 



caves in Oklahoma. This count is 15 
higher than the count in 1 986, and is in ad- 
dition to 260 bats found in a previously un- 
reported maternity cave recently located. 
(This new cave was mentioned in last 
months BULLETIN.) 

Another record for whooping crane 
(Grus americana) reproduction occurred 
this summer in Canada; 23 or 24 fledging- 
age chicks were present in early August in 
Wood Buffalo National Park. Twenty-one 



of the chicks were banded. The previous 
high production was the 21 offspring pro- 
duced in 1986. With the excellent chick 
production of 1987, 125 to 130 whooping 
cranes can be expected to arrive at winter- 
ing grounds on the Texas coast this winter. 
Chick production has been good in Can- 
ada since 1984. A recent evaluation of 
population trends indicates a 10-year 
periodicity in production of young that is 
probably associated with nesting habitat 
conditions. Recent declines in the water 
(continued on page 1 1) 



Reintroduction of Colorado Squawfish into the 
Lower Colorado River is Proposed 



The Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus 
lucius) is North America's largest minnow, 
with records of specimens reaching 6 feet 
long and 80 pounds in weight. Historically, 
this fish was plentiful throughout the Colo- 
rado River and its major tributaries in Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and 
Wyoming. Many early settlers preferred 
the squawfish as a food source over the 
native trouts, and described the flesh as 
white, flaky, and sweet. Squawfish can 
readily be caught by sport anglers using 
artificial lures or bait. 

After much of the natural Colorado River 
ecosystem was altered by the construction 
of dams, the diversion of water, and the in- 
troduction of exotic fishes, Colorado 
squawfish disappeared from the lower 
river basin. The last known naturally occur- 
ring squawfish specimen from Arizona wa- 
ters was collected in 1969. Currently, the 
only surviving natural populations occur in 
parts of the upper Colorado River basin, 
especially in segments of the Green and 
Colorado Rivers within Utah and Colorado. 

In August 1 985, as part of an effort to re- 
cover the Endangered Colorado squaw- 
fish, the Fish and Wildlife Service and Ari- 
zona Game and Fish Department began a 
1 0-year cooperative program to establish 
two "experimental populations" in the Salt 



and Verde Rivers of Arizona (see BUL- 
LETIN Vol. X No. 10). This category of ex- 
perimental population, along with the sub- 
categories of "essential'' and "non- 
essential," were authorized by the 1982 
amendments to the Endangered Species 
Act. The purpose is to promote wider ac- 
ceptance of attempts to reintroduce listed 
species by allowing additional manage- 
ment flexibility (see BULLETIN Vol. IX No. 
9). Under that authority, more than 
176,386 Colorado squawfish have been 
stocked into Arizona waters, and another 
100,000 are due to be stocked in autumn 
1987. 

With the encouragement of the Arizona 
Game and Fish Department, which hopes 
to establish a sport fishery for the Colorado 
squawfish in the lower Colorado River, the 
Service proposed to establish a third non- 
essential experimental population of the 
species in Arizona (F.R. 8/26/87). Habitat 
that appears suitable for the Colorado 
squawfish still remains in parts of the lower 
river; the reintroduction site would be the 
main river channel between Imperial Dam 
and Parker Dam. This stretch is within the 
species' historical range and is isolated 
from all other Colorado squawfish popula- 
tions. 

Management authority for non-essential 
experimental populations is described in 



Section 10(j) of the Endangered Species 
Act. In essence, they are treated as spe- 
cies proposed for listing as Endangered or 
Threatened. Although Federal agencies 
are required to "confer" with the Service 
on activities that may jeopardize such des- 
ignated populations, the results of these 
conferences are non-binding. In the lower 
Colorado River, any experimental popula- 
tion of Colorado squawfish is expected to 
be compatible with existing recreational 
and other uses. The proposed designation 
also contains a special rule authorizing 
sport take of the Colorado squawfish from 
the experimental population if the angler is 
complying with all applicable State fishing 
regulations. 

If the proposal is approved, all re- 
introduction stock will come from Dexter 
National Fish Hatchery in New Mexico, 
where successful techniques for rearing 
Colorado squawfish have been developed. 
Fry produced at the hatchery would be 
provided to the State of Arizona's Page 
Springs Hatchery in Cornville, where they 
would be raised to fingerling size. As many 
as 100,000 fingerlings could be released 
the first year, and plans call for stocking 
annually over 10 years. Annual surveys 
would monitor fish health and population 
changes. 




Colorado squawfish 

ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Running Buffalo Clover Discovered at New Sites 



Judy Jacobs 
Annapolis, Maryland, Field Office 



This has been a good year for the run- 
ning buffalo clover (Thfolium stoloniferum). 
When this rare plant was listed as Endan- 
gered (June 5, 1987), it was known from 
only a few individuals at one site in West 
Virginia. A second site, containing four in- 
dividuals in 1984, failed to appear in 1985 
and 1986. This past summer, however, a 
single plant did reappear at this second 
West Virginia site. In even better news, 
three new populations of this rare clover 
were recently discovered. One population 
in north central Kentucky was found by 
Mark Evans, botanist with the Kentucky 
Heritage Program, and two nearby in 
southeastern Indiana were discovered by 
Mike Homoya and Jim Aldrich, Indiana 
Heritage Program botanists. 

These finds greatly increase the genetic 
base of the species and improve its 
chances for recovery. Also, the new loca- 
tions allow greater insights into the plants' 
habitat requirements. All are located in rel- 
atively rich soils in areas that are occasion- 
ally mowed or grazed. This supports the 
hypothesis that occasional, moderately in- 
tense disturbance may benefit the clover 
or even be essential to its maintenance. 
Agricultural researchers are interested in 
studying the running buffalo clover's po- 
tential as a forage plant. This, of course, 
would require that vigorous plants can be 
grown and maintained in a field situation. 
Identifying the factors that the clover re- 
quires for vigorous growth is a top recov- 
ery priority for this Endangered plant. 




running buffalo clover 



Federal Protection Approved for Inyo Brown Towhee and 

Puerto Rican Crested Toad 



The Inyo brown towhee (Pipilo fuscus 
eremophilus) is a medium-sized, spar- 
row-like songbird restricted to desert 
riparian habitat in the Argus Mountains of 
Inyo County, California. Fewer than 200 
are estimated to remain. These non-migra- 
tory birds are highly dependent on dense 
vegetation that faces potential threats from 
overgrazing, water diversion, mining, and 
certain recreational activities. The Fish 
and Wildlife Service's November 23, 1984, 
proposal to list the Inyo brown towhee as 
Threatened (see summary in BULLETIN 
Vol. IX No. 12) was made final August 3, 
1987. 

About three-fourths of the towhee's hab- 
itat is within the U.S. Navy's China Lake 
Naval Weapons Center. The Navy base 
has eliminated livestock grazing on the 
testing range, and is working to control the 
harmful impacts of wild burros and horses 
on the fragile desert riparian zones. Most 



of the other Inyo brown towhee habitat is 
on property administered by the Bureau of 
Land Management. Both agencies are 
planning a cooperative program to con- 
serve the towhee's habitat. There are no 
known Federal projects or activities that 
will be significantly affected by the listing 
rule. 

Included in the final listing rule was a 
designation of Critical Habitat (see maps in 
the August 3, 1987, Federal Register). In 
response to a request by the State of Cal- 
ifornia, the Service concurrently proposed 
to designate several additional areas as 
Critical Habitat. 

The Puerto Rican crested toad (Pel- 
tophryne lemur) is an amphibian yellow- 
ish-olive to blackish-brown in color with 
prominent crests above the eyes. This 
species was known historically from two is- 
lands, but it apparently has been extir- 
pated from one — the island of Virgin 



Gorda in the British Virgin Islands — and 
remains only on the main island of Puerto 
Rico. Its populations declined as breeding 
areas were drained or filled in for con- 
struction, cultivation, and mosquito control. 
Because development pressure where the 
sole known healthy population survives is 
accelerating, the Service proposed De- 
cember 23, 1986, to list P. lemur as 
Threatened (see summary in BULLETIN 
Vol. XII No. 1). The final rule was pub- 
lished August 4, 1987. 



These listed animals are now protected 
under the Endangered Species Act, the 
terms of which are summarized in this 
BULLETIN at the end of the story on spe- 
cies newly proposed for listing. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Final Regulations on Turtle Excluder Devices 



Gloria Thompson 
National Marine Fisheries Service 



Six species of sea turtles are listed un- 
der the Endangered Species Act as En- 
dangered or Threatened. Five of these, the 
loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, green, leather- 
back, and hawksbill, are caught in shrimp 
trawls in waters off the southeastern 
United States. Based on observer data, 
the U.S. Department of Commerce esti- 
mates that 47,973 turtles are incidentally 
caught annually and, of these, 1 1 ,1 79 die. 
To combat this problem, the National Ma- 
rine Fisheries Service (the Commerce De- 
partment's agency responsible under the 
Endangered Species Act for marine spe- 
cies) developed gear that would release 
captured turtles without reducing the 
shrimp catch. By 1981, it produced the 
Turtle Excluder Device (commonly known 
as the TED) and began a technology 
transfer program to encourage voluntary 
usage by the shrimpers. This program in- 
cluded providing prototypes to shrimpers 
who wished to try them. Despite these 
efforts, there was little voluntary use. 



On March 2, 1987, the agency proposed 
rules that would require U.S. shrimp 
trawlers in the Gulf of Mexico and in the At- 
lantic Ocean off the southeastern coast to 
use approved gear in specific locations 
and at specified times in order to reduce 
incidental captures of Endangered and 
Threatened sea turtles (see BULLETIN 
Vol. XII No. 4). 

Based on comments received in writing 
and at 17 public hearings, the agency pub- 
lished final regulations in the June 29, 
1987, Federal Register. Measures to re- 
duce the incidental take and mortality of 
sea turtles in shrimp trawls will be phased 
in as shown in the table. (Maps of the af- 
fected areas are included in the Federal 
Register.) 

In offshore waters at specified times, all 
shrimp trawlers 25 feet and longer are re- 
quired to use qualified TEDs, and all 
shrimp trawlers smaller than 25 feet are re- 
quired to restrict tow times to 90 minutes or 
less. In inshore waters at specified times, 



all shrimp trawlers are required to restrict 
tow times to 90 minutes or less. In both in- 
shore and offshore waters, shrimp trawlers 
that use TEDs are exempt from the tow 
time restrictions. The rules specify criteria 
and procedures for qualifying additional 
TEDs; specify areas, seasons, and vessel 
sizes for which approved TEDs or 90 min- 
ute tow times must be used; establish re- 
porting requirements; continue measures 
for resuscitation and release of captured 
sea turtles; and continue the effects of 
designated Critical Habitat. These rules 
will reduce substantially the incidental 
catch and mortality of Endangered and 
Threatened sea turtles associated with 
shrimp trawling. 

For further information on TEDs, contact 
the Office of Protected Resources and 
Habitat Programs, National Marine Fish- 
eries Service, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20235; 202/673- 
5348. 





SUMMARY OF FINAL TED REGULATIONS 








Vessel 








Areas 


Start 


Size 


Requirement 


Season 


Coverage 


Offshore 












Canaveral Area 


10-1-87 


_>25ft 


TED 


all year 


all waters 


Southwest Florida Area 


01-1-88 


2i25ft 


TED 


all year 


shore to 15 miles 


Gulf Area 


03-1-88 


^25 ft 


TED 


3/1 to 11/30 


shore to 15 miles 


Atlantic Area 


05-1-88 


_>_25ft 


TED 


5/1 to 8/31 


all waters 


Canaveral Area 


10-1-87 


<25ft 


90 minute tow 3 


all year 


all waters 


Southwest Florida Area 


01-1-88 


<25ft 


90 minute tow 3 


all year 


shore to 15 miles 


Gulf Area 


03-1-88 


<25ft 


90 minute tow 3 


3/1 to 11/30 


shore to 15 miles 


Atlantic Area 


05-1-88 


<25ft 


90 minute tow 3 


5/1 to 8/31 


all waters 


Inshore 












Canaveral Area 


10-1-87 


all 


90 minute tow 3 


all year 




Southwest Florida Area 


01-1-88 


all 


90 minute tow 3 


all year 




Gulf Area 


03-1-88 


all 


90 minute tow 3 


3/1 to 11/30 




Atlantic Area 


05-1-88 


all 


90 minute tow 3 


5/1 to 8/31 




iwill extend to all waters 1-1-89. 










2 Will extend to all waters 3-1-89. 










-Tow time restrictions do not apply to vessels using TEDs in each net during trawling. 





ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



The Endangered Palila of Hawaii 

Donald W. Sparling 

Environmental Contaminants Research Branch 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 




palila 

Biologists with Federal and State con- 
servation agencies recently determined 
that the palila, a native species of 
Hawaiian bird, is still at critically low popu- 
lation levels. The palila is a member of the 
Hawaiian honeycreepers, a subfamily of 
birds found only in the Hawaiian Islands. 
This small, yellow-headed bird with a gray 
back, greenish wings and tail, and light 
belly once occupied much of the mamane- 
naio forests on the big island of Hawaii but 
now only occurs on a small portion of 
Mauna Kea, one of the island's high vol- 
canic mountains. Even within this fragment 
of its original range, the palila is consid- 



ered to be at the minimal level needed to 
sustain itself, and the species is listed as 
Endangered. 

Several factors have been suggested for 
the decline of this once plentiful species. 
Diseases like avian malaria and avian pox 
may limit the distribution of the species to 
higher mountain elevations where mos- 
quitoes that carry the diseases are rare or 
absent. Human interference, such as mili- 
tary training activities, may discourage the 
birds from using otherwise suitable habitat. 
Perhaps the greatest problem currently 
facing the palila, however, is habitat de- 
struction by non-native ungulates. Feral 
goats, feral sheep, and mouflon sheep ex- 
tensively eat the young mamane trees on 
whose fruits palila depend for a source of 
food. 

Because of these problems, the palila 
has twice been the subject of legal action 
at the Federal level. In 1979, a district 
judge in Hawaii ruled that the feral goats 
and sheep maintained for hunting pur- 
poses had to be removed from Mauna 
Kea, the last of the palila's habitat. In 1 986, 
the district court determined that mouflon 
sheep, which had been introduced as tro- 
phy game animals, also had to be 
removed. The judge determined that 
mouflon posed harm to the ecosystem on 
Mauna Kea by eating mamane and naio, 
injuring large trees and preventing re- 
generation of mamane. The removal of 
mouflon should not only help protect the 
palila but other rare species of birds and 
plants as well. 

Since 1975, the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, through its Mauna Loa Research Sta- 



tion, has monitored the populations of the 
palila and other endangered species of for- 
est birds. In 1980, the palila monitoring 
program became more extensive when the 
Hawaii Department of Lands and Natural 
Resources' Division of Forestry and Wild- 
life cooperated as a partner in annual 
counts. At first, the counts were conducted 
once a year, but since 1984 two counts 
have been taken each year to coincide 
with the prebreeding and postbreeding 
seasons. 

Biologists from the Fish and Wildlife 
Service and the Hawaii Division of Forestry 
and Wildlife conducted the most recent 
(July 1987) palila count. The population 
estimate reached was 3,624 ±859 birds. 

The most recent prebreeding count oc- 
curred in January 1987. State and Federal 
biologists estimated that there were 3,444 
± 956 palilas at that time. This January 
count was an appreciable increase over 
the previous year's prebreeding estimate 
and was the highest count since 1 981 . 

Despite the possible increase in num- 
bers of the palila over the past few years, 
the species still remains at critically low 
population levels. At present, biologists 
are cautiously optimistic that the birds may 
positively respond to the removal of ungu- 
lates from palila habitat. Intensive studies 
on the habitat requirements of this Endan- 
gered species are under way in hopes of a 
better understanding of how humans can 
ensure the continued survival of this beau- 
tiful bird. 



Until recently, Mr. Sparling was with Patux- 
ent's Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Research Station. 



The Role of Lead in Condor Mortality 



Oliver H. Pattee 

California Research Station 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 



The precipitous drop in numbers of wild 
California condors (Gymnogyps califor- 
nianus) has been attributed to a number of 
causes, including illegal shootings, colli- 
sions with man-made obstructions, en- 
vironmental contaminants, and poisonings 
associated with animal damage control 
programs. The California condor popula- 
tion continued to decline even after the ini- 
tiation of the California condor recovery 
research program in 1980. The wild popu- 
lation consisted of 15 to 17 individuals in 



the fall of 1 984, yet by the spring of 1 985 
only 9 birds could be found. Only one of 
the 6 to 8 birds that vanished during 
1984-1985 was recovered for necropsy, 
and it was found to have died of lead poi- 
soning. Because the decline in the wild 
population appeared to be accelerating, a 
decision was made to bring all wild birds 
into the captive breeding flocks. 

Of the four carcasses of California con- 
dors recovered since 1980, one died ap- 
parently of cyanide poisoning following an 



encounter with an M-44 device ( "coyote 
getter") and the other three died of lead 
poisoning. The apparent source of the lead 
was bullet fragments, evidently obtained 
from game animal carcasses left in the 
field and subsequently fed upon by con- 
dors. A hunting season connection is fur- 
ther suggested by the timing of the deaths: 
the three birds were found dead or ill on 
January 3, March 22, and April 10. Since 
lead poisoning is a slowly debilitating prob- 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Condor 



(continued from previous page) 

lem, exposure probably occurred much 
earlier. The bird captured January 3, 1986, 
in an extremely weakened condition ex- 
hibited elevated blood lead levels (1 .8 
parts per million, wet weight) when cap- 
tured earlier (November 1, 1985) and had 
exhibited abnormal behavior by mid-De- 
cember, 6 weeks later. This example sug- 
gests that a bird dying in April may have 
been exposed as early as December or 
January. 

Although these data suggest that lead 
poisoning is an important cause of mor- 
tality in California condors, further re- 
search is essential. The Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center will be examining the 
availability of lead and the susceptibility of 




California condor AC-3 was treated for 
lead poisoning at the San Diego Zoo but 
died January 18, 1986. 



cathartids to lead poisoning at its Ventura, 
California, and Laurel, Maryland, loca- 
tions. Because the recovery effort empha- 
sizes reestablishing a wild population of 
California condors, future research will 
concentrate on determining the magnitude 
of the lead problem and developing man- 
agement schemes to alleviate the haz- 
ards. Initial work suggests that California 
condors can be attracted to supplied, con- 
taminant-free carcasses for a significant 
portion (40-50 percent) of their diet. 



(Editor's note: Currently, all California 
condors are in two captive breeding flocks. 
There are 8 males and 6 females at San 
Diego Wild Animal Park and 5 males and 8 
females at the Los Angeles Zoo.) 



Man and Manatee: Planning for the Future 



Thomas Baugh 
Jacksonville, Florida, Field Office 

The explosive growth in Florida's human 
population, coupled with related develop- 
ment, is threatening the fragile population 
balance of the manatee (Trichechus man- 
atus). Florida grows by an estimated 800 
to 1 ,000 people a day or in excess of 
300,000 people a year. About 78 percent 
of the current 12 million residents live in 
Florida's coastal areas, and 82 percent of 
the projected 1986-1990 growth is ex- 
pected to occur on or near the coast. Un- 
fortunately, man and manatee are meeting 
in Florida waters with increasing frequency 
and the results are — all too often — dead 
manatees. In response, new, more com- 
prehensive plans for this mammal's sur- 
vival are being developed by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service and Florida Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources. 

The best available information indicates 
that there are about 1 ,200 manatees using 
Florida waters, about 600 on each coast, 
with little to indicate any significant ex- 
change between the two populations. 
These figures are based on an intensive 
survey conducted by Federal and State bi- 
ologists when the manatees congregated 
in the warm water of power plant outflows 
during the exceptionally cold winter of 
1983-1984. 

Research has documented that at least 
1 25 to 1 30 manatees die each year in Flor- 
ida. Over the past 3 years, 30 percent of 
these deaths were caused by humans 
and, of those, 65 percent (19.5 percent of 
the total) were deaths due to boats and 
barges. The causes of an additional 36 
percent of all manatee deaths are listed as 
unknown but are thought to include some 
additional deaths due to human causes. 
About 80 percent of all manatees are 
scarred by boat propellers. Even when 
manatees are not killed by propellers, 



scarring can interfere with feeding, re- 
productive activity, and the rearing of 
young. It is currently estimated that 120 to 
130 manatees are born in Florida each 
year. 

In Florida, the Fish and Wildlife Service 
shares manatee conservation respon- 
sibilities with the Florida Department of 
Natural Resources. Both agencies feel 
that development and implementation of 
manatee protection plans may aid man- 
atee survival. To be effective, these plans 
must include provisions to reduce the 
number of human-related manatee 
deaths, stabilize manatee populations, 
and preserve and rehabilitate manatee 
habitat. These goals can be achieved by 
the careful integration of biological, social, 
economic, and other information; the anal- 
ysis of this information in terms of manatee 



and human needs; specific recommenda- 
tions for manatee recovery; and the com- 
munication of these recommendations to 
all interested parties. 

At this time, it is anticipated that man- 
atee protection plans will be developed for 
all areas of Florida that have manatee hab- 
itat. Draft manatee protection plans will be 
cooperatively prepared by the Service and 
the Florida Department of Natural Re- 
sources. The final protection plans will 
identify areas of greater or lesser risks to 
the manatees, specify the nature and in- 
tensity of those risks, and make specific 
recommendations to remove or control the 
risks. The development of comprehensive 
planning may be more effective than cur- 
rent approaches to manatee conservation 
and, at the same time, continue to allow for 
the multiple use of Florida waters. 




Florida manatee and young 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 1) 
mistes brevirostris) are fishes native to 
the Klamath Basin of south-central Oregon 
and north-central California. Both are nor- 
mally large and long-lived; for example, D. 
luxatus, the sole species in its genus, can 
reach about 10 pounds in size and live at 
least 40 years. Widespread moderation of 
their natural riverine habitat, water pollu- 
tion, and impacts from exotic fish species 
have severely reduced the range and 
numbers of D. luxatus and C. brevirostris, 
prompting the Service to propose listing 
them as Endangered (F.R. 8/26/87). 

Historical biological surveys in the 
Klamath Basin (1879, 1898) indicated the 
presence of large populations of fishes, 
suckers in particular. Spawning runs of 
suckers were large enough to provide a 
major food source for Indians and local 
settlers. Even through the 1970s, runs of 
suckers moving from Upper Klamath Lake 
to spawning areas in the Williamson and 
Sprague Rivers were great enough to sup- 
port a popular sport fishery. During the 
past 3 years, however, the Klamath Tribe 
and local biologists have been alarmed 
enough by sharp population declines in 
both species that the Oregon Fish and 
Game Commission closed the 1987 sport 
fishery. 

Although the causes of the decline are 
varied and not fully understood, there 
clearly has been a drastic reduction in 
spawning success. The construction of 
dams has been particularly destructive in 
that they have blocked the fishes from the 
habitat they need for successful spawning. 



Recent data show that neither species has 
successfully recruited young into the popu- 
lation for approximately 18 years. One 
dam alone, the Sprague River Dam near 
Chiloquin, Oregon, probably eliminated 
more than 95 percent of the two species' 
historical spawning habitat in the Upper 
Klamath Lake drainage. Although fish lad- 
ders have been built, their effectiveness in 
facilitating movement of suckers over the 
dam has been minimal to non-existent; 
Lost River and shortnose suckers are 
strong swimmers, but their leaping ability 
is greatly limited. 

Hybridization with related species is a 
threat to the genetic purity of the Lost River 
and shortnose suckers. Although hybridiz- 
ation does occur naturally, it becomes a 
problem when one species (such as C. 
brevirostris) becomes more rare. Further, 
hybridization is facilitated by dams that, 
when they block natural spawning runs, 
force individuals of different species to 
spawn in mass in the dam tailwaters. Exo- 
tic fishes are yet another threat because 
they can compete with native species for 
food, prey on larval suckers, and introduce 
new parasites and/or diseases. 

Upper Klamath Lake and its tributaries 
are now the primary refuge for the remain- 
ing Lost River and shortnose suckers. 
However, survey work performed during 
1984-1986 by the Oregon Department of 
Fish and Wildlife, the Klamath Tribe, and 
the Fish and Wildlife Service revealed con- 
tinuing, drastic declines there as well. For 
example, the estimated population of 
23,123 Lost River suckers in the 1984 Up- 
per Klamath Lake spawning run fell to 
11,861 by the 1985 run. 




shortnose sucker 



Most of the habitat occupied by the two 
fishes is administered by the U.S. Forest 
Service, although some marshes used by 
both species are within the Upper Klamath 
National Wildlife Refuge. Forest Service 
and refuge personnel have been actively 
involved in determining the status of fish 
resources in the area and will be important 
in conservation of the two suckers. Possi- 
ble recovery actions to be evaluated in- 
clude rehabilitation and protection of the 
few remaining spawning streams, ob- 
taining pure stock for captive propagation 
and reintroduction, and research into 
structures or methods to help the fish 
move successfully around dams. More- 
over, if the listing proposal is made final, 
Federal agencies involved in funding, au- 
thorizing, or carrying out any action that 
may affect the two fishes (e.g., new dams, 
water diversion projects) will be required to 
consult with the Fish and Wildlife Service 
on ways to avoid jeopardizing the species' 
survival. 

Visayan Deer (Cervus alfredi) 

Known only from the Visayan Islands in 
the central Phillipines, this small deer has 
the most restricted range of all surviving 
species in the genus Cervus. It is a small 
animal, standing only about 25 inches (64 
centimeters) at the shoulder. This deer's 
coat, remarkably dense and soft, is gener- 
ally dark brown on the upper parts and 
buff-colored below. Yellowish white spots 
on the shoulders, back, and sides are one 
characteristic that distinguishes the Vis- 
ayan deer from related species. 

The Visayan deer originally occupied 
eight islands and was fairly widespread 
until World War II. After the war, the advent 
of intensive upland logging led to a pre- 
cipitous decline in the species' numbers. 
Logging not only eliminated the dense for- 
est habitat upon which the Visayan deer 
depends but also made its range more ac- 
cessible to settlers and hunters. The in- 
creasing human population in the region 
practiced slash-and-burn agriculture, 
which involves clearing away trees, har- 
vesting crops until the soil is exhausted, 
and moving on to another area. This prac- 
tice, which is shrinking tropical forests 
worldwide, has accounted for about as 
much forest destruction in the Phillipines 
as commercial logging. In an ironic twist, 
logging was greatly curtailed in this area of 
the Phillipines in 1983, but the resulting 
unemployment led many people to turn to 
slash-and-burn agriculture and to subsis- 
tence hunting. Habitat loss has been so 
devastating that the Visayan deer is 
thought to have disappeared entirely from 
four of the islands comprising its historical 
range. It still survives on the other four 
(Leyte, Negros, Samar. and Panay), but 
only in relatively small, isolated pockets of 
habitat. 

The Visayan deer was proposed by the 

Service on August 19 for listing as an En- 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from previous page) 

dangered species. Although it already is 
protected under Phillipine law and some of 
its habitat falls within government re- 
serves, the deer is still being sought for 
food and the hunting pressure is intense. 
The current Phillipine government is con- 
cerned about the deer and its habitat; 
however, enforcement personnel and 
funding for conservation work are in short 
supply. Attempts to establish a captive 
breeding facility in the Phillipines have not 
yet been successful. Further complicating 
the picture is the fact that, to a large extent, 
the Visayan deer occurs in areas that are 
sometimes under the influence of rebel 
forces and where military operations take 
place. 

If current trends continue, the Visayan 
deer may not survive the twentieth cen- 
tury. By focusing more attention on the 
plight of this small but beautiful animal, the 
Service hopes to stimulate international 
efforts to preserve ecosystems in the Phil- 



lipines. The nation's new government has 
shown much interest in such efforts. 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits 
provided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; prohibitions against certain prac- 
tices; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to seek land purchases 
or exchanges for important habitat; and 
the possibility of Federal aid to State or 
Commonwealth conservation departments 
that have signed Endangered Species Co- 
operative Agreements with the Service. 
Listing also lends greater recognition to a 
species' precarious status, which encour- 
ages further conservation efforts by State 
and local agencies, independent organiza- 
tions, and individuals. 



Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 
cies. It also requires these agencies to en- 
sure that any actions they authorize, fund, 
or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
survival of a listed species. If an agency 
finds that one of its activities may affect a 
listed species, it is required to consult with 
the Service on ways to avoid jeopardy. For 
species that are proposed for listing and 
for which jeopardy is found, Federal agen- 
cies are required to "confer'' with the Serv- 
ice, although the results of such a con- 
ference are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule is 
different; the prohibition against collecting 
applies only to listed plants found on lands 
under Federal jurisdiction. Some States, 
however, have their own more restrictive 
laws against take of listed plants. 



Indiana Bats: Down for the Count 



Standing above the entrance to a cave 
in southern Indiana, I prepared to de- 
scend, rigging to a rope my team and I had 
dropped into the 30-foot pit. I had come to 
conduct my biannual census of the Endan- 
gered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) that hi- 
bernate there each winter. Listening to the 
roar of trucks and cars on the nearby inter- 
state highway, I was struck by the thought 
that thousands of people drove past that 
cave every winter, oblivious to the bats or 
their plight. Few people know about En- 
dangered bats and fewer still care. And yet 
I was about to witness one of the most 
spectacular sights of my career in biology: 
a living tapestry of irregular shape, 20 feet 
long and 10 feet across, composed of ani- 
mals so tiny that I could cup one entirely 
within my closed hand. The bats were ar- 
rayed on the ceiling of a ledge so cramped 
that I had to take great care not to dislodge 
them as I crawled beneath to measure 
their cluster and census them. 

Usually, about one-fourth of the Indiana 
bats that hibernate in this cave form the 
same cluster in the ledge area. The rest 
are nearby, their clusters extending into a 
large room. I have been in awe of this par- 
ticular cluster since I began censusing the 
cave 4 years ago, and I always come away 
a bit humbled. Despite our ability to count 
them, to weigh and measure them, to rec- 
ord the temperature at their roost site, or 
whatever other physical parameters we 
care to examine, we still do not know some 
of the most fundamental things about 
them. How far did they come, where did 
they spend the summer, what habitats do 



Richard L. Clawson 
Missouri Department of Conservation 

they use and need and what threatens 
them there, how did they find this particular 
cave, what would they do if it became un- 
available to them, and an entire host of 
other questions concerning their biology 
and behavior remain to be answered. 

I was on my way down to count these 
Endangered bats, but it is they who are on 
the way down. Even with our best efforts to 
date, I still counted fewer Indiana bats 
rangewide than I did 2 years before. I have 
conducted this census three times now, 
and each time, despite individual fluctua- 
tions among the caves, gains at one have 
been more than offset by losses at an- 
other; the result has been continued de- 
cline. 



Causes of Decline 

The Indiana bat is a medium-sized 
member of its genus and weighs less than 
one-third of an ounce (6 to 9 grams). No 
subspecies are recognized. They are 
found throughout much of the eastern half 
of the United States, with the largest hiber- 
nating populations found in Indiana, Mis- 
souri, and Kentucky. The species is ex- 
tremely vulnerable due to its penchant for 
aggregation; fully 85 percent of the entire 
known population winters in only seven 
caves. 

Indiana bats have been little studied 
and, until very recently, poorly known even 
in terms of their distribution, abundance, 
and status. The work of early investigators 
was limited to the hibernation caves used 




Indiana bats are so small that one can fit 
within a closed hand. 

by the species, and only since the mid- 
1970's has anything been learned about 
their summer distribution and ecology. 

One of the first species in the United 
States to be recognized as Endangered, 
the Indiana bat has received legal protec- 
tion as such since the passage of the En- 
dangered Species Act of 1973. It is endan- 
gered primarily due to the direct and 
indirect actions of man. The most serious 
known cause of decline is human disturb- 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Indiana Bats 

(continued from page 9) 

ance of hibernating bats. Once in hiberna- 
tion, bats must conserve their body fat 
supplies until spring or face starvation. 
When aroused from hibernation, they can 
expend 10 to 30 days of these limited re- 
serves. 

Vandalism and direct destruction of 
roosting bats have been documented as 
well. Improper gating of cave entrances 
and construction for cave commercializa- 
tion have altered cave microclimates, ren- 
dering some caves unsuitable for Indiana 
bat hibernation. 

Other human-related factors that have 
been implicated in the decline of the spe- 
cies include habitat changes (such as 
stream channelization and bank modifica- 
tion, forest clearing and alteration, and ag- 
ricultural development) and indiscriminate 
collecting. Although pesticide poisoning of 
Indiana bats has not been documented, 
other North American bats in agricultural 
habitats have declined due to the effects of 
pesticides, and it is likely that the species 
suffers at least some level of contamina- 
tion. Natural phenomena associated with 
Indiana bat declines include flooding of hi- 
bemacula, freezing during severe winter 
weather, and collapse of mines occupied 
for hibernation. 



Habitat 

Indiana bats hibernate in large, densely 
packed clusters of about 300 bats per 
square foot in caves or mines that have 
stable winter temperatures below 50 de- 
grees Fahrenheit, with the preferred tem- 
perature being 39 degrees to 46 degrees. 
Specific roost sites that provide this cli- 
mate are selected and used from year to 
year. Usually the majority of bats will be 
found just beyond the twilight zone of the 
hibernation cave, but this varies with time 
of season and configuration of the cave. 
Only a small percentage of the available 
caves provide for the Indiana bat's spe- 
cialized requirements. For example, only 
24 of Missouri's more than 4,700 known 
caves ever have contained hibernating 
colonies larger than 100 Indiana bats. 

Recent studies indicate that Indiana bat 
maternity colonies are formed mostly in 
riparian and floodplain forest near small to 
medium-sized streams, although bats also 
have been found along tree-lined drainage 
ditches and in upland sites. It may be that 
this apparent pattern is more a function of 
habitat availability than of the species' ac- 
tual preference. Clearing for agriculture 
has restricted forest habitats largely to 
riparian zones in their summer range. To 
date, few maternity roosts have been stud- 
ied. Of these, three have been in riparian 
habitat and one was in an open, pastured 
woodlot. Roosts also have been found in 
the hollow of a tree and behind loose, ex- 
foliating bark of both dead and living trees. 



Optimum summer habitat must include 
mature trees, both to provide roost sites 
and because Indiana bats forage around 
the crowns of large trees. Preferred stream 
habitat appears to consist of streams lined 
on both banks with mature trees that over- 
hang the water by at least 1 feet. Streams 
without riparian vegetation do not appear 
to be suitable. Upland forest with a well- 
developed canopy but poorly developed 
sub-canopy layer also appears to provide 
summer habitat. 



Ecology and Behavior 

Indiana bats are insectivorous. More 
than eight orders of insects have been 
identified in studies of their habits. Moths 
(order Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), 
and flies and midges (Diptera) are pre- 
ferred prey. 

Indiana bats are active from April 
through October, migrating seasonally be- 
tween their summer roosts and hibernation 
caves. Summer colonies begin to disperse 
in August, and migrants return to their hi- 
bernacula in the months from August 
through October. The females enter hiber- 
nation first, followed by the males. It is dur- 
ing this time that mating takes place. 
Females store the sperm until spring, 
when ovulation and fertilization occurs. 

In the yearly cycle, females leave the hi- 
bernacula first, in late March or early April. 
Males follow, but their exit is spread over a 
longer period, and some remain near their 
hibernation caves throughout the summer. 
Pregnant females migrate to their mater- 
nity roosts, arriving in early to mid-May 
where they form colonies of 50 to 100 indi- 
viduals. The young, one per female, are 
born in June or early July. Males may mi- 
grate as well but, like most other species of 
bats, they generally do not roost with the 
females and young during the nursing 
period. 



Preservation Efforts 

An Indiana Bat/Gray Bat Recovery 
Team was assembled in the 1970s. The 
Recovery Team's responsibilities include 
advising the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
of actions deemed necessary to preserve 
these endangered bats. Among these are 
monitoring the populations, cave protec- 
tion, public education, and others. Actions 
for the Indiana bat to date have centered 
on the hibernation caves. 

The team separated caves known to 
harbor Indiana bats into several classes 
based on population sizes. The most im- 
portant (Priority 1) caves, of which there 
are 8, recorded populations of 30,000 or 
more bats each. The second category (Pri- 
ority 2) contained populations above 1 ,000 
but less than 30,000. All of the Priority 1 
caves are or soon will be in public owner- 
ship, and of these six are gated or fenced 
and the other two will be protected in the 
near future. Many of the Priority 2 caves 
are protected as well. 

Since 1983, I have censused seven of 
the eight Priority 1 caves on behalf of the 
Service. (One is an extremely dangerous 
abandoned mine that cannot be cen- 
sused). We elected to have only one per- 
son census these caves in order to reduce 
observer bias, thus attempting to ensure 
that population trends noted in the census 
were real. Regular censusing did not begin 
until the 1980s and was not standardized 
until 1983. Over that time span, the Indi- 
ana bat has declined by 55 percent in 
these caves. The situation in the Priority 2 
caves in several States is similar, with no- 
table exceptions in Indiana and Kentucky. 
Despite efforts to protect this species dur- 
ing hibernation, the population has con- 
tinued to decline. 



(continued on next page) 



INDIANA BAT POPULATIONS 
AT 7 PRIORITY 1 HIBERNACULA-1960-1987 







500 



400 



300 



200 



100 



o 
o 
o 



— 
O 

w 

CO 

D 
Z 



1960 



1975 1980-82 1983 



1985 



1987 



10 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



Indiana Bats 

(continued from page 10) 

The Future 

Overall, the prognosis for the Indiana 
bat is not good. We must gain a better un- 
derstanding of the rest of its life cycle, 
learn what factors besides the known hi- 
bernation-associated ones are contrib- 
uting to the species' decline, and correct 
them. A radio telemetry study of a mater- 
nity colony is getting underway in Illinois 



and may help provide answers. Research 
is needed throughout the principle summer 
range of the Indiana bat to determine its 
habitat preferences, whether or not sum- 
mer habitat is a limiting factor, and what 
threats there are to its existence during the 
non-hibernation period (particularly from 
pesticides). 

I hope that in the future when I go down 
to census Indiana bat populations, the 
trend is reversed and I can chronicle the 
rebound of this endangered bat. There still 
is time, and the mechanism (the Endan- 



gered Species Act) is in place to accom- 
plish it, but if the Indiana bat continues to 
be "down for the count,'' the species could 
be knocked out completely. 

Reprinted with permission from BATS, 
Vol. 5, No. 2, published by Bat Conserva- 
tion International. 

{Editor's note: Mr. Clawson has been a 
member of the Indiana BatGray Bat Re- 
covery Team since 1980 and team leader 
since 1984.) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 4) 

level of the nesting area may indicate the 
beginning of a dry cycle that could cause 
reproduction or chick survival to decline in 
future years. Water conditions are still fair 
in the nesting grounds, but winter pre- 
cipitation will be important in determining 
1988 nesting habitat conditions. 

Twelve whooping crane chicks hatched 
in May from eggs taken to Grays Lake Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, but only 2 
could be found by mid-August. Sandhill 
cranes (Grus canadensis) also experi- 
enced poor chick production and survival 
at the refuge this year. The cause of the 
poor survival rates is unknown. 



Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge re- 
cently announced its intention to manage 
its aquatic resources for native fishes. The 
refuge, located in east-central New Mexico 
along the Pecos River, is home to the En- 
dangered Pecos gambusia (Gambusia no- 
bilis), the Threatened Pecos bluntnose 
shiner (Notropis simus pecosensis), and 
several listing candidates, including the 
greenthroat darter (Etheostoma lepidum) 
and the Pecos pupfish (Cyprinodon peco- 
sensis). James Brooks, fisheries manage- 
ment biologist from Dexter National Fish 
Hatchery in New Mexico, has initiated sur- 
veys of the refuge's ponds and sinkholes. 
With the assistance of the refuge staff, all 
non-native fishes will be removed from the 
refuge in order to provide secure habitats 
for native fish and to enhance their recov- 
ery potential. 

Region 4 — The Endangered Mis- 
sissippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis 
pulla) set a record for the number of nests 
produced during its March-June 1987 
nesting season. The 18-year-old record of 
eight nests in one season was broken on 
May 25, when a pair of cranes that had lost 
its nest earlier in the season renested. 
Nine nests containing a total of 14 eggs 

| were found on and near the Mississippi 
Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in 

i Jackson County, Mississippi. In addition, 
although successful nesting by restocked 
cranes has never been documented, ref- 
uge biologists found a nest with a chick on 
April 8, 1987, belonging to a 5-year-old re- 



leased crane and a wild mate. Since the 
discovery of that first nest in April, three 
more nests have been produced by re- 
leased cranes. The four new pairs resulted 
in a near doubling of the five-nest total 
found in 1986. The long-term recovery 
goal for the Mississippi sandhill crane is a 
stable population of 100 cranes and 30 
breeding pairs. Currently, there are 50 to 
55 cranes and a minimum of 9 breeding 
pairs. 

Two Florida east coast beach mice may 
be proposed for listing as Endangered or 
Threatened. The Anastasia Island beach 
mouse (Peromyscus polionotus phasma), 
considered for Endangered status, for- 
merly occurred from the mouth of the St. 
Johns River in Duval County south along 
the coastal beaches to the end of Ana- 
stasia Island in St. Johns County. Most of 
the former habitat for this subspecies has 
been destroyed by beachfront develop- 
ment. Today, viable populations are be- 
lieved to occur only at the Anastasia State 
Recreation Area on the northern part of 
Anastasia Island and on the Fort Matanzas 
National Monument at the southern end of 
the island. The southeastern beach mouse 
(Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris), 
considered for Threatened status, formerly 
occurred from Ponce (Mosquito) Inlet, 
Volusia County, south along the coastal 
dunes to Hollywood Beach, Broward 
County. As with the Anastasia Island 
beach mouse, much of the habitat of this 
subspecies has been destroyed by beach 
development. Good but vulnerable popula- 
tions remain on Federal lands on Merritt Is- 
land and the Canaveral National Seashore 
where there are sizable amounts of pro- 
tected habitat. 

The taxonomic status of the Okee- 
chobee gourd (Cucurbita okeecho- 
beensis), a listing candidate, is being in- 
vestigated by the Jacksonville, Florida, 
Field Office. The plant was once relatively 
abundant near the southern and eastern 
shores of Lake Okeechobee until agri- 
cultural development destroyed most of its 
habitat in the 1920's. Dr. R. W. Robinson, 
a squash and pumpkin geneticist at the 
New York State Agriculture Experiment 
Station of Cornell University, has not found 
the gourd in recent years. Two other biolo- 
gists have located only a few plants. The 



Okeechobee gourd is similar to a Mexican 
gourd described as Cucurbita martinezii 
by Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell, who had 
collected and worked with the Florida 
gourd earlier. The Mexican gourd has 
proved popular among American vegeta- 
ble breeders as a source of genetic dis- 
ease resistance for domestic gourds and 
squashes, a quality that has encouraged 
searches for new populations and evalua- 
tion of its relationship to the Florida plant. 
In 1980, Dr. Robinson and a collaborator 
presented evidence in a newsletter article 
that the Florida and Mexican gourds 
should be assigned to the same species. 
He has continued to examine the gourds 
and is still convinced that the difference 
between them is slight. A Russian-lan- 
guage paper by A.I. Filov, which recently 
came to the attention of Cornell scientists, 
formally combined the two gourds into a 
single species. Filov, in 1966, named the 
Mexican plants Cucurbita okeecho- 
beensis var. martinezii. A Cornell student, 
T. Andres, who is completing a doctoral 
thesis in Cucurbita systematics, is likely to 
treat these plants similarly. This taxonomic 
treatment leaves the Florida Okeechobee 
gourds as a distinct variety that remains el- 
igible for Federal listing separately from 
the Mexican gourds. 

Region 5 — The annual Virginia big- 
eared bat (Plecotus townsendii virgin- 
ianus) maternity colony census, conducted 
this past June, showed that the number of 
adult female bats has increased for the 
fifth consecutive year. In West Virginia, 
where the majority of colonies (nine) oc- 
cur, the count is up only 2 percent from last 
year, but the population has grown by 
nearly a third since the surveys began in 
1983. The population at Virginia's one 
colony is apparently stable. At Kentucky's 
three colonies, numbers were up more 
than 40 percent from last year. Continuing 
these counts annually will reveal long-term 
trends within colonies and may also shed 
light on the dynamics of colony formation 
and division. 



An Endangered mollusk, the pink 
mucket pearly mussel (Lampsilis or- 
biculata), has been rediscovered at its 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



(continued on page 12) 
11 



Regional News 

(continued from page 1 1) 

type locality in the upper Ohio River. It was 
found upstream of Huntington, West Vir- 
ginia, by Service biologist Bill Tolin. This is 
the first time in 75 years that this mussel 
has been seen in this river reach; there is 
only one other occurrence in the Ohio 
basin within a thousand river miles. This 
find indicates that water quality in the area 
is still high enough to provide habitat for 
this rare mussel. Actually, according to 
Tolin, water quality in the area has greatly 
improved in recent years. 

Region 7 — Last observed on Adak Is- 
land in 1975 by botanist Dr. David K. 
Smith, the Aleutian shield-fern (Poly- 
stichum aleuticum) is one of the rarest 
ferns in North America. In April 1987, the 
Service proposed that the Aleutian shield- 
fern be designated an Endangered spe- 
cies (summary in BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 
5-6). Efforts in recent years to find an ex- 
tant population of P. aleuticum had failed 
until this August, when Dr. Smith — after 
searching for several days — located seven 
plants on Mt. Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. 
Now assured that the shield-fern is not ex- 
tinct, evaluation of a final rulemaking 
adding this plant to the Endangered spe- 
cies list will continue. 



The most recent recovery effort for the 
Endangered Aleutian Canada goose 
(Branta canadensis leucopareia) was the 
successful translocation of 136 birds (60 
adults and 76 goslings) from the main 
breeding island of Buldir to Amchitka Is- 
land, Alaska. It is our hope that female 
hatch-year birds from this release will re- 
turn to Amchitka when sexually mature 
and establish breeding territories there. 
Field biologists from the Alaska Maritime 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

27 

60 

8 

5 

39 
3 

28 

5 

8 

126 

309 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

16 

6 



4 









6 

52 



Foreign 

Only 

242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 





1 

466 



U.S. 

Only 

5 

7 

11 
4 

24 
5 

1 
5 

28 

90 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



2 

4 



6 









3 

15 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


316 





226 


13 


102 





17 





84 





9 





30 





6 





13 


2 


166 


37 


969 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

45 

7 

21 

1 

12 

56 

247** 



'Separate populations of a species, listed both as Endangered and Threatened, are tallied 
twice. Species which are thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, green sea turtle, 
Olive ridley sea turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 213 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 20 animals 

35 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 98 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 49 fish & wildlife 

34 plants 

August 31, 1987 



National Wildlife Refuge also confirmed 
that Aleutian geese are once again nesting 
on Agattu Island. This population was re- 
established in 1 984 after the introduced 
arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) were re- 
moved and family groups of geese from 
Buldir were released there. For the first 



time in decades, Aleutian geese were 
found nesting on Nizki Island. Nizki was 
the site of a release of over 350 primarily 
captive-propagated Aleutian geese in 
1981. Currently, Aleutian geese nest on 
Chagulak, Agattu, Nizki, and Kaliktagik Is- 
lands in addition to Buldir. 



September 1987 



Vol. XII No. 9 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior u S Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program. Washington, D C 20240 



FIRST CLASS 

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 

U S DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

PERMIT NO G-77 



12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9 (1987) 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 
" DCPOOlTOnY ITEM 



October 1987 



Vol. XII No. 10 




MAR 



T9SF 



LIBRARY 



Technical Bulletin 



department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20204 



Reintroduction of Rare Catfish is Proposed 

for Virginia Stream 



A joint Federal State effort to reestablish 
a population of the yellowfin madtom 
(Noturus flavipinnus), a rare species of 
catfish, into part of its historical range was 
proposed recently by the Service (F.R. 
9/8/87). Under the proposal, the 
reintroduced fish would be designated a 
"non-essential experimental population.'' 

The yellowfin madtom is a small species 
that once inhabited many streams in the 
upper Tennessee River basin. After much 
of this aquatic habitat was altered by 
impoundments and water pollution, the 
yellowfin madtom was reduced in range to 
three locations: Citico Creek in Monroe 
County, Tennessee; the Powell River in 
Hancock County, Tennessee; and Copper 
Creek in Scott and Russell Counties, Vir- 
ginia. To prevent its further decline into 
extinction, this fish was listed in 1977 as a 
Threatened species. 

Good habitat for the yellowfin madtom 
remains in the North Fork of the Holston 
River, Virginia. If the proposal to establish 
a non-essential experimental population in 
this stream is approved, the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Tennessee Wildlife 
Resources Agency, and Virginia Commis- 
sion of Game and Inland Fisheries will 
cooperate to bring fish in from the Citico 
Creek population to the Holston River. 
Current plans call for releasing 100 to 200 
young-of-the-year yellowfin madtoms for 3 
consecutive years, funds permitting. Spe- 
cial care would be taken not to jeopardize 
the donor population. 

Designation of reintroduced species as 
experimental populations was authorized 
by the 1982 amendments to the Endan- 
gered Species Act. The goal was to pro- 
mote wider acceptance of efforts to 
reintroduce Endangered and Threatened 
species by permitting greater manage- 
ment flexibility (see BULLETIN Vol. IX No. 
9). A "non-essential'' experimental popula- 
tion is one whose survival is not essential 
to the survival of the species as a whole. If 
the reintroduction proposal is approved, 
management authority for the experimen- 
tal population will rest with the State of Vir- 
ginia. 




Michael Etnier collecting yellowfin madtom eggs and fry in Citico Creek for laboratory 
propagation and research 




The yellowfin madtom is a small species of catfish that requires a slab rock substitute 
for nesting. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 




Endangered species program 
regional staff members reported the fol- 
lowing activities for September: 

Region 1 — Staffs from the Fish and 
Wildlife Service's Sacramento Endan- 



gered Species Office, California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game, National Park 
Service, Presidio of San Francisco, 
Berkeley Botanical Garden, and Saratoga 
Horticultural Foundation recently 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Robert Smith, Acting Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Office of 

Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); 



James C. Gritman, Regional Director; 
John S. Popowski, Assistant Regional 
Director; James M. Engel, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director; 
Marshall P. Jones, Endangered Spe- 
cies Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant Regional 
Director; Paul Nickerson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; John D. Green, Assistant 
Regional Dirrector; Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon 
Nelson, Assistant Regional Director; 
Dennis Money, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N: Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other 
animals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California, Hawaii. Idaho. Nevada. Oregon. Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories. Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois. Indiana, Iowa, Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 
Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont. Virginia and West Virginia. Region 6: Colo- 
rado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: Alaska. Region 8: 
Research and Development nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 20240. 



assessed the progress of the Raven's 
manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens var. 
ravenii) propagation and recovery effort. 
They found that propagation efforts have 
been highly successful because 65 rooted 
cuttings are now available for transfer to 
the wild. This represents a 30 to 40 per- 
cent survival rate of the cuttings taken dur- 
ing January 1987. In addition, the Berkeley 
Botanical Garden was able to germinate 
and grow one new plant from the seed of 
the single remaining wild plant. The 
genetic purity of the seedling has not yet 
been confirmed. 

The presence of the Endangered 
Smith's blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes 
smithi) was recently confirmed in remnant 
coastal dune habitats at Sand City, Mon- 
terey County, California. The survey also 
documented the black legless lizard 
(Anniella pulchra nigra), a Category 2 list- 
ing candidate, and three candidate plant 
species. Because some of these dune 
habitats have been proposed for residen- 
tial and commercial development, the City 
Council of Sand City tentatively agreed to 
seek development of a habitat conserva- 
tion plan to protect the affected Endan- 
gered species and an incidental take 
permit, pursuant to Section 10(a) of the 
Endangered Species Act. 

Contamination continues to spread from 
the 28th Street landfill within the City of 
Sacramento, California. Numerous elder- 
berry plants, habitat of the Endangered 
valley elderberry longhorn beetle 
(Desmocerus californicus dimorphus), 
have been lost. The Director of the City's 
Public Works Department agreed to inves- 
tigate the cause of the elderberry decline 
and any relationship with the contamina- 
tion. The California Water Resources Con- 
trol Board has documented high levels of 
numerous contaminants spreading from 
the landfill into the nearby American River. 

Based on the recent report on the 
effects of the Salt Caves Project to the 
shortnose sucker (Chasmistes bre- 
virostris), recently proposed for listing as 
Endangered, the Oregon Department of 
Environmental Quality denied a permit for 
the project. Larval shortnosed suckers 
could have been stranded if the Klamath 
River flows had been reduced. 

Region 2 — Whooping crane (Grus 
americana) migration was delayed, appar- 
ently by mild weather, in both the Cana- 
dian and Rocky Mountain populations. 
Only a few individuals started southward 
during September from the summering 
areas. 

Dr. Rod Drewien captured four wild 
sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) in 
Idaho and shipped them to the Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center in Maryland 
where they were placed in quarantine. 
They eventually will be force-paired with 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 

captive-reared birds and the pairs returned 
to Grays Lake for release next spring. This 
experiment is to develop techniques that 
might be applicable to promoting pairing 
and nesting among whooping cranes. 

Dr. James Lewis, the Service's Whoop- 
ing Crane Coordinator, met with the Cana- 
dian Whooping Crane Recovery Team in 
Regina, Saskatchewan. One item of dis- 
cussion was Canadian sites that might 
become the location for a second captive 
flock. 

In September, the Oklahoma Coopera- 
tive Fish and Wildlife Research Unit 
attached radio transmitters to six juvenile 
Ozark big-eared bats (Plecotus townsen- 
dii ingens). The radios weigh 0.75 grams 
each and last about 14 days; however, the 
glue that holds the radio on the bat only 
lasts about 1 days. The bats were tracked 
over a range of 3 miles with these radios. 
The research unit will continue its radio- 
tagging work next spring and summer after 
the bat hibernation period. 

Biologists from the U.S. Forest Service, 
New Mexico Department of Game and 
Fish, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice successfully transplanted approx- 
imately 300 Endangered Gila trout (Salmo 



gilae) from South Diamond Creek in the 
Aldo Leopold Wilderness to Trail Canyon 
Creek in the Gila Wilderness. The effort 
involved the use of two crews, one on 
South Diamond Creek where the fish were 
gathered and another on Trail Canyon 
Creek where the fish were stocked. A For- 
est Service helicopter was used to make 
the transfer. Establishment of a population 
of Gila trout in Trail Canyon Creek will 
enhance future recovery efforts by provid- 
ing a source for Gila trout to introduce into 
Mogollon Creek, which will be the next 
stream to be renovated. With the Trail 
Creek stocking, each of the five wild popu- 
lations of Gila trout have been restocked at 
least once, a critical step in the recovery of 
the species. 

The Mexican Wolf Propagation Commit- 
tee is evaluating a study on a lineage of 
captive wolves, known as the Ghost 
Ranch Mexican wolves, to determine if 
they should be integrated into the Serv- 
ice's wolf breeding program. The lineage 
of Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) in 
the current program was founded by three 
males and one female, a constant worry to 
population geneticists due to the small 
number. If the Ghost Ranch Mexican 
wolves are indeed pure wolves, they could 
be used to increase the genetic diversity of 
the Service's Mexican wolf propagation 
group by adding another two founding 
members. Additional comments on the 
electrophoretic and mitochondrial DNA 



study will be requested before the decision 
is made to cross the two Mexican wolf lin- 
eages. 

Region 6 — The National Park Service 
funded a graduate student at Colorado 
State University to conduct a study in 
Rocky Mountain National Park on competi- 
tion between the greenback cutthroat trout 
{Salmo clarki stomias), a Threatened spe- 
cies, and the brook trout (Salvelinus fon- 
tinalis). Results of this study indicate that 
the brook trout juveniles were the domi- 
nant competitor and that they excluded 
juvenile greenbacks from favorable stream 
positions. Evidence of interactions 
between greenbacks and brook trout 
greater than 6 inches (1 50 millimeters) in 
length was minimal; therefore, these inter- 
actions were not considered a major factor 
in cutthroat displacement. Low water years 
appeared to have negative impacts on 
greenbacks by reducing backwater habitat 
and forcing young-of-year greenbacks into 
the main channel where they must com- 
pete against larger fish and expend more 
energy to maintain stream position. For 
further information on this study, contact 
Dr. Fausch at Colorado State University in 
Fort Collins, Colorado, or Bruce Rbsen- 
lund, Fish and Wildlife Assistance Office, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 730 Simms 
Street, Suite 292, Golden, Colorado 
80401 . 

(continued on page 8) 



Four Species Proposed for 
Endangered Species Act Protection 



A freshwater clam, shrubby desert oak, 
and two fishes endemic to desert springs 
were proposed during September for list- 
ing as Threatened or Endangered species. 
If the proposals are made final, Endan- 
gered Species Act protection will be 
extended to these animals and plants: 

James Spinymussel 
(Pleurobema collina) 

North America has a rich diversity of 
freshwater clam or mussel species. These 
mollusks feed by filtering nutrients out of 
the water; however, as they take in food, 
they also concentrate pollutants in their 
body tissues. Many species declined in 
numbers and range when waterways 
became degraded by turbidity and pollu- 
tion. Some mussels have become extinct, 
and 28 have been listed as Threatened or 
Endangered. Recently, the Service pro- 
posed listing another, the James spin- 
ymussel, as Endangered (F.R. 9/1/87). 

Most juveniles of this species have one 
to three short but prominent spines on 
each valve (half-shell). The spines usually 
disappear by the adult stage, when the 
shells reach about 2 inches (5 centi- 
meters) in length. Collection records indi- 
cate that this mussel once was widely 



distributed in the James River drainage 
system upstream of Richmond, Virginia. 
Although its decline probably started when 
municipal growth and industrialization in 
the James River basin began to affect 
water quality, the James spinymussel per- 
sisted in much of its range through the 
mid-1960's. Since then, the mussel has 
disappeared from up to 95 percent of its 
historical range. Survival is documented in 
only four headwater creeks in Craig and 
Botetourt Counties of Virginia and Monroe 
County, West Virginia. 

Because the James spinymussel has 
been reduced in range to only a few rela- 
tively small areas, the species is vulner- 
able to rapid extinction. Potential threats to 
the remaining stream habitat include dis- 
charges from a sewage treatment plant, 
siltation from logging operations, runoff of 
agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, and 
stream channelization. Widespread die- 
offs of mussels have occurred in south- 
western Virginia and, although the cause 
is unknown, similar die-offs in James 
spinymussel habitat could jeopardize the 
remaining population of this species. Com- 
petition from exotic species is yet another 
danger; the Asiatic clam (Curbiculata 
fluminea), a species accidentally intro- 
duced into the James River system, has 



been reported to occur at densities of more 
than 1,000 individuals per square meter 
downstream of Richmond. The spread of 
this exotic is closely correlated with the 
decline of the James spinymussel, and fur- 
ther spread could threaten the remaining 
spinymussel populations. 

(continued on page 5) 




James spinymussels have one to three 
spines on each shell until they reach the 
adult stage. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



The following announcement was prepared by the University of Michigan 

Expanding the Range of 

The Endangered Species Technical Bulletin 



In 198 1 , cuts in the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service budget forced 
the Office of Endangered Species to limit distribution of the 
Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. Prior to the cutbacks 
the bulletin was sent free of charge to anyone who wished to 
receive it. Since 198 1 , however, the Service has been able to 
distribute the bulletin to only federal and state agencies and 
official contacts of the Endangered Species Program. 

The Endangered Species Update fills the gap left by this 
budget crunch. Published by the School of Natural Resources 
at The University of Michigan, the Update is part of a reprint 
program initiated in 1983 . Since its inception, the program has 
established itself as an important forum for information ex- 
change or endangered species issues. Recently the name of 
the reprint has been changed to the Update and the amount of 
supplementary information on species conservation efforts 
outside the federal program increased. In addition to providing 
a reprint of the latest issue of the ESTB, the newly designed 
Update includes: 



A Feature Article - Upcoming article topics include a 15 
year retrospective on the Endangered Species Act, the private 
land trust movement and its contribution to species conserva- 
tion, and global climate change and its effect on habitats. 

A Book Review- covering a recent publication in the field 
of species conservation. 

Technical Notes - produced by The Center for Conserva- 
tion Biology at Stanford University, this section will serve to 
provide information on current and ongoing research in the 
field. 



Bulletin Board 

announcements. 



listing upcoming meetings and current 



In order to keep this unique source of information alive, it is 
important to let people know of its availability. If you know of 
anyone who might be interested in receiving the Endangered 
Species UPDATE, please pass on the subscription informa- 
tion. The annual subscription fee is only $15 for 12 monthly 
issues. This covers the cost of production and mailing. Every 
subscription is vitally important to the operation and improve- 
ment of the reprint program. 



Endangered Species 

UPDATE 




To receive the Endangered Species UPDATE (12 
monthly issues), send $15 by check or money order 
(payable to The University of Michigan) to: 

The Endangered Species UPDATE 
School of Natural Resources 
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City /State / Zip 



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ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 3) 

Hinckley Oak 
(Quercus hinckleyi) 

The small but attractive Hinckley oak 
grows amid the Chihuahuan Desert scrub 
vegetation of Presidio County in western 
Texas. Only three small populations are 
known, each consisting of fewer than 60 
plants. Because of potential threats to their 
survival, the Service has proposed to list 
the species as Threatened (F.R. 9/16/87). 

Two of the populations are near Solitario 
Peak on a ranch that the owner plans to 
develop for exotic game hunting. Biolo- 
gists fear that introduced animals may dis- 
turb the soil, trample the plants, and eat 
the acorns, leaves, or stems of the 
Hinckley oaks. The third population is 
found on private land along a road near the 
town of Shatter. Future road widening or 
realignment could eliminate part or all of 
this population unless precautions are 
taken. 

Possible actions that could be taken to 
recover the Hinckley oak include the col- 
lection of acorns for cultivation and future 
reintroduction of young plants into suitable 
habitat; coordination with the Texas High- 
way Department to avoid impacts from 
road work; and conservation agreements 
with landowners. 



Two Nevada Fishes 

The Clover Valley speckled dace 
(Rhinichthys osculus oligoporus) and 
Independence Valley speckled dace 
(Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus), small 
fish in the minnow family (Cyprinidae), are 
found only in small spring systems in the 
desert of northeastern Nevada. Their sur- 
vival is threatened by their limited distribu- 
tion, the use of spring flows for irrigation 
purposes, and the introduction of non- 
native fishes. Accordingly, both sub- 
species have been proposed by the Serv- 
ice for listing as Threatened (F.R. 9/18/87). 

All habitats of both fishes are in Elko 
County on private lands used for ranching. 
The Clover Valley speckled dace survives 
at two sites and the Independence Valley 
subspecies is limited to one. Irrigation 
practices have relegated the fish to the 
springs, small downstream impound- 
ments, and sections of the short spring 
outflows that connect them. Past use of 
herbicides on aquatic vegetation in the 
reservoirs also may have reduced fish 
numbers. Continued interest in controlling 
the growth of aquatic vegetation could lead 
to a resumption in the use of such chemi- 
cals. 

Introductions of non-native species have 
been largely responsible for the decline 
and even extinction of some native west- 
ern fishes, including the Independence 
Valley tui chub {Gila bicolor isolata). 




The small, holly-like leaves of the Hinckley oak last for more than one season , and the 
acorns are produced annually. 




The Hinckley oak, a shrubby tree that reaches a maximum height of only 4 feet, can 
occur as a single stem or as clonal groups that form dense thickets. It grows in the 
Chihuahuan Desert of western Texas. 



Springs inhabited by the two recently pro- 
posed speckled dace have been contami- 
nated by smallmouth bass (Micropterus 
salmoides), rainbow trout {Salmo 
gairdneri), and bluegill (Lepomis mac- 
irochirus) that apparently were introduced 
for sport fishing purposes. These exotics 
are believed to prey on the native dace, 
keeping their numbers low. 

If the two speckled dace subspecies are 
listed, the Service will seek agreements 
with the private landowners to allow for 
conservation and recovery activities. Spe- 
cific management actions that might be 
negotiated include easements that would 
provide for sufficient water in springs and 
outflows during irrigation work, control of 
aquatic plants by means that would not 
harm the fish, and measures to control 
vandalism and further introductions of 
predatory fish. 



Available Conservation 
Measures 

Among the conservation benefits 
provided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; prohibitions against certain prac- 
tices; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to negotiate land pur- 
chases or exchanges for important habitat; 
and the possibility of Federal aid to State 
or Commonwealth conservation depart- 
ments that have signed Endangered Spe- 
cies Cooperative Agreements with the 
Service. Listing also lends greater recogni- 
tion to a species' precarious status, which 
encourages further conservation efforts by 

(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 5) 

State and local agencies, independent 
organizations, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 
cies. It also requires these agencies to 



ensure that any actions they authorize, 
fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopard- 
ize the survival of a listed species. If an 
agency finds that one of its activities may 
affect a listed species, it is required to con- 
sult with the Service on ways to avoid jeo- 
pardy. For species that are proposed for 
listing and for which jeopardy is found, 
Federal agencies are required to "confer" 
with the Service, although the results of 
such a conference are non-binding. 



Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule is 
different; the prohibition against collecting 
applies only to listed plants found on lands 
under Federal jurisdiction. Some States, 
however, have their own laws against take 
of listed plants. 



Protection is Approved for Eight Species 



Final rules to list four animals and four 
plants as Threatened or Endangered spe- 
cies were published in the Federal Regis- 
ter during September 1987. Protection 
under the Endangered Species Act is now 
available to these taxa: 

Bay Checkerspot Butterfly 
(Euphydryas editha bayensis) 

A colorful, medium-sized butterfly, the 
bay checkerspot has a wingspan of up to 
2 1 A inches (56 millimeters). Its forewings 
have black bands that alternate with rows 
of bright red spots on yellow crescents, 
giving this butterfly a decidedly checkered 
appearance.' The bay checkerspot 
depends on "islands" of serpentine grass- 
lands that contain abundant growth of the 
butterfly's two larval foodplants, plantain 
(Plantago erecta) and owl's clover 
(Orthocarpus densiflorus). 

Recorded historically from 16 areas on 
the San Francisco Peninsula and the adja- 
cent outer Coast Range of central Califor- 
nia, the bay checkerspot now is known to 
occur at only a few sites in the San Fran- 
cisco Bay area. Much of its former habitat 
has been altered by drought, urban 
development, road construction, livestock 
overgrazing, and other land uses that 
altered native plant communities. A pro- 
posal to list the bay checkerspot as Threat- 
ened and to designate Critical Habitat for it 
was published in the September 11,1 984, 
Federal Register (see summary in BUL- 
LETIN Vol. IX No. 10). The final listing rule 
was published September 18, 1987, but a 
decision on the Critical Habitat designation 
was deferred in order to complete the 
required economic analyses. 

Two Southern California 
Plants 

Two rare plants native to southern Cal- 
ifornia, the slender-horned spineflower 
(Centrostegia leptoceras) and Santa 
Ana wooly-star (Eriastrum densifolium 
ssp. sanctorum), also are threatened with 
extinction because of habitat loss. Both 



occur on alluvial fan scrub lands within the 
Santa Ana River drainage. C. leptoceras, 
a small prostrate annual, has been 
reduced in range to 5 sites totalling less 
than 10 acres (4 hectares) in Riverside 
and San Bernardino Counties. E. d. ssp. 
sanctorum, a shrub that bears bright blue 
flowers, survives in scattered patches in 
San Bernardino County. Historical and 
continuing threats facing these plants 
include development within the floodplain, 
sand and gravel mining, livestock grazing, 
and competition from non-native plants. 
Both were proposed on April 9, 1986, for 
listing as Endangered (see BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 5), and the final rule was published 
September 28, 1987. 

Pawnee Montane Skipper 
(Hesperia leonardus 
montana) 

A small brownish-yellow butterfly, the 
Pawnee montane skipper is restricted to 
the South Platte River drainage in the 
Front Range of central Colorado. Within 
this region, the skipper inhabits open, dry, 
ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) wood- 
lands on steep slopes. Blue grama grass 
(Bouteloua gracilis), the larval food plant, 
and the prairie gayfeather (Liatris punc- 
tata), the primary nectar plant, are neces- 
sary parts of skipper habitat. Some habitat 
already has been eliminated by housing 
construction and other development, road 
building, and the Cheesman Reservoir. 
Construction of the proposed Two Forks 
Dam and Reservoir project, if completed 
as planned, also will affect the butterfly's 
habitat. After the Pawnee montane skipper 
was proposed on September 25, 1986, for 
listing as Threatened (see BULLETIN Vol. 
XI No. 10-11), the Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice began to confer with Federal land man- 
agement and permitting agencies to 
achieve protection for the butterfly. The 
final listing rule was published September 
25, 1 987. Under Section 7 of the Act, these 
agencies are required to avoid any 
activities that are likely to jeopardize the 
butterfly's survival. 



San Rafael Cactus 
(Pediocactus despainii) 

This small, ball-shaped cactus shrinks 
below ground level during dry or cold sea- 
sons, and is noticeable only for a short 
time in spring when its bronze-tinted 
flowers are open. Two populations of the 
cactus are known, both of them on the San 
Rafael Swell, a large anticline or geologi- 
cal upwarp in Emery County, Utah. One of 
the populations is near a popular recrea- 
tion area that is receiving heavy off-road 
vehicle use. Further, about half of the area 
occupied by both populations contains oil 
and gas leases as well as mining claims 
for gypsum and other minerals. The inter- 
est of some hobbyists in collecting wild 
specimens of rare cacti is another threat. A 
proposal to list the San Rafael cactus as 
an Endangered species was published in 
the March 27, 1986, Federal Register (see 
BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 4), and the final rule 
was issued September 16, 1987. 

Blowout Penstemon 
(Penstemon haydenii) 

Known only from the sandhills of 
Nebraska, this showy, blue-flowered 
perennial inhabits fresh blowouts (wind- 
scoured depressions in areas with sandy 
soils). The blowout penstemon was a com- 
mon part of the sandhill vegetation early in 
this century, but efforts to stabilize active 
dunes have greatly reduced the amount of 
available habitat. Ten populations are 
known to survive in five counties, and 
slightly over half of the plants are on the 
Valentine and Crescent Lake National 
Wildlife Refuges. Nevertheless, the Serv- 
ice believes this species to be in danger of 
extinction. Because the populations are 
small, isolated, and apparently not vig- 
orous, they are vulnerable to loss from 
localized environmental changes and nat- 
ural vegetational succession. The blowout 
penstemon was proposed on April 29. 
1986, for listing as an Endangered species 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



Final Listings 

(continued from page 6) 



(see BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 5), and the list- 
ing was made final September 1 , 1 987. 

Little Colorado Spinedace 
(Lepidomeda vittata) 

A small species in the minnow family, 
the Little Colorado spinedace is usually 
less than 4 inches (10 centimeters) in total 
length. It was abundant historically 
throughout the upper drainage of the Little 
Colorado River in Arizona, but it currently 
survives only in sections of five tributaries. 
Much of the species' free-flowing stream 
habitat was degraded or eliminated by 
impoundments, removal of water from the 



streams, channelization, grazing, road 
building, urban growth, and other 
activities. The introduction of non-native 
competing and predatory fish species, and 
the use of fish poisons to remove so-called 
"trash'' fish, also contributed to the decline 
of the spinedace. Threats to this fish con- 
tinue, and the Service proposed May 22, 
1986, to list the Little Colorado spinedace 
as Threatened and to designate its Critical 
Habitat (see BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 6). The 
final listing rule, and a map of the 44 
stream miles of Critical Habitat, were pub- 
lished in the September 16, 1987, Federal 
Register. 

Cape Fear Shiner 
(Notropis mekistocholas) 

Another rare fish, the Cape Fear shiner 
is restricted to three locations in the Cape 



Fear River drainage of eastern North Car- 
olina. This species, which rarely exceeds 2 
inches (5 centimeters) in length, inhabits 
free-flowing streams over rocky sub- 
strates. Reservoir construction flooded 
much of its former habitat, and deteriorat- 
ing water quality is a continuing problem. 
The reduced range and low population lev- 
els increase the shiner's vulnerability to a 
single catastrophic event (e.g., a chemical 
spill). On July 11,1 986, the Service pro- 
posed to list the Cape Fear shiner as an 
Endangered species and to designate its 
Critical Habitat (see BULLETIN Vol. XI No. 
8-9). The final listing rule, published in the 
October 25, 1987, Federal Register, con- 
tains a map of the approximately 17 river 
miles in four counties designated as Crit- 
ical Habitat. 



Possible Cause 

Identified in Deaths 

of Cranes at 
Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center 



Scientists suspect that a fungus-pro- 
duced toxin that can occur naturally in 
feed grain is responsible for the illness 
that struck cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center at Laurel, Maryland, in 
September. Four birds belonging to 
Endangered species — three whooping 
cranes {Grus americana) and one Mis- 
sissippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis 
pulla) — were among the 16 cranes that 
died between September 1 9 and October 
5. Quick action by Patuxent biologists and 
other scientists averted an even greater 
tragedy; over 110 other ill cranes 
responded well to treatment and are 
again healthy. No cranes have died at 
Patuxent since October 5. 

A special response team from the Fish 
and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife 
Health Research Center in Madison, 
Wisconsin, was called in soon after the ill- 
ness became apparent. Tests were con- 
ducted at Patuxent laboratories, at U.S. 
Department of Agriculture facilities in 
Ames, Iowa, and Beltsville, Maryland, and 
at the University of Maryland's Agriculture 
Department in College Park, Maryland. 
The sick birds were treated with fluids, 
antibiotics, and vitamins. After Patuxent 
biologists changed the food and water 
supply, the cranes began to act livelier 
and gain weight. The original water supply 
later was found to be safe. 




Y 



4.r '"/ : ?M^ 



jM-W. -^ 




1 

I: 




ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

The Bureau of Land Management, For- 
est Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, Col- 
orado Department of Natural Resources, 
and Center for Conservation Biology at 
Stanford University in California are under- 
taking a study of the Uncompahgre fritillary 
butterfly (Boloria acrocnema). This candi- 
date species is only known from two small 
isolated populations in southwestern Colo- 
rado. The larval food plant is the snow 
willow (Salix nivalis) and a variety of alpine 
plants serve as nectar sources for the 
adult. The flight season is usually from 
mid-July to early August and lasts approx- 
imately 2 weeks. Dr. Peter F. Brussard of 
Montana State University at Bozeman is 
conducting the study. He will assess the 
viability of the two existing populations and 
their continued existence by analyzing the 
species' distribution, habitat requirements, 
genetic variation in each population, and 
how that variation is distributed among the 
populations. The study is expected to be 
completed in March 1988. 

Region 8 (Research) — A captive 
female Hawaiian crow or 'alala (Corvus 
hawaiiensis) died at the Olinda Endan- 
gered Species Propagation Facility on 
Maui June 10, 1987. Clinical history and 
necropsy done at the Service's National 
Wildlife Health Research Center in 
Wisconsin indicate that the bird was egg- 
bound and developed yolk peritonitis. 
There was a small fibrous mass on the wall 
of the oviduct that may have predisposed 
the bird to this problem. This death leaves 
eight Hawaiian crows in captivity and two 
known survivors in the wild. 

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 
reported the first known case in which a 
wild male gray wolf (Canis lupus) in Min- 
nesota successfully bred two females, 
both of which produced young. After 
breeding, the male spent all of his time 
with one female, while the other female 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 










PLANS 












ENDANGERED 




THREATENED 




I 


3PECIES 


Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. U.S. & 


Foreign 


SPECIES* 


HAVING 




Only 


Foreign 


Only 


Only Foreign 


Only 


TOTAL 


PLANS 


Mammals 


27 


20 


242 


5 


22 


316 


23 


Birds 


60 


16 


141 


7 2 





226 


55 


Reptiles 


8 


6 


60 


11 4 


13 


102 


21 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 





17 


6 


Fishes 


40 


4 


11 


25 6 





86 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 





9 


7 


Clams 


28 





2 








30 


21 


Crustaceans 


5 








1 





6 


1 


Insects 


8 








7 





15 


12 


Plants 


130 


6 


1 


28 3 


2 


170 


56 


TOTAL 


314 


52 


466 


93 15 


37 


977 


247" 


'Separate popula 


tions of a spec 


es that are listed as Endangered and Threatened 


are tal- 


lied twice. 


Species thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald 


sagle, green sea turtle, olive 


ridley sea 


turtle, leopard, and piping plover. 








**More than one 


species may be covered by some plans, and a few 


species have more 


than one plan covering different parts of 


their ranges. 








Number of Recovery Plans approved: 213 








Number o( 


species currently proposed for listing: 19 animal: 
















32 plants 








Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 100 








Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 49 fish & 


wildlife 














34 plants 




September 30, 1987 













became a single parent with a den about 
14 miles (22.5 kilometers) away. On 
August 1 1 , 1987, the male wolf was killed 
by a moose in the Superior National For- 
est, Minnesota. This is only the third 
known record of a wolf being killed by a 
moose. 



One of the radioed wolves under study 
in the Superior National Forest, Min- 
nesota, was killed when it wandered out of 
its territory and into the rendezvous site of 
an adjacent pack. The wolf was found with 
multiple bites to the throat, abdomen, and 
hind quarters. 



October 1987 



Vol. XII No. 10 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



FIRST CLASS 

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

PERMIT NO. G-77 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10 (1987) 



v; 

November-December 1987 



PUDLIC nr ;■■■'. ;ents v o'- x " N o. 11-12 





Technical Bulletin 



Deparfi 
Service! 




^he Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
flfegton, D.C. 20204 



Endangered Species Staff in Washington is Reorganized 



As part of a general reorganization 
within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
from use of a program management sys- 
tem to a line-staff system, the former 
Washington Office of Endangered Species 
now has a new name — the Division of 
Endangered Species and Habitat Conser- 
vation — and a wider range of respon- 
sibilities. This reorganization parallels one 
that has already taken place in the Serv- 
ice's Regional and field offices. The follow- 
ing summary should help to acquaint 
people outside the Service with the new 
organizational structure: 

Fish and Wildlife 
Enhancement 

The Assistant Director for Fish and 
Wildlife Enhancement (Enhancement), 
Ronald E. Lambertson (telephone 202/ 
343-4646), provides staff support to the 
Director and the Regions on Service 
responsibilities in these areas: 1) Endan- 
gered and Threatened species listing, 
consultation, and recovery; 2) wetland and 
upland habitat protection, restoration, and 
conservation; 3) environmental contami- 
nants; 4) wetlands mapping; 5) grants to 
the States; and 6) international activities 
involving protected species. Staff support 
responsibilities are primarily in the areas 
of coordinating with the Service's Regional 
offices, policy and budget preparation, and 
special issues. Under the Assistant Direc- 
tor for Enhancement are four divisions: 
1. Division of Endangered Species 
and Habitat Conservation 
The former Office of Endangered 
Species and Division of Ecological 
Services have been combined to 
form the new Division of Endangered 
Species and Habitat Conservation. 
Robert Smith is acting Chief, and 
Ken Stansell is acting Deputy Chief 
(telephone 703/235-2771). This divi- 
sion provides staff support to the 
Assistant Director on 1) Endangered 
and Threatened species listing, con- 
sultation, and recovery policy; 2) wet- 
land and upland habitat protection, 
restoration, and conservation; and 3) 
wetlands mapping. The new division 
consists of the following branches: 



A) Listing and Recovery (Janet 
Hohn, acting Branch Chief; 
703/235- 1975) — As its name 
implies, this branch is respon- 
sible for most of the duties of the 
former Office of Endangered 
Species. Among its respon- 
sibilities are: developing policy 
and guidelines for listing actions, 
recovery plans, and economic 
analyses of Critical Habitat; 
tracking of listing actions, peti- 
tions, and recovery plans during 
their review in Washington; com- 
piling Regional selections of list- 
ing candidates; coordinating the 
development of briefing material; 
and serving as a liaison to other 
agencies and organizations. The 
development of proposed and 
final listing rules, identification of 
listing candidates, evaluation of 
listing petitions, and preparation 
and implementation of recovery 
plans are responsibilities of the 
appropriate Regional Offices. 
Listings of foreign species, 
however, will be developed in the 
Service's Office of Scientific 
Authority. 

B) Federal Activities (Frank 
DeLuise, Branch Chief; 703/235- 
2418) — This branch develops 
regulations and policy to imple- 
ment the Endangered Species 
Act (particularly Section 7 inter- 
agency consultations), Fish and 
Wildlife Coordination Act, 
National Environmental Policy 
Act, and other laws that give the 
Service specific authority. It 
works with such Federal agen- 
cies as the Army Corps of Engi- 
neers, Bureau of Reclamation, 
Soil Conservation Service, Fed- 
eral Energy Regulatory Commis- 
sion, and the Minerals Manage- 
ment Service to help them avoid 
and mitigate losses of wildlife 
habitat resulting from their 
activities. At the request of the 
Director, the branch also alerts 
other agencies, development 
interests, and conservation orga- 
nizations about habitat enhance- 



ment opportunities. Section 7 
consultations and Biological 
Opinions, permit evaluations, and 
environmental impact statement 
reviews are delegated to the 
Regions. The Service's Office of 
Scientific Authority will issue Bio- 
logical Opinions on foreign import 
permits. 

C) Special Projects (Robert Misso, 
Branch Chief; 703/235-2760) — 
Passage of laws popularly known 
as the Farm Bill, Omnibus Bill, 
and Emergency Wetlands Act 
presents new areas of oppor- 
tunity for conserving wildlife hab- 
itat. The Special Projects branch 
develops approaches for making 
the most of these opportunities. 
Among the branch's other impor- 
tant responsibilities are conduct- 
ing the National Wetlands 
Inventory and developing the 
Endangered Species Information 
System. 

D) Technical Information and Sup- 
port Services (Jim Beers, 
Branch Chief; 703/235-2407) — 
This branch provides administra- 
tive and automatic data process- 
ing support for all Enhancement 
divisions, and develops budget 
material for all divisions but Fed- 
eral Aid. Processing controlled 
correspondence and producing 
the Endangered Species Techni- 
cal Bulletin are two of the 
branch's other primary respon- 
sibilities. 

2. Division of Environmental Con- 
taminants 

This division provides staff support 
to the Assistant Director and techni- 
cal support to the Regional Offices 
on activities relating to a variety of 
environmental contaminants. Among 
its areas of involvement are: haz- 
ardous materials disposal sites; 
spills of oil and other toxic sub- 
stances; herbicide and pesticide reg- 
istration and application; contami- 
nant considerations in Federal water 
resource development; management 
of contaminants on Service and 
(continued on page 1 1) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 




Endangered species regional staff 
members reported the following news 
for the months of October and Novem- 
ber: 

Region 1 - The Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice's Sacramento, California, Endangered 



Species Office presented testimony to the 
State Water Resources Control Board on 
two fishes of the Sacramento - San Joa- 
quin Delta estuary, the Delta smelt (Hypo- 
mesus transpacificus) and Sacramento 
splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Robert Smith, Acting Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771 ) 

Marshall P. Jones, Office of 

Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); 



James C. Gritman, Regional Director; 
John S. Popowski, Assistant Regional 
Director; James M. Engel, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director; 
Marshall P. Jones, Endangered Spe- 
cies Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant Regional 
Director; Paul Nickerson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; John D. Green, Assistant 
Regional Dirrector; Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon 
Nelson, Assistant Regional Director; 
Dennis Money, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N: Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other 
animals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California. Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon. Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories. Region 2: Arizona, New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri. Ohio, and Wisconsin. 
Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi. North Carolina. South Carolina. Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts. New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia. Region 6: Colo- 
rado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: Alaska Region 8: 
Research and Development nationwide 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 20240. 



Both species have been recommended as 
candidates for future listing proposals 
because of declines in their distribution 
and abundance. 

A recent alternative from the California 
Department of Transportation for 
redesigning State Route 1 through Carmel 
will reduce impacts to the Hatton Canyon 
population of Hickman's onion (Allium 
hickmanii) by approximately two-thirds. 
Nearly 55 percent of the species' range 
occurs on the bluffs above Hatton Can- 
yon. The Hickman's onion is a Category 1 
listing candidate. 

In response to recent findings, African 
clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) will be 
trapped and removed from habitat of the 
unarmored threespine stickleback (Gas- 
terosteus aculeatus williamsoni), an 
Endangered fish in Soledad Canyon (Los 
Angeles County). These non-native frogs 
are highly predacious and can have sig- 
nificant impacts on fish populations. The 
trapping effort is a short-term effort while 
biologists at California State University - 
Northridge seek to determine how severe 
an impact these frogs are likely to have on 
the stickleback population if they are not 

controlled. 

* * * 

A second population of the Endangered 
San Mateo thornmint (Acanthomintha 
obovata duttonii) has been discovered. 
This small population of 1 1 plants was 
observed on San Francisco Water Depart- 
ment property adjoining the Edgewood 
County Park on the west side of Interstate 
280. The area is managed as natural 
open space; therefore, the population is 
considered relatively secure from develop- 
ment threats. 

Efforts to save and recover the Owens 
pupfish (Cyprinodon radiosus) were set 
back by the contamination of its last 
refugium by largemouth bass (Microp- 
terus salmoides). These introduced pred- 
ators were recently discovered above the 
uppermost fish barrier at the Bureau of 
Land Management's spring refugium in 
Mono County, California. The California 
Department of Fish and Game suspects 
that the mode of access was an unauthor- 
ized fish transplant. Within the past year, 
largemouth bass have gained access to 
all four of the isolated spring habitats that 
were established in Fish Slough as pup- 
fish refugia. 

* * * 

It was an excellent year for nesting bald 
eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 
Idaho. Nine new nest territories were iden- 
tified. There were 1 1 more occupied ter- 
ritories in 1987 than in 1986 and 15 more 
than in 1985. Successful nesting pairs 
have more than doubled since 1985 and 
increased 78 percent over 1986. The 
number of young produced in 1987 (60) 
doubled the 1986 figure of 30, and the 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 

number of young fledged in 1987 (57) was 
more than twice the 26 fledged in 1986. 

Representatives of the Service's Sacra- 
mento Office, the City of Sacramento, the 
Central Valley Regional Water Control 
Board, and the American River Flood 
Control District again examined the con- 
taminated zone at the northern margins of 
the city's main landfill. It borders the 
southern edge of the American River 
approximately one mile above the con- 
fluence with the Sacramento River. Con- 
taminants of some sort appear to be 
leaking out of the landfill toward the Amer- 
ican River, killing all vegetation in their 
path, including some 100 elderberry 
plants. The elderberry plants, host for the 
Endangered valley elderberry longhorn 
beetle (Desmocerus californicus di- 
morphus), were being grown as part of a 
mitigation plan for work done by the Flood 



Control District at another location. More 
study is needed to determine the exact 
nature of the contaminants before reme- 
dies can be determined. Evidence of the 
valley elderberry longhorn beetle was 
found on a proposed riprap site on the 
Stanislaus River at the boundary of San 
Joaquin and Stanislaus Counties. This 
finding increases the eastern extent of the 
beetle's known range. 

Region 2 - Six Mexican wolves (Canis 
lupus baileyi) have returned home to Mex- 
ico, approximately 10 years after one 
female and 3 males were imported from 
Mexico to start a captive breeding pro- 
gram in the U.S. The Mexican Govern- 
ment requested the three pairs of wolves 
in order to start its own captive breeding 
program. In the U.S., captive Mexican wolf 
numbers had increased to 30, with breed- 
ing being limited by a lack of holding facili- 
ties. The 30 wolves were held at 4 fa- 
cilities: Rio Grande Zoological Park, Albu- 
querque, New Mexico; Alameda Park Zoo, 
Alamogordo, New Mexico; Arizona-Sonora 



Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona; and the 
Wild Canid Survival and Research Center, 
Eureka, Missouri. The shipment of these 
six animals will allow space for additional 
breeding in U.S. zoos and establish three 
additional holding facilities to increase the 
number of Mexican wolves in captivity. In 
Mexico, the wolves are being housed at 
Colonia Cuauhtemoc, a park near Mexico 
City; San Juan de Aragon Zoological Park 
in Mexico City; and the Ecological Center 
of Sonora in Hermosillo. Three Mexican 
veterinarians spent several days in New 
Mexico prior to the wolf shipment, learning 
handling and breeding techniques from 
Kent Newton (Rio Grande Zoo and Mexi- 
can Wolf Propagation Committee leader) 
and Norma Ames (Mexican Wolf Recovery 
Team leader). Veterinarians Gerardo 
Lopez Islas, Carlos Contreras Loza, and 
Rene Hernandez then accompanied the 
wolves on the historic return trip to the 
land of their grandparents' birth. 

(continued on page 9) 



Progress on Gila Trout Recovery 
Leads to Reclassification Proposal 



The Gila trout {Salmo gilae), native to 
relatively undisturbed mountain streams in 
the southwestern United States, once was 
a common game fish. Historically, it inhab- 
ited the Verde and Agua Fria River drain- 
ages in Arizona and the headwaters of the 
Gila River in New Mexico. Over the past 
century, however, deteriorating water 
quality and impacts from introduced fishes 
eliminated the Gila trout from most of its 
former range. By 1967, this fish survived 
only in sections of five small New Mexico 
streams, and the Fish and Wildlife Service 
listed it as Endangered. Fortunately, the 
habitat of these five populations is secure, 
and biologists have restored seven other 
populations on protected land. In recogni- 
tion of the species' improved status, the 
Gila trout has been proposed for re- 
classification from Endangered to the less 
critical category of Threatened (FR. 
10/6/87). 

Habitat conservation has played a vital 
role in recovery of the Gila trout. Ten of 
the eleven streams that contain popula- 
tions of this species are in designated wil- 
derness areas within Gila National Forest 
(New Mexico) and Prescott National Forest 
(Arizona). U.S. Forest Service regulations 
on wilderness protection will minimize or 
prevent water quality problems from log- 
ging, mining, and other watershed disturb- 
ances. 

The Gila trout also is benefiting from 
efforts to control non-native trouts. When 
the Gila trout originally began to decline, 
non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta), rain- 
bow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and cutthroat 
trout (Salmo clarki) were introduced to 
support sport fishing. These more adapt- 



able trout overwhelmed the dwindling 
number of Gila trout and caused severe 
problems through hybridization, predation, 
and competition. Recovery actions initi- 
ated after the Gila trout was listed 
included chemical treatment of streams 
within its range to remove introduced 
fishes and construction of physical bar- 
riers to prevent reinvasion by the non- 
native trout. 

As the habitats were secured, biologists 
with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
U.S. Forest Service, New Mexico Depart- 
ment of Game and Fish, and New Mexico 
State University moved adult Gila trout 
from each of the last five successfully 
reproducing indigenous populations and 
released them into the closest suitable 
renovated stream. Securing and replicat- 
ing the five ancestral populations to estab- 
lish seven, more fulfills the criteria es- 



tablished in the Gila Trout Recovery Plan 
(approved in 1984) for reclassifying the 
species to Threatened. 

Currently, all stream reaches that con- 
tain Gila trout are closed to sport fishing. 
The reclassification proposal contains a 
special rule that, if approved, would allow 
the State of New Mexico to establish a 
regulated sport fishery for the Gila trout. 
Such an action would not interfere with 
the species' recovery; in fact, it was rec- 
ommended in the recovery plan. Many of 
the reintroduced populations are now at or 
near the carrying capacity of their habitat. 
A sport fishing program, combined with 
angler education, would show that the Gila 
trout can provide the same recreational 
quality as the non-native trouts. Future 
recovery efforts will include renovation of 
larger streams and establishment of addi- 
tional Gila trout populations. 




?m&}zL*£« 



Gila trout 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Red Wolves Return to the Wild 



Warren Parker 

Red Wolf Coordinator 

Asheville, North Carolina, Field Office 

After nearly a decade of effort, the red 
wolf (Canis rufus) has been placed back 
into the wild. A pair of red wolves was 
released onto Alligator River National 
Wildlife Refuge in northeastern North Car- 
olina on September 12, 1987. Three other 
pairs were released on September 30. 
This marks the first time in North Ameri- 
can history that a species considered to 
be extinct in the wild was released into the 
wild. In the early to mid-1 970's, the spe- 
cies was saved by a carefully planned 
captive breeding project. The objective of 
this captive breeding effort has always 
been to place red wolves back into 
selected portions of their historical range. 

The four pairs of wolves were brought to 
the refuge in November 1986 and were 
acclimated for 10 months in 2,500-square- 
foot holding pens on various portions of 
the refuge. Prior to their release, they were 
fed native prey species. The "soft" release 
consisted simply of feeding the animals 
and then securing the pen doors in an 
open position. They typically stayed in 
their pens for several days before ventur- 
ing out on their own. Intensive monitoring 
of the wolves by radio telemetry permits 
field technicians to follow daily move- 
ments. 

Public response to the release has been 
extremely rewarding, with refuge deer 
hunters and visitors reporting sightings of 
the animals on access roads. One male, 
following a canal, ventured into the out- 
skirts of Mann's Harbor, a community of 
700 people. He was tracked by his trans- 
mitter collar and quickly captured by ref- 
uge personnel. The incident actually en- 




red wolf 



hanced local public interest and support 
for the project when the animal was 
returned to the refuge in an efficient man- 
ner. 

Unfortunately, two of the released 
female wolves died in December 1987. 
One fell victim to kidney failure apparently 
caused by an infection; tissues have been 
sent to the Service's National Wildlife 
Health Research Center in Madison, 
Wisconsin, for analysis. The second suf- 
fered injuries thought to have resulted 
from a fight with another wolf. On the 
brighter side, all of the other wolves are 
doing well. They have become so adept at 
catching their own natural food that they 
now weigh more than at any time in cap- 
tivity. 

On January 22, eight more wolves were 
brought from captive breeding facilities to 
acclimation pens at Alligator River. Two of 
them are unpaired adult females that have 
been placed in pens with the recently 
"widowed" males. The other six wolves 
include an adult pair and four young-of- 
the-year wolves that biologists will 
observe to see if natural pairing occurs. 
All will be released in the spring of 1988. 

In the meantime, several "island proj- 
ects" have been initiated by the Service. 
These entail the acclimation of a select 
pair of captive red wolves on an island, 
their release, and the eventual capture of 
their wild offspring for release at perma- 
nent reintroduction sites. Wild animals are 
greatly needed to enhance the oppor- 
tunities for a successful recovery of this 
uniquely North American species. 

The first island project is taking place at 
Bulls Island in Cape Romain National 
Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina. On 
November 19, an adult pair was placed in 
acclimation pens on Bulls Island for 
release in the spring of 1 988. 



California Sea Otter Translocation 



Robert L. Brownell, Jr. 

National Ecology Research Center 

San Simeon, California 

Between August 24 and October 30, 
1987, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and 
California Department of Fish and Game 
biologists captured 108 southern sea 
otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) along the 
central California coast and released more 
than half of them into another part of the 
population's historical range. Sixty (13 
males and 47 females) of these sea otters 
were released at San Nicolas Island off 
the coast of southern California after a 
short stay at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. 
The others, mostly excess males, were 
flipper-tagged and released at the capture 
sites. The Service expects that the trans- 
located animals will establish themselves 




(continued on page 11) California sea otter 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Listing Protection is Proposed for Seven Species 



Four plants and three animals whose 
survival is in question due to habitat loss 
and other factors were proposed by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service recently for list- 
ing as Threatened or Endangered spe- 
cies. If the listing proposals are made 
final, the protection and recovery benefits 
offered by the Act will be available to 
these species: 

Mohr's Barbaras-buttons 
(Marshallia mohrii) 

A perennial herb in the sunflower family 
(Asteraceae), M. mohrii grows up to 2.3 
feet (70 centimeters) high and bears 
heads of showy white to lavender flowers. 
This species is endemic to moist, prairie- 
like open areas in the southern Appala- 
chian Mountains. It currently is restricted 
to 14 known sites; seven historical popula- 
tions apparently have been extirpated. 
Because the remaining colonies are vul- 
nerable to loss from habitat modification, 
the Service has proposed to list M. mohrii 
as Threatened (FR. 11/19/87). 

Thirteen of the surviving populations 
are in northern Alabama and one is in 
northwestern Georgia. Many of the plants 
grow along roadside rights-of-way. Road 
widening or certain roadside maintenance 
activities (e.g., herbicide applications, 
mowing during the flowering season) 
could jeopardize the M. mohrii colonies 
unless precautions are taken. The Ala- 
bama Highway Department, which has 
jurisdiction over some M. mohrii habitat, 
has agreed to work with the Service to 
protect the sites. Other populations of the 
species occur on privately-owned lands 
that could be drained and converted from 
native habitat to improved pastures or 
cropland. Efforts are under way to encour- 
age conservation of M. mohrii sites by 
these landowners. 

Mead's Milkweed (Asclepias 
meadii) 

This perennial plant grows as a solitary 
stalk up to 16 inches (40 cm) tall lined 
with broadly ovate leaves and topped by a 
cluster of greenish to cream colored 
flowers. Historically, Mead's milkweed 
occurred throughout much of the virgin 
"tall grass" prairie of the midwest. Most of 
the original prairie upon which this spe- 
cies depends has been replaced by 
urbanization and agriculture, and only iso- 
lated pockets of tall grass habitat remain. 
Today, A. meadii is believed to be extir- 
pated from Indiana and Wisconsin, but it 
survives in Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and 
Iowa. 

Although about 28 percent of the known 
A. meadii populations are on State and 
Federal lands, most occur on private prop- 
erty and lack legal protection. The Serv- 
ice has proposed to list Mead's milkweed 




Mohr's Barbaras-buttons 

at the Federal level as a Threatened spe- 
cies (FR. 10/21/87). (It is listed already by 
the States of Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri.) 
Federal law does not prohibit the removal 
or destruction of listed plants on private 
lands, but the Service will seek to develop 
conservation agreements with the land- 
owners. 

Sandplain Gerardia (Agalinis 
acuta) 

Another plant restricted to open, prairie- 
like habitat is the sandplain gerardia, an 
annual herb in the snapdragon family 
(Scrophulariaceae). This species currently 
is known to occur in sandy areas of 
coastal plain grassland in the northeast 
(Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Long 
Island, New York — six sites each) and on 




(continued on page 6) Mead's milkweed 




sandplain gerardia 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from page 5) 

a serpentine barren in Baltimore County, 
Maryland (one site). Although A. acuta 
also was known historically from sites in 
Connecticut and Rhode Island, these 
colonies can no longer be found. Threats 
to the nine surviving populations have led 
the Service to propose listing the sand- 
plain gerardia as an Endangered species 
(FR. 11/19/87). 

Construction of year-round residential 
developments, summer cottages, and 
marinas has eliminated a number of for- 
mer A. acuta sites. Secondary impacts of 
this urbanization also have had serious 
impacts on the gerardia's habitat. The 
species appears to require periodic dis- 
turbance of its habitat to keep the sites 
open and free from the encroachment of 
dense woody vegetation. In the past, live- 
stock grazing and extensive fires (often 
set intentionally) suppressed invading 
scrub oak and pitch pine forests; however, 
the shift from agriculture to urbanization 
has led to a decrease in grazing and an 
increase in fire suppression. As a result, 
competing vegetation has claimed many 
historical gerardia sites. 

The A. acuta site in Maryland is at Sol- 
dier's Delight, an area of unusual vegeta- 
tion protected as a State Natural Environ- 
mental Area. Most of the species' other 
known populations are on private lands. In 
addition to seeking management agree- 
ments with the landowners, the Service 
will investigate the possibility of 
reestablishing A. acuta colonies on pro- 
tected sites within the species' historical 
range. Cooperation with The Nature Con- 
servancy, which has done most of the 
recent survey work on the gerardia, and 
the State resource agencies, which have 
management authority for the species, will 
continue. 

Erubia (Solanum 
drymophilum) 

S. drymophilum, a tall evergreen shrub 
in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), is 
endemic to the island of Puerto Rico. One 
of this plant's distinguishing characteristics 
is the growth of whitish, star-shaped hairs 
that cover the leaves, young stems, and 
white flowers. Another is the presence of 
numerous stiff spines nearly one-half inch 
(1 .25 cm) in length that armor the leaves 
and inflorescenses. Of the four popula- 
tions documented by collections, only one 
survives, and the Service has proposed to 
list S. drymophilum as an Endangered 
species (FR. 11/19/87). 

The extensive clearing of Puerto Rico's 
montane forests undoubtedly contributed 
to the erubia's decline. Deliberate eradica- 
tion efforts aimed at this species are 
another likely factor. S. drymophilum 
apparently is able to recolonize disturbed 
sites, such as pastures, but its spines are 



widely perceived to be a threat to live- 
stock. Consequently, the species has 
been routinely cut when discovered on 
pastureland. The last known population, 
consisting of approximately 200 plants, 
occurs on 5 acres of privately owned land 
that is subject to commercial develop- 
ment. 

Boulder Darter 
(Etheostoma sp.) 

An undescribed species in the sub- 
genus Nothonotus (a manuscript describ- 
ing the species is in preparation), the 
boulder darter is a small fish known from 
the Elk River system of Tennessee and 
Alabama. It is restricted to stretches of 
fast-moving, deep water flowing over a 
boulder substrate — a specific type of hab- 
itat that already was limited in this region 
before reductions caused by reservoir 
construction. Further habitat loss or deg- 
radation could lead to the boulder darter's 
extinction, and the Service has proposed 
to list this fish as Endangered (FR. 
11/17/87). 

Boulder darters survive in disjunct seg- 
ments of habitat within about 25 miles (46 
kilometers) of the Elk River and two tribu- 
taries in Giles County, Tennessee, and 
Limestone County, Alabama. No new 
impoundments are planned for this area; 
however, siltation from major land disturb- 
ances in the watershed, run-off of improp- 
erly used pesticides, chemical spills, or 
other factors that could degrade water 
quality are potential threats to the boulder 
darter in its reduced range. Water pollution 
is believed to be at least partially respon- 
sible for the loss of a population in Shoal 
Creek. Listing the boulder darter as an 
Endangered species could encourage 
efforts to preserve water quality. 

The Service is working with the State of 
Tennessee to investigate a possible 
reintroduction site. Habitat improvement 
through the placement of boulder sub- 
strate at selected sites along the Elk River 
also will be evaluated as a recovery 
method if the darter is listed. 



Stephens' Kangaroo Rat 
(Dipodomys stephensi) 

Like other kangaroo rats, this rodent 
has a large head, external cheek 
pouches, and elongated rear legs used for 
jumping. Its habitat is usually describee 
as coastal sage scrub or annual grass- 
land. D. stephensi probably once oc- 
curred throughout much of the coastal 
sage scrub of the Perris and San Jacinto 
Valleys and up adjoining sandy washes in 
southern California. However, agriculture 
and urbanization have led to a severe 
reduction in native habitat. Much of what 
does remain consists of small, isolated 
pockets that probably will not support 
Stephens' kangaroo rat populations over 
the long term. 

Within the overall remaining range of D. 
stephensi, only about 6 percent of the 
land is zoned for uses that are compatible 
with the species' survival, and not all of 
the habitat in that 6 percent is suitable for 
this kangaroo rat. Further complicating 
the picture is the fact that the species 
does not occupy all apparently suitable 
habitat, perhaps because of disturbance 
by off-road vehicle use (common in south- 
ern California) and application of rodent 
control chemicals. The Service has pro- 
posed listing the Stephens' kangaroo rat 
as an Endangered species (FR. 
11/19/87). 

Most of the remaining habitat is pri- 
vately owned, but the Service is not aware 
of any existing agricultural activities that 
would be restricted by a listing. Although 
Federal lands comprise only a small part 
of the kangaroo rat's current range, one 
significant population does occur on the 
Fallbrook Naval Weapons Annex, which 
adjoins Camp Pendleton. No conflicts 
between D. stephensi conservation and 
Federal activities at this or other sites are 
anticipated. Recovery activities for the 
Stephens' kangaroo rat, if it is listed, will 
concentrate on habitat protection and 
management. Measures to avoid poison- 
ing this species during rodent control 
operations also will be addressed. 

(continued on next page) 




boulder darter 



6 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Proposed Listings 

(continued from previous page) 

Alabama Cave Shrimp 
(Palaemonias alabamae) 

Groundwater pollution threatens the 
Alabama cave shrimp (P. alabamae), a 
nearly transparent freshwater crustacean 
that can reach up to 0.8 inch (20 millime- 
ters) in total length. This species has been 
found at only two sites: Shelta Cave, 
which lies inside the city limits of Hunts- 
ville, and Bobcat Cave, located on the 
Redstone Arsenal. A search of over 200 
caves in northern Alabama failed to turn 
up the species anywhere else. Both caves 
occupied by the shrimp are within a drain- 
age contaminated by past manufacturing 
of the pesticide DDT. Because sinkholes 
can drain surface pollutants directly into 
the aquifer, groundwater contamination 
represents a continuing threat to cave- 
dwelling aquatic species. 

The National Speleological Society, 
which funded initial status surveys on the 
Alabama cave shrimp, owns both en- 
trances to Shelta Cave and has gated 
them to control human access. Biologists 
who have surveyed this cave regularly 
have not seen any shrimp there since 
1985. A small population is believed to 
survive in Bobcat Cave, where only two or 
three shrimp have ever been observed at 
a single time. Access to this cave is 
restricted by the U.S. Army, which has 
jurisdiction over the Redstone Arsenal. 




Alabama cave shrimp 

Examples of recovery actions that may 
be pursued if the Alabama cave shrimp is 
listed are management agreements with 
Redstone Arsenal and the National 
Speleological Society to help ensure con- 



tinued protection of the caves, studies to 
better understand groundwater recharge 
patterns, and attempts to control pollution 
of the aquifer. 



Rediscovery of The Wyoming Toad 



The Wyoming toad {Bufo hemiophrys 
baxteri), a small amphibian that occurs 
only in the Laramie Basin of Wyoming, 
was listed in 1984 as Endangered after 
serious declines were observed over a 10- 
year period. Last summer, a fisherman 
found a population of Wyoming toads at a 
private lake about 1 1 miles west of Lara- 
mie. These were the first Wyoming toads 
seen since 1983. This population was sur- 
veyed by biologists from the National Ecol- 
ogy Research Center in Fort Collins, 
Colorado, the Region 6 Endangered Spe- 
cies Office, the Wyoming Game and Fish 
Department, and the University of Wyom- 
ing on August 21 and September 1. An 
apparently healthy population of up to sev- 
eral hundred toads was present. Juvenile 
toads, including recently metamorphosed 
individuals, were present, indicating that 
this population had reproduced suc- 
cessfully in 1987 and the past several 
years. Two adult toads that were found 
dead from unknown causes on Septem- 
ber 1 were collected for examination. 

Research and management priorities 
were identified at a meeting held in 
Laramie on September 10 among repre- 
sentatives of the Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 



and the University of Wyoming. Better 
knowledge of Wyoming toad breeding 
biology and habitat requirements is 
needed, and the cooperation of two pri- 
vate landowners will be essential. Pro- 
vided that reproduction is adequate in 
1988, it was recommended that an at- 



tempt be made to establish a new popula- 
tion by transplanting eggs. The probable 
site would be the Hutton Lake National 
Wildlife Refuge, which is known to have 
had a population of Wyoming toads in the 
past. 




Until last summer, the Wyoming toad had not been seen since 1984. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Final Listing Rules Approved for 10 Species 



During October and November of 1987, 
final rules were approved to add 10 taxa — 
five animals and five plants — to the Fed- 
eral lists of Endangered and Threatened 
wildlife and plants. The following now 
receive protection under the Endangered 
Species Act: 

Black-capped Vireo {Vireo 
atricapillus) — This songbird, which is 
distinguished by its black or slate-gray 
crown, faces threats from habitat modi- 
fication and nest parasitism by the 
brown headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). 
The vireo's once extensive breeding 
range has been reduced to sites within 
three small areas in central Oklahoma, 
the Edwards Plateau to Big Bend area 
of Texas, and northern Mexico. It is now 
listed as Endangered (FR. 10/6/87). 

Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii dou- 
gallii) — This white, dove-sized sea 
bird is similar in appearance to most 
other tern species. Unlike many other 
species of terns, however, it nests only 
along marine coasts in small, localized 
colonies. The number of suitable breed- 
ing sites for this ground-nesting bird has 
greatly diminished due to oceanside 
development and human disturbance, 
competition from expanding numbers of 
large gulls, and predation. Accordingly, 
the Service has listed the roseate tern 
population of northeastern United 
States and adjacent Canada as Endan- 
gered and the Caribbean population 
(including Florida and the Bahama 
Islands), which is in a somewhat less 
critical condition, as Threatened (FR. 
11/2/87). 

Hualapai Vole (Microtus mexicanus 
hualpaiensis) — A very rare, mouse- 
sized animal, the Hualapai vole is 
known to occur only in the Hualapai 
Mountains of northwestern Arizona. It 
has among the most restricted habitats 
of any North American mammal. 
Because the small patches of suitable 
habitat are threatened by livestock graz- 



ing, human recreation, and other fac- 
tors, the Service has listed the Hualapai 
vole as Endangered (FR. 10/1/87). 

Sand Skink (Neoseps reynoldsi) 
and Blue-tailed Mole Skink (Eumeces 
egregius lividus) — Both of these 
small lizards are endemic to central 
Florida and depend on scrub habitat 
with sandy substrates. Urbanization and 
conversion of land from sandhill and 
scrub vegetation to citrus groves have 
eliminated much of the former habitat. 
Rapid development in this region clouds 
the future of the two skinks, and the 
Service has listed them as Threatened 
(FR. 11/6/87). 

Florida Bonamia (Bonamia grand- 
iflora) — A perennial morning-glory 
vine, this plant produces sturdy pros- 
trate stems about 3 feet long and vivid 
blue flowers. The bonamia, like many 
other plants and animals endemic to 
central Florida, is jeopardized by the 
loss of scrub habitat. A rule listing this 
species as Threatened was published in 
the November 2, 1987, Federal Regis- 
ter. 

Welsh's Milkweed (Asclepias 

welshii) — An herbaceous perennial, 
Welsh's milkweed grows up to 40 inches 
tall and produces cream-colored flowers 
with rose-tinged centers. This plant is 
endemic to the Coral Pink Sand Dunes 
and nearby Sand Hills of southern 
Utah. The population in the Coral Pink 
Dunes is being disturbed by off-road 
vehicle recreation, and portions of the 
areas in which both populations occur 
are leased for gas and oil production. 
Included in the October 28, 1987, final 
listing rule was a designation of Critical 
Habitat (see the Federal Register for 
maps and details). 

Heliotrope Milk-vetch (Astragalus 
montii) — The second of three recently 
listed Utah plants is the Heliotrope milk- 
vetch, an herbaceous perennial in the 



pea family. A. montii, which grows only 
2 inches high, produces pink-purple, 
white-tipped flowers and inflated pods. 
It occurs only on limestone barrens 
along the timberline of the Wasatch 
Plateau, a region of active oil and gas 
exploration associated with the Over- 
thrust Belt. The Service decided that 
listing Welsh's milkweed as a Threat- 
ened species would ensure that ade- 
quate care is taken to conserve A. 
montii habitat during energy develop- 
ment. A map of the designated Critical 
Habitat is included in the November 6, 
1 987, Federal Register. 

Toad-flax Cress (Glaucocarpum 
suffrutescens) — The third recently 
listed Utah plant is the toad-flax cress, 
a perennial herb that sends out slender, 
simple stems and yellow flowers from its 
deep, woody root. It is endemic to small 
outcrops or "islands" of a single cal- 
careous shale stratum in the Uinta 
Basin. Much of this limited habitat was 
degraded during collection of surface 
rock for building stones; oil and gas pro- 
duction; and (historically) livestock graz- 
ing. Energy development remains a 
threat, and the toad-flax cress has been 
listed as Endangered (FR. 10/6/87). 

Heller's Blazing Star (Liatris helleri) 
— Heller's blazing star, a compact 
perennial herb that produces showy 
spikes of lavender flowers, is endemic 
to a few peaks in the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains of North Carolina. Most of the 
open summit areas on which the plant 
occurs have been, or are being, 
developed for commercial recreation 
purposes. Increasing use of other L 
helleri sites by hikers and sightseers 
poses additional threats to the habitat 
from erosion, soil compaction, and 
trampling. In recognition of its vulner- 
able status, the Service has listed 
Heller's blazing star as Threatened (F 
R. 11/19/87). 



Conservation Measures Authorized 
by the Endangered Species Act 



Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; restrictions on take and traffick- 
ing; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to seek land purchases 
or exchanges for important habitat; and 
the possibility of Federal aid to State or 
Commonwealth conservation departments 
that have signed Endangered Species 
Cooperative Agreements with the Service. 
Listing also lends greater recognition to a 
species' precarious status, which encour- 



ages further conservation efforts by State 
and local agencies, independent organi- 
zations, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 
cies. It also requires these agencies to 
ensure that any actions they authorize, 
fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopard- 
ize the survival of a listed species. If an 
agency finds that one of its activities may 
affect a listed species, it is required to 
consult with the Service on ways to avoid 
jeopardy. For species that are proposed 



for listing and for which jeopardy is found, 
Federal agencies are required to "confer" 
with the Service, although the results of 
such a conference are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule is 
different; the prohibition against collecting 
applies only to listed plants found on 
lands under Federal jurisdiction. Some 
States, however, have their own more 
restrictive laws against take of listed 
plants. 



8 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Developers Convicted in Bird Killings 



Two Florida land developers have 
pleaded guilty and have been sentenced 
by the United States District Court for the 
Middle District of Florida for killing red- 
cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides bore- 
alis), a species listed as Endangered 
because of the disappearance of its hab- 
itat for development and agricultural uses. 

Pursuant to a plea agreement, one of 
the defendants agreed to contribute 
$300,000 to the National Fish and Wildlife 
Foundation for red-cockaded woodpecker 
recovery projects. Jail terms were sus- 
pended but the developers were sen- 
tenced to 2 years of probation and their 
corporation received a 3-year term of pro- 
bation and a $1 ,000 fine. 

The indictment charged that the defend- 
ants were engaged in discussions of steps 
necessary to obtain a Florida Develop- 
ment of Regional Impact Order, required 
by Florida law to commence development 
of Oak Run, a residential housing devel- 
opment near Ocala, when they were 
informed that the land they sought to 
develop contained cavity trees charac- 
teristic of red-cockaded woodpeckers. The 
defendants then instructed their employ- 
ees to remove the cavity trees used by the 
woodpeckers and hunted the wood- 
peckers with shotguns at the Oak Run 
Development site. Nearby developments 
that were found to have nesting red-cock- 
aded woodpeckers had previously been 




**■ 



red-cockaded woodpecker 

required to set aside tracts of land to pre- 
serve habitat for this Endangered species. 
The case was jointly investigated by the 
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Com- 
mission and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service. U.S. Attorney Robert Merkle said 
that willful violations of Federal wildlife 



4 

' 4 1 ■ 

Y 

i 

- r 

i 

J * * 



laws would be fully investigated and vig- 
orously prosecuted, and in appropriate 
cases every available sanction under the 
law, including incarceration, would be 
sought. 



Reprinted from Fish and Wildlife News 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

Efforts to reintroduce the Mexican wolf 
at White Sands Missile Range in southern 
New Mexico have been stopped. In a Sep- 
tember 29, 1987, letter, Commanding 
General Joe Owens stated that it was not 
in the best interest of the Range to sup- 
port the reintroduction program. As earlier 
agreed, the Service needed the support of 
State and land managing agencies in 
order to implement this controversial 
reintroduction effort. 

* * * 

The Service has funded ocelot (Felis 
pardalis) research in south Texas for the 
past 6 years, and information gained dur- 
ing this study is going to be used to begin 
developing recovery techniques. The col- 
lared ocelots are on or around the Laguna 
Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, but five 
of them are trying to disperse from the ref- 
uge. Suitable habitat and travel corridors 
in the vicinity are limited, and 5 cats have 
been killed in the last 6 years on roads 
while attempting to disperse. The Region 
2 Refuge Division is now funding work to 
develop translocation techniques for these 
cats. Part of the refuge is relatively iso- 
lated, mainly by water, but appears to be 
good ocelot habitat. An attempt will soon 
be made to capture a young male and 



female as they disperse and move them to 
the unoccupied refuge areas. The two 
cats being considered for translocation are 
both radio-collared and have been moving 
back and forth across a road. After the 
cats are moved, they will be monitored to 
determine how they react. 

* * * 

The Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle Working 
Group met in the Albuquerque Regional 
Office October 28 and 29, 1987. The 
group is made up of representatives of the 
National Marine Fisheries Service, Na- 
tional Park Service, Mexico's Instituto 
Nacional de Pesca's Projecto de Tortugas 
Marinas, Texas Parks and Wildlife Depart- 
ment, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
Fifteen sea turtle experts and managers 
attended the meeting. Past efforts were 
reviewed and current recovery actions 
arranged in priority. Future recovery 
activities were discussed in light of the 
fact that Mexico has protected the only 
Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) nest- 
ing beach since 1966 and both nations 
have worked since 1978 to recover the 
species while the population of nesting 
females continues to decline at a rate of 
3-4 percent per year. Full protection of 
nesting females (500) and enhancing 
hatching success were given top priority. 

The group hopes that implementation of 
Turtle Excluder Device (TED) regulations 



(second highest priority) will turn around 
the trend seen at the nesting beach with 
an increase in recruitment to the adult 
population. The single largest identified 
source of mortality to juvenile and adult 
ridleys is the shrimping industry, and 
implementation of TED regulations should 
reduce deaths considerably. 

An aerial survey on November 29 
located 1 26 whooping cranes (Grus amer- 
icana) on Aransas National Wildlife Ref- 
uge, Texas. This figure includes 103 adults 
and subadults and 23 young. Another 
family group was present in Nebraska on 
November 30 and a single young whooper 
has been south of Amarillo, Texas, since 
November 1. Twenty-five chicks fledged 
last August in Canada and, with all cur- 
rently accounted for, we have again had 
good survival of the young during migra- 
tion. 

A juvenile whooping crane in the Grays 
Lake (Idaho) flock hit a powerline in the 
San Luis Valley of Colorado and died. A 
necropsy at the National Wildlife Health 
Research Center in Madison, Wisconsin, 
revealed that the bird had a severe case of 
avian tuberculosis. Because the infection 
had been in progress for an estimated 2 
months, the bird would have become 
infected while at Grays Lake National 

(continued on page 10) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 9) 

Wildlife Refuge. Avian tuberculosis is 
caused by a bacterium that can persist in 
the soil for several years. Infected birds 
pass the bacteria with their droppings and 
thereby infect the soil or potential foods. 
Healthy birds then become infected when 
they ingest the bacteria while feeding. 

The 93 percent survival rate for the 
1985 reintroduction of Knowlton pin- 
cushion cacti (Pediocactus knowltonii) in 
northwestern New Mexico is very encour- 
aging. Approximately half of the plants in 
the reintroduced population are flowering 
and fruiting, which suggests the presence 
of pollen vector(s) at the site. No new 
plants have been observed at the site but 
many plants have begun to form multiple 
stems and we hope to see new plants 
soon. 

In addition to the 1985 population 
established from cuttings, an area adja- 
cent to the reintroduction site was seeded 
in September 1987. The New Mexico Divi- 
sion of Forestry planted about 170 seeds 
at varying depths in the soil. This plot will 
provide valuable data on seed germination 
as well as comparative data on the two dif- 
ferent reintroduction techniques. Overall, 
the prospects for recovering the species 
appear to be good. 

In early October, the U.S. Forest Serv- 
ice coordinated a count of Mount Graham 
red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus 
grahamensis) middens or pine cone stor- 
age areas. About 60 people (including 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ari- 
zona Game and Fish Department employ- 
ees) helped with the count. Groups of 6 to 
10 people spread out in a line and moved 
through the habitat in the Graham Moun- 
tains in an attempt to count all of the red 
squirrel middens. Because one squirrel 
uses one midden, the count can be used 
for estimating the population. The first 
such count was conducted in the spring of 
1986. Based on this year's survey results, 
including middens found this year that 
were missed last year, the 1986 estimate 
was revised to 323 squirrels (up from 
242). The fall 1987 estimate is 242 squir- 
rels, down 25 percent. This decrease may 
be due to what appears to be a poor 
Engelmann spruce {Picea engelmannii) 
cone crop this year. Engelmann spruce 
seeds are one of the squirrels' main foods. 

Region 4 - Hatchling surveys and nest 
counts conducted by the Florida Game 
and Fresh Water Fish Commission show 
that American crocodile (Crocodylus 
acutus) numbers have increased signifi- 
cantly since last year. Seventy-three 
hatchlings were tagged this season com- 
pared to only 60 last year. A total of 29 
nests have been located so far, and more 
are expected. Eight nests have been dis- 
covered in 1987 on Key Largo. In 1986, 
six nests were found on Key Largo, but 



only three were producing young. Serious 
droughts in the Florida keys curtailed 
crocodile production in recent years, but 
ample rain has provided suitable nesting 
conditions this year. Road kills are a com- 
mon problem since adequate under- 
ground culverts are not provided along the 
heavily traveled U.S. Highway 1 to the 
Keys. On the average, three crocodiles a 
year are killed on U.S. Highway 1. 

The Service's Cooperative Fish and 
Wildlife Research Unit at Gainesville, Flor- 
ida, has been conducting status surveys 
of the Wakulla seaside sparrow 
{Ammospiza maritima junicola) and the 
Smyrna seaside sparrow (A. m. pelonota), 
both of which are Category 2 listing candi- 
dates. Interim results indicate that the 
Wakulla seaside sparrow stifl occurs in 
large numbers on its salt marsh habitat on 
Florida's panhandle coast. However, the 
Smyrna seaside sparrow, formerly found 
in coastal salt marshes in northeastern 
Florida, appears to be extinct. Breeding 
seaside sparrows along Florida's east 
coast are now represented only by a small 
colony of the wide-ranging Macgillivray's 
seaside sparrow (A. m. macgillivraii) in 
Duval County. (This subspecies nests 
northward to Cape Hatteras, North Car- 
olina.) The last known dusky seaside 
sparrow (A. m. nigrescens) died in June 
1987 (see BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5-6). 

A biologist from the Jacksonville, Flor- 
ida, Field Office testified at a Florida 
Department of Environmental Regulation 
hearing involving a project in DeBarry 
Bayou, Volusia County, Florida. The proj- 
ect involved the construction of a 98-wet- 
slip marina for a multifamily development. 
A "no jeopardy" Biological Opinion had 
been written by the Jacksonville Office 
based on the project's expected impact on 
the manatee (Trichechus manatus) and 
other fish and wildlife. In the Opinion, the 
Service recommended that the project be 
reduced to 26 wetslips, which is equal to 
one powerboat wetslip per 100 linear feet 
of shoreline. The recommendation was 
rejected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
neers and the applicant. 

Standard guidelines were established 
recently for surveying red-cockaded wood- 
peckers (Picoides borealis) in the south- 
east. The new policy stipulates that 
suitable habitat (pine and pine-hardwood 
over 60 years of age) within one-half mile 
of project impacts needs to be surveyed 
for colonies if any pine over 30 years of 
age will be affected. The reason is that 
colonies will forage up to one-half mile 
from the colony site. 

An injured Arctic peregrine falcon 
(Falco peregrinus tundrius) is recovering 
at the Florida Raptor Rehabilitation Center 
in Maitland. Following its recovery, the bird 
may be released in Indian River County. 
The bird was found by workers on Sep- 
tember 30 in a grove west of Vero Beach. 



The testing of the "Morrison version" of 
a soft turtle excluder device (TED) has 
been completed by the University of 
Georgia's Marine Extension Service. The 
device consists of a deflector panel con- 
structed from 8-inch stretched mesh web- 
bing and it is installed on the inside of the 
shrimp trawl. Turtles and some bycatch 
are guided along the barrier to an escape 
hole in the trawl. A total of 42 turtles were 
caught in the control (non-TED) net, but 
none were retained in the Morrison version 
of the soft excluder device. If approved by 
the National Marine Fisheries Service, this 
2- or 3- pound, inexpensive device (about 
$45 installed) will provide an acceptable 
option for the shrimp industry. 

The Anastasia Island beach mouse 
(Peromyscus polionotus phasma) is a 
Category 2 listing candidate. Currently, the 
only known viable populations of this 
mouse are located on the north end of 
Anastasia Island on the Anastasia Island 
State Recreation Area (St. Johns County, 
Florida) and at the southern tip of the 
island on Fort Matanzas National Monu- 
ment. A new bridge scheduled for con- 
struction across the Matanzas Inlet 
sometime in the early 1990s may 
adversely impact the mouse population at 
Fort Matanzas. Although beach mice are 
plentiful at Fort Matanzas, their available 
habitat is less than 25 acres. If the Ana- 
stasia Island beach mouse is listed as 
Endangered, the bridge problem will need 
to be resolved through the Endangered 
Species Act's Section 7 inter-agency con- 
sultation procedures before construction 
begins. The beach mouse population on 
Anastasia Island State Recreation Area 
remains low due to heavy human use of 
the area, competition from feral house 
mice, and predation by domestic cats. 

A new population of the Endangered 
northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys 
sabrinus fuscus) has been found in North 
Carolina approximately 50 miles south of 
the nearest known population. The site is 
located on land administered by the 
National Park Service, which is working 
with the Fish and Wildlife Service to pro- 
tect the animals and their habitat. 

The Service's Asheville, North Carolina, 
Field Office assisted the American Cave 
Conservation Association in the con- 
struction of a gate at a Kentucky cave. 
The cave will be used in educational pro- 
grams for teachers and students in the 
central Kentucky area. Education is an 
integral part of the efforts to protect caves 
inhabited by Endangered species like the 
Kentucky cave shrimp (Palaemonias gan- 
teri), Ozark cave shrimp (Amblyopsis 
rosae), Alabama cave fish (Speoplaty- 
rhinus poulsoni), Virginia big-eared bat 
(Plecotus townsendii virginianus), Ozark 
big-eared bat (P. t. ingens), Indiana bat 
(Myotis sodalis), gray bat (M. 

(continued on next page) 



10 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



grisescense), and Madison cave isopod 
(Astrolana lira). 



Region 7 - Although it is currently listed 
by the Service as a foreign species, the 
Endangered short-tailed albatross (Dio- 
medea albatrus) was once so abundant in 
Alaska waters that it was an important 
food of resident Aleut Indians along the 
Aleutian Island Chain and Alaska Penin- 
sula. With fewer than 400 short-tails 
remaining in the world, this species is now 
only rarely seen away from its breeding 
islands off Japan. Recently an immature 
short-tailed albatross was killed when it 
was accidently hooked by commercial 
fisherman setting halibut gear in the Gulf 
of Alaska. The bird was marked with both 
Japanese metal and plastic color leg 
bands. Dr. Hiroshi Hasegawa responded 
to an inquiry to the Bird Migration Re- 
search Center in Chiba, Japan, and 
informed us that the albatross was one of 
53 fledgling short-tails he had banded on 
Torishima in April 1987. 



Over 30 people participated in per- 
egrine surveys and banding activities in 
Alaska in 1987. Biologists from the Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Man- 
agement, National Park Service, Alaska 
Department of Fish and Game, and 
numerous volunteers observed 190 nest- 
ing pairs, 23 unmated adults, and 345 
young. These numbers reflect the continu- 
ing improving status of peregrines in 
Alaska. Current population figures and 
productivity levels are above those once 
considered to be historic baseline data, 
suggesting that peregrines in Alaska prob- 
ably were already decreasing when biolo- 
gists first conducted surveys in the 1950s 
and 1960's. When populations stabilize, 
we will have a better idea of true historic 
(pre-DDT) levels, assuming that no other 
factors have significantly influenced the 
population. 

Over the years, more than 2,000 per- 
egrines have been banded in Alaska, and 
recoveries have been reported from 
Alaska to Argentina. Through these ban- 
ding studies, the Service has learned that 
Alaska peregrines migrate southward 
throughout the lower 48 States but prin- 
cipally west of the Mississippi River, and 
winter for the most part in Argentina and 
Brazil. 

Of the 200 hatching-year peregrines 
banded in Alaska last summer, Don Mor- 
izot and Tim Maechtle of the University of 
Texas report that four, plus one 2-year-old 
bird banded in 1986, were captured at 
Padre Island, Texas, this fall. A total of 27 
peregrines banded in Alaska have been 
trapped at Padre Island since 1979. 



Region 8 - Kirtland's warblers 
{Dendroica kirtlandii) on their breeding 
range in Michigan nest at a small number 



of sites within a much larger region of 
apparently suitable habitat. In 1987, all 
actual and most potential breeding sites 
were photographed from the air at a scale 
(1 inch 500 feet) that showed major 
habitat features in sharp detail. False 
infrared color prints of these areas have 
been received and will be used to provide 
an overview of the bird's entire breeding 
range. Habitat analyses of occupied and 
unoccupied areas will provide for a 
detailed understanding of habitat features 
critical to nesting. 

Eleven Kirtland's warblers were caught 
during the week of September 14, indicat- 
ing that good numbers remain in Michigan 
far longer in the season than previously 
believed. In addition, two territorial birds 
captured were undergoing wing molt; 
therefore, these birds probably remained 
in Michigan for at least another week. 
These data have important management 
implications in that activities potentially 
detrimental to Kirtland's warblers currently 
are allowed in their breeding colonies after 
August 15. Some examples of detrimental 
activities include rabbit hunting with dogs 
and shotguns, logging operations, and 
seismic surveys for petroleum. 



Biologists with the Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center's Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 
Research Station located and monitored 
15 active palila (Loxioides bailleui) nests 
from February through August 1987 in a 
study area on Mauna Kea. Preliminary 
results indicated that palila nesting suc- 
cess for this period was only 20 percent. 
The cause of the low nesting success is 
uncertain; however, observations were 
made of nest desertion, possible preda- 
tion, unexplained nestling death, exposure 
to inclement weather, and unexplained 
disappearance of eggs and nestlings. 
Techniques are being developed to better 
document and explain the factors respon- 
sible for nest failures in the study area. 



Researchers at Patuxent's California 
Research Station have been actively eval- 
uating potential sites for a proposed 
experimental, temporary release of 
Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) in Cal- 
ifornia. The objectives of the research are 
to: (1) refine condor release techniques 
developed with black (Coragyps atratus) 
and turkey (Cathartes aura) vultures in 
Florida and Andean condors in Peru, (2) 
test the criteria currently being used to 
select California condor (Gymnogyps cal- 
ifornianus) release sites, and (3) develop 
written protocols for the release of Califor- 
nia condors. Researchers have also been 
trapping golden eagles (Aquila chrysa- 
etos); blood samples of the eagles will be 
analyzed for contaminants as part of a 
study on the contaminant load of scav- 
enger species within the traditional range 
of the California condor. 



Reorganization 

(continued from page 1) 

Departmental lands and facilities; 
and point and non-point source pol- 
lution control. (Chief, John Rogers; 
703/235-1904) 

3. Division of Federal Aid 

Federal grants for State fish and 
wildlife conservation programs are 
authorized under the Federal Aid in 
Fish Restoration Act (Pittman- 
Robertson Act), Federal Aid in Wild- 
life Restoration Act (Dingell-Johnson 
Act), Anadromous Fish Conservation 
Act, and Endangered Species Act. 
The Federal Aid division provides 
staff support to the Assistant Direc- 
tor for implementing these grant pro- 
grams. (Chief, Conley Moffett; 703/ 
235-1526) 

4. Office of Management Authority 
Formerly called the Federal Wildlife 
Permit Office, this office acts as U.S. 
Management Authority for imple- 
menting the Convention on Interna- 
tional Trade in Endangered Species 
of Wild Fauna and Flora (popularly 
known as CITES). In consultation 
with the Office of Scientific Authority, 
it carries out procedural aspects of 
listing and delisting animal and plant 
species on the CITES appendices. 
The Office of Management Authority 
also directs and controls Service per- 
mits for import, export, transship- 
ment, and interstate commerce in- 
volving Federally-protected species, 
although issuance of permits to 
"take" listed species is now a respon- 
sibility of the Regional Offices. (Act- 
ing Chief, Marshall Jones; 
202/343-4968 



Sea Otter 

(continued from page 4) 

at the island and become the founding 
members of a new breeding colony. Blood 
and tissue samples were collected from 
each animal while at the aquarium so that 
genetic lineages can be followed as the 
population grows. The Service also has 
collected 8 years of baseline data on the 
macroinvertebrate and macroalgal popu- 
lations (including commercially harvested 
species) in the nearshore community at 
San Nicolas Island and plans to monitor 
the effects of the introduced otters on this 
ecosystem. As the population grows, 
Service biologists will monitor the sea 
otters' activity. 

The plan to reintroduce sea otters at 
San Nicolas Island is the result of many 
years of expert analysis and public review 
(See feature article in BULLETIN Vol. XI 
No. 8-9 and No. 10-1 1.) Further news on 
the reintroduction program will appear in 
future editions of the BULLETIN. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



11 



New Publications 

Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife 
Habitat, compiled and edited by Allen Y. 
Cooperrider, Raymond J. Boyd, and 
Hanson R. Stuart, is an 858-page guide- 
book for professional wildlife biologists 
who plan or conduct inventories and 
monitoring studies of a variety of wildlife 
habitats. Specialists from government, 
academia, and the private sector have 
contributed chapters on the following 
topics: Planning (Problem Definition and 
Issue Identification, Study Design, and 
Review of Literature); Major Habitats (Crit- 
ical Habitat Features, Classification Sys- 
tems, and Inventory and Monitoring 
Systems); Species Groups (Correlation 
with Habitat Features, Population Meas- 
urement Techniques); Habitat Measure- 
ments (Field Measurement Techniques, 
Precision and Accuracy); Special Studies 
(Weather and Climate, Food Habits, and 
Movement, Migration, and Habitat Use); 
and Analysis and Presentation (Data Man- 
agement, Economic Analysis, Data Anal- 
ysis and Evaluation, and Presentation of 
Results). Copies of this book, which was 
produced by the Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment, are available for $38.00 from the 
Government Printing Office (stock number 
024-011-00170-1). Address orders to the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

Candidate Threatened and Endan- 
gered Plants of Alaska, published by the 
University of Alaska Museum (Fairbanks), 
is a new illustrated publication summariz- 
ing rare plant information for Alaska. The 
73-page booklet was cooperatively funded 
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS/RECOVERY 

PLANS 



Category 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Snails 

Clams 

Crustaceans 

Insects 

Plants 

TOTAL 



U.S. 

Only 

28 

60 

8 

5 

40 

3 

28 

5 

8 

131 

316 



ENDANGERED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 

20 

18 

6 



4 









6 

54 



l 



Foreign 

Only 

242 

141 

60 

8 

11 

1 

2 





1 

466 



U.S. 

Only 

5 

7 

13 
4 

25 
5 

1 
7 

32 

99 



THREATENED 

U.S. & 

Foreign 



3 

4 



6 









3 

16 



Foreign 


SPECIES* 


Only 


TOTAL 


22 


317 





229 


13 


104 





17 





86 





9 





30 





6 





15 


2 


175 


37 


988 



SPECIES 

HAVING 

PLANS 

23 

55 

21 

6 

45 

7 

21 

1 

12 

56 

263" 



'Separate populations of a species that are listed as Endangered and Threatened are tal- 
lied twice. Species thus accounted for are the gray wolf, bald eagle, green sea turtle, olive 
ridley sea turtle, leopard, piping plover, and roseate tern. 

**More than one species may be covered by some plans, and a few species have more 
than one plan covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 223 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 17 animals 

31 plants 

Number of Species with Critical Habitats determined: 102 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 

36 plants 

November 30, 1987 



Bureau of Land Management, National 
Park Service, and U.S. Forest Service. 
Single copies are available free of charge 
from Michael Amaral, Endangered Spe- 



cies Specialist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Sunshine Plaza, Suite 2-B, 411 
West 4th Avenue, Anchorage, Alaska 
99501. 



November-December 1987 



Vol. XII No. 11-12 





FIRST CLASS 




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 


U.S. 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




PERMIT NO. G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 11-12 (1987) 



y y- / / - t'tAj 



PUBLIC CT-^r. 



March 1989 



Vol. XIV No. 3 




Technical Bulletin 



JSON 
LIBRARY 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



Chimpanzees Proposed for Reclassification to Endangered 



The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and 
the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), 
closely related species currently listed by 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as 
Threatened, have been proposed for 
reclassification to the more critical cate- 
gory of Endangered (F.R. 2/24/89). This 
proposed rule would reclassify wild popu- 
lations of P. troglodytes; however, captive 
animals of this species would remain clas- 
sified as Threatened, and those in the 
United States would continue to be cov- 
ered by a special regulation that allows 
current legal uses. In the case of P. pan- 
iscus, both wild and captive populations 
would be reclassified to Endangered. 

The historical range of P. troglodytes 
encompassed all or parts of at least 25 
countries from Senegal to Tanzania, a 
distribution that corresponds closely with 



the tropical forest belt of equatorial Africa. 
Indeed, the chimpanzee is usually de- 
pendent on areas of unbroken forest, 
although it apparently is not uniformly dis- 
tributed throughout such areas. The 
related species, P. paniscus, is found 
only in the forests of central Zaire. 

A petition to reclassify P. troglodytes as 
Endangered was submitted to the Service 
in late 1987 by the Jane Goodall Institute, 
World Wildlife Fund, and Humane Society 
of the United States. The petition, accom- 
panied by a detailed report from the Com- 
mittee for Conservation and Care of 
Chimpanzees, cited evidence that the sta- 
tus of this species has continued to 
decline since it was listed in 1976 as 
Threatened. (See feature in BULLETIN 
Vol. XIII, No. 4.) Massive destruction of 
forest habitat (primarily from logging and 



slash-and-burn agriculture), population 
fragmentation, excessive local hunting, 
and international trade are blamed for the 
deteriorating status of both species. Wild 
populations of P. troglodytes have been 
reduced to a small fraction of their original 
size, and the species has disappeared 
entirely from 5 countries. Pan paniscus, 
the rarer of the two chimpanzee species, 
faces threats similar to those that have 
decimated its relative. With Africa's bur- 
geoning human population and the 
increasing accessibility of modern 
weapons, the outlook for survival of chim- 
panzees in the wild is uncertain. 

The ways in which chimpanzees of the 

species P. troglodytes would be regulated 

by the Service if the reclassification is 

approved depends on whether the ani- 

(continued on page 4) 




• "V 






iV* 



The proposal to reclassify chimpanzees in the wild as Endangered would recognize the continuing decline of these primates in their 
equatorial African forest habitat. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 




Regional endangered species 
staffers have reported the following 
news from February: 

Region 1 — At the urging of the Fish 
and Wildlife Service (Service), the Mon- 
terey (California) County Regional Park 



District recently acquired a key parcel of 
beach-sand dune habitat that supports 
the Endangered Smith's blue butterfly 
(Euphilotes enoptes smithi). It is hoped 
that continued cooperative efforts of local 
government, private landowners, and the 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Susan Recce Lamson, Acting Director 

(202-343-471 7) 

Ralph O. Morgenweck 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Chief. 

Kenneth B. Stansell, Deputy Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-358-2161) 

Marshal P. Jones, Chief, 

Office of Management Authority 

(703-358-2093) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(703-358-1949) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 
(703-358-2166) 

Regional Offices 

Regional 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 97232 
(503-231-6118); Marvin Plenert, Acting 
Regional Director; Robert P. Smith, 
Assistant Regional Director; Jay Watson, 
Chief, Division of Endangered Species and 
Habitat Conservation. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 551 1 1 (612-725-3500); James 
C. Gritman, Regional Director; Gerald R. 
Lowry, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M. Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director; David 
Flemming, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Ronald E. Lambertson, Regional 
Director; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant 
Regional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center; Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Direc- 
tor; Robert E. Jacobsen, Assistant 
Regional Director; Larry Shanks, Endan- 
gered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 101 1 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 
99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. Stieglitz, 
Regional Director; Rowan Gould, Assis- 
tant Regional Director; Ron Garrett, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 



Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. Spear, 
Regional Director; James A. Young, 
Assistant Regional Director; Steve 
Chambers, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 



Region 8 (FWS Research and Development 
nationwide), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; Al 
Sherk, Endangered Species Specialist 
(703-358-1710). 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 



Region 1: California. Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern 
Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas Region 
3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin, Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida. 
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi. North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin 
Islands Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia Region 6: Colorado, Kansas, 
Montana, Nebraska. North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research and 
Development nationwide Region 9: Washington, D C , Office 

THE ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



Service can protect a major portion of the 
remaining sand dune ecosystem that is 
vital to the recovery of the species. 

The California Department of Fish and 
Game has discovered a new population of 
the Endangered Owens tui chub (Gila 
bicolor snyderi) near Owens Lake in Inyo 
County, California. Service representa- 
tives have met with State biologists and 
the property owner, Anheiser-Busch, to 
develop a plan to protect the spring hab- 
itat. For the present, chubs will be 
removed to nearby holding ponds to 
increase their numbers. The State pro- 
poses to eradicate competing fish in the 
spring, after which the chubs will be 
returned. 

Region 4 — Shelta Cave in Huntsville, 
Alabama, was once known as one of the 
most unique caves in North America 
because it supported such a diverse and 
complex assemblage of species. A survey 
of this cave was conducted recently to 
determine the presence of several aquatic 
species. The presence of the Endangered 
Alabama caveshrimp (Palaemonias ala- 
bamae), known only from this and one 
other site, could not be reconfirmed. 
However, a single specimen of a very 
small, undescribed crayfish under review 
as a listing candidate was observed. This 
troglodytic species is known only from 
Shelta Cave, and this observation is the 
only confirmed sighting since November 
1973. The numbers of two other troglody- 
tic crayfishes, Cambarus jonesi and 
Orconectes australis australis, were very 
low compared to studies done 15 years 
ago. 

* * * 

The intensive harvesting of freshwater 
mussels in Arkansas by commercial 
shellers during 1988 has increased con- 
cern for these animals. If the harvesting 
continues at its current level, mussel pop- 
ulations will be adversely affected. To 
help address this problem, the Arkansas 
Game and Fish Commission conducted a 
series of four workshops for Commission 
personnel. Workshop topics included: the 
mussel resource and harvest in Arkansas; 
the range of the Endangered fat pocket- 
book (Potamilus capax), pink mucket 
(Lampsilis orviculata), and speckled 
pocketbook {Lampsilis streckeri) mussels 
in Arkansas; how the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act listing, consultation, and recovery 
processes work; a discussion of endan- 
gered species law enforcement situations; 
and mussel life history and taxonomy. 

Region 5 — The Service hosted a 
meeting of representatives and managers 
involved in the recovery effort for the 
Endangered Atlantic coast population of 
the piping plover (Charadrius melodus). 
The meeting was attended by over 75 
representatives of Federal and State 
agencies, private conservation organiza- 
(continued on page 4) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



Implementing the African Elephant Conservation Act 



Since passage of the African Elephant 
Conservation Act on October 7, 1988 (see 
BULLETIN Vol. XIII, No. 11-12), the Fish 
and Wildlife Service has been moving 
aggressively to fulfill its goal of perpetuat- 
ing healthy wild populations of African 
elephants (Loxodonta africana). 

Populations of the African elephant 
have fallen dramatically over the past 
decade, from an estimated 1.5 million in 
1979 to no more than 750,000 today. The 
extensive illegal trade in ivory is blamed 
for much of this decline. African elephants 
are listed by the United States as Threat- 
ened, and the species is on Appendix II of 
the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and 
Flora (CITES). Special permits are avail- 
able for limited import of African elephant 
ivory into the U.S. provided that cer- 
tain conditions, as detailed in 50 CFR 
17.40(e), are met. 

On December 27, 1988, the Service 
published a notice in the Federal Register 
announcing a moratorium on all ivory 
imports into the U.S. from nations and 
other entities that are not parties to 
CITES, as required by Sections 2201 and 
2202 of the African Elephant Conserva- 
tion Act. The ban applies to all imports of 
raw and worked ivory from non-CITES 
countries, whether they are ivory produc- 
ing nations (those within the range of the 
African elephant) or intermediary nations 
(those that trade in ivory originating in 
another country). The Act makes an 



Frank McGilvrey 

Office of Management Authority 

Washington, D.C. 

exception for sport hunted trophies; their 
import is not prohibited from non-CITES 
nations, provided that these countries 
have established an ivory export quota 
with the CITES Secretariat in Switzerland. 

The list of nations subject to the initial 
moratorium on commercial ivory imports 
includes: 

Albania 

Andorra 

Angola 

Antigua and Barbuda 

Antilles 

Aruba 

Bahrain 

Barbados 

Bhutan 

Brunei 

Bulgaria 

Burkina Faso 

Burma 

Cambodia 

Cape Verde 

Chad 

Comoros 

Cook Islands 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Dijibouti 

Dominica 

Equatorial Guinea 

Ethiopia 

Fiji 

Gabon 

Greece 

Grenada 




African elephant populations have fallen by more than 50 percent in the past decade. 



Guinea-Bissau 

Haiti 

Iceland 

Iraq 

Ireland 

Ivory Coast 

Jamaica 

Kiribati 

North Korea 

South Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Lesotho 

Libya 

Maldives 

Mali 

Malta 

Mauritania 

Mexico 

Mongolia 

Namibia 

Nauru 

Netherlands 

New Zealand 

Oman 

Poland 

Qatar 

Romania 

St. Christopher and Nevis 

St. Vincent and the Grenadines 

San Marino 

Sao Tome and Principe 

Saudi Arabia 

Sierra Leone 

Solomon Islands 

Swaziland 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Tonga 

Turkey 

Tuvalu 

Uganda 

United Arab Emirates 

Vanuatu 

Vatican City 

Vietnam 

Western Samoa 

Yemen Arab Republic 

Yemen, People's Democratic Republic 
of Yugoslavia 

The ivory import moratorium was ex- 
tended to the Democratic Republic of 
Somalia, and any country accepting ivory 
from Somalia, by an emergency rule pub- 
lished in the February 24, 1989, Federal 
Register. This rule, which took effect 
immediately, was the result of information 
in a petition filed by the World Wildlife 
Fund. The petition alleges that in the past 
3 years, Somalia exported over 21,100 
tusks. Somalia's 1986 annual report to 
CITES declares that in 1986 alone, it 
exported 16,986 tusks representing some 
9,440 elephants. In its report and other 
(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



Elephants 

(continued from previous page) 



statements, Somalia declared all tusks to 
be confiscated items and of Somali origin 
despite the fact that Somalia's native 
elephant population in 1987 was esti- 
mated to be no more than 4,500 animals 
and was no more than 8,600 in 1985. 
Somalia thus has declared exports of 
domestic ivory during the last 3 years rep- 
resenting roughly three times the number 
of elephants estimated to have been living 
in that country in 1987. Available informa- 
tion indicates that ivory is being imported 
into Somalia from Kenya and Ethiopia. 
Kenya prohibits the take of elephants and 
Ethiopia, which is not a party to CITES, 



allows only a very limited number of 
elephant trophy hunts. 

In conjunction with this emergency 
notice, the Service asked for public com- 
ments on the information submitted by the 
World Wildlife Fund. Comments should be 
sent to the Office of Management Au- 
thority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Washington, D.C. 20240, by April 25, 
1989. The import moratorium on Somalian 
ivory will remain in effect pending further 
review of the petition and subsequent 
comments. 

In a related matter, the Service pub- 
lished a February 3 Federal Register 
notice requesting information on the Afri- 
can elephant conservation program of 
each ivory producing country. After the 
closing date of June 5, 1989, the Service 
will review all comments and determine 



whether each of the 34 ivory producing 
countries are in compliance with the Act. 
A moratorium on any further import of 
ivory will be enacted against any country 
not meeting the requirements of the Act. 
The Assistant Secretary of the Interior for 
Fish and Wildlife and Parks also is send- 
ing a letter, through the State Department, 
to each of the ivory producing countries 
asking for the necessary information. 

A meeting of the CITES Standing Com- 
mittee, chaired by the U.S., was held the 
last week of February. Among the major 
issues discussed was how to deal with 
over 30 tons of ivory confiscated by Bur- 
undi. Burundi agrees that if they are 
allowed to sell the ivory, all proceeds will 
go into conservation programs, as re- 
quired by the Act. 



Chimpanzees 

(continued from page 1) 

mals are in the wild or in captivity, where 
captive animals are being held, and 
whether or not they are still being taken 
from the wild. These chimpanzees would 
fall into one of four general management 
categories: 

1) In the wild, chimpanzees would be 
listed as Endangered. 

2) Chimpanzees held in captivity within 
the countries where wild populations still 
occur, and any chimpanzees removed 
from the wild after the effective date of the 
final rule (no matter where they are held), 
would be classified as Threatened but 
would be regulated by the Service as if 
they were Endangered. The same would 
apply to the progeny of such animals 



(except for the offspring of chimpanzees 
legally imported into the U.S.). Regulating 
these chimpanzees as if they were 
Endangered would prohibit their import 
into the U.S. except under Federal permit 
for approved scientific purposes or for 
enhancing the propagation or survival of 
the species (as detailed in 50 CFR 17.22). 
The regulations emphasize that such per- 
mits are available only for purposes that 
are consistent with the goals of the Act to 
conserve listed species and their habitats. 
3) Chimpanzees that currently are held 
in captivity outside of their native range 
and outside of the U.S. would continue to 
be classified and regulated as Threatened 
species. Import of such animals would be 
somewhat less restrictive. The conditions 
under which these chimpanzees could be 
imported into the U.S. would be widened 
to include educational purposes, zoologi- 



cal exhibition, and other "special pur- 
poses consistent with the purposes of the 
Act.'' (See 50 CFR 17.32.) Again, how- 
ever, import permits would be available 
only for purposes that comply with the 
conservation goals of the Act. 

4) Those captive chimpanzees being 
held within the U.S. would remain classi- 
fied as Threatened, and current legal 
uses of these animals would continue to 
be allowed under special regulation, as 
detailed in 50 CFR 17.40(c)(2). 

In the U.S., there are groups of captive 
P. troglodytes large enough to be main- 
tained independently over the long term. 
There has been no major legal importa- 
tion of chimpanzees into the U.S. for 
about a decade, but some people have 
become concerned that the demand for 
these animals in biomedical research will 
soon increase. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

tions, and universities, as well as Parks 
Canada and the Canadian Wildlife Serv- 
ice. Presentations covered preliminary 
results of ongoing research projects and 
summaries of major management efforts 
at several nesting areas, including the use 
of predator exclosures to protect piping 
plovers nests. 

The National Fish and Wildlife Founda- 
tion has awarded a grant of $15,000 to 
Region 5 to develop an educational video 
on the piping plover. The video will high- 
light the problems faced by this species 
along the Atlantic coast, and describe the 
management and protection efforts being 
undertaken by the Service and other 
agencies and organizations. 

The Service has contracted with The 
Nature Conservancy to conduct a 2-year 
study on the effects of vegetation removal 
and soil disturbance on germination of the 



sandplain gerardia (Agalinis acuta), a 
plant that was listed in September 1988 
as Endangered. This species requires 
open habitat and the disruption of natural 
sources of disturbance, such as fire and 
grazing, is likely a major cause of the spe- 
cies' decline. 

The New England Wildflower Society 
also has been contracted for 2 years to 
develop techniques to propagate the 
sandplain gerardia in a cultivated setting. 
It is hoped that this work will provide seed 
for further experiments on the effects of 
disturbance (thus reducing the need to 
risk experimentation with the few wild 
populations), furnish a source of seeds for 
seed banking, and enhance our under- 
standing of this plant's biology. 

Region 8 — Thirty-four Puerto Rican 
parrots (Amazona vittata) remain in the 
wild in the Caribbean National Forest. The 
count was made by the Puerto Rico 
Research Group and volunteers from the 
Student Conservation Association on Jan- 
uary 18. Some parrots were observed 
near the Cacique nest site, a good indica- 



tion that it will be selected again in 1989. 
Unfortunately, this site has been affected 
by predation in the past. 

In the Luquillo Forest captive rearing 
facility, two pairs of Puerto Rican parrots 
recently laid clutches of eggs. One pair 
had three fertile eggs, while the second 
pair, which had fertile eggs last year, had 
four infertile eggs this year. The infertile 
eggs will be removed so that the second 
pair produces a second set of eggs. This 
year's egg production is much further 
along than in previous years. 

The three fertile eggs were placed in 
the aviary incubator on January 8, and on 
January 16 the first Puerto Rican parrot of 
the 1989 breeding season hatched from 
this clutch. Two more chicks subsequently 
hatched, bringing 1989's production up to 
three birds as of March 5. 

During early January in the Superior 
National Forest of northern Minnesota, 
male gray wolf (Canis lupus) number 
6041 was killed by a neighboring wolf 
pack that had invaded the territory of its 
(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



Four Species Proposed for Listing Protection 



Four rare species — two animals and 
two plants — were proposed by the Fish 
and Wildlife Service in February for addi- 
tion to the List of Endangered and Threat- 
ened Wildlife and Plants. If the listings are 
approved, these species will receive pro- 
tection under the Endangered Species 
Act: 



Pygmy Sculpin (Cottus 
pygmaeus) 

This small fish, which rarely exceeds 
1.8 inches (45 millimeters) in total length, 
is known only from Coldwater Spring and 
500 feet (152 meters) of its outflow in Cal- 
houn County, Alabama. The spring is 
impounded to form a shallow pool of over 
one acre (0.4 hectare) in size and serves 
as the primary water supply for the city of 
Anniston. 

For the past 6 years, the pygmy sculpin 
has been protected under a conservation 
agreement between Anniston, which 
owns the pool and its outflow, and the 
Fish and Wildlife Service. However, sev- 
eral potential threats to the water quality 
of the Coldwater Spring system have 
been identified. Because of these addi- 
tional threats and the species' extremely 
restricted range, the Service has pro- 
posed to list the pygmy sculpin as Threat- 
ened (F.R. 2/7/89). 

The use and/or storage of toxic chemi- 
cals at the nearby Anniston Army Depot 
may be contaminating the spring recharge 
zone. Test wells at the depot have re- 
vealed high levels of trichloroethylene, 
and this substance has been detected in 
Coldwater Spring. Other pollutants pres- 
ent at the test wells also may be migrating 
through the aquifer. If the pygmy sculpin 
is listed, the Environmental Protection 
Agency and the Department of Defense 
will consult with the Service on any clean- 
up activities that may affect the species. 

Another threat to the watershed is the 
proposed construction of a highway by- 
pass from Interstate 20 to Anniston. The 
preferred route identified during early proj- 
ect planning would pass along the side of 
Coldwater Mountain immediately above 
and to the east of Coldwater Spring. Any 
accidental toxic spills from this proposed 
route could quickly contaminate the 
spring. Two alternate routes, though 
within the recharge area, would not pose 
as great a threat. If the pygmy sculpin is 
listed, the Federal Highway Administration 
will consult with the Service to ensure that 
the species' well-being is considered dur- 
ing route selection. 

Because the water withdrawals by 
Anniston do not threaten the pygmy 
sculpin, a final listing rule would include a 
special provision allowing the city con- 
tinued use of Coldwater Spring. 



Cracking Pearly Mussel 
(Hemistena ( = Lastena) lata) 

This freshwater mollusk has a thin, 
elongated, brownish-green shell. It in- 
habits free-flowing streams where it im- 
beds itself in gravel riffles and feeds by 
filtering food particles from the water. Like 
most other mussels, this species has a 
complex reproductive cycle in which the 
mussel larvae parasitize fish. Because the 
cracking pearly mussel is so rare, its host 
fish and other aspects of its life history are 
unknown. 

The cracking pearly mussel historically 
was distributed fairly widely in the Ohio, 
Cumberland, and Tennessee River sys- 
tems within the States of Indiana, Illinois, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Vir- 
ginia. Today, however, it is known to 
occur only in a few shoals of the Clinch, 
Powell, and Elk Rivers in Virginia and 
Tennessee. It is possible that a few indi- 
viduals also may survive in the Green 
River (Kentucky) and Tennessee River 
(Tennessee). All of the remaining popula- 
tions are geographically isolated from 
each other, and it is likely that all but the 
Clinch River population have fallen below 
the size considered sufficient to maintain 
long-term genetic viability. Because this 
species is believed to be in danger of 
extinction, the Service has proposed to 
list it as Endangered (F.R. 2 17 89). 

The decline of the cracking pearly mus- 
sel resulted from widespread modification 
and degradation of its clean, free-flowing 
aquatic habitat. Coal mining and other 
disturbances within the watershed caused 
many of the mussel shoals to become de- 
graded by silt. Other riffle habitat has 
been flooded by impoundments and dis- 
turbed by dredging. At least two mussel 
die-offs were traced to toxic spills from 
riverside industrial plants. Because mus- 
sel larvae depend on fish hosts, often of a 
particular species, habitat problems that 
decrease the diversity and abundance of 
fish can indirectly harm mussels as well. 
These impacts are not restricted to the 
cracking pearly mussel; all of the sites 
inhabited by this species are shared with 
other mussels already listed as Endan- 
gered. 



Palma de Manaca 
(Calyptroma rivalis) 

An arborescent palm, C. rivalis can 
reach up to 40 feet (12 m) in height. This 
species is endemic to the island of Puerto 
Rico, where it grows along streambanks 
in the semi-evergreen seasonal forests of 
the northwestern karst region. Only two 
natural populations of fewer than 250 
trees in total are known, although the spe- 
cies could have been more widely dis- 
tributed prior to the conversion of many 
forests to agricultural lands. The Service 



has proposed to list C. rivalis as a Threat- 
ened species (F.R. 2/7 89). 

Unless the C. rivalis sites are con- 
served, continued agricultural expansion 
could threaten the species' survival. Even 
the palms that are not destroyed during 
land clearing can be affected indirectly. 
Fires set in surrounding sugar cane fields 
in preparation for harvest have spread 
into C. rivalis habitat and burned some 
individuals. Also, cattle have been ob- 
served feeding and trampling on seed- 
lings. Seedling establishment is further 
hampered by flash floods, which have 
increased in number and intensity after 
the deforestation of surrounding lands. 
Because the species is restricted to 
streamside habitat, it is particularly vulner- 
able to flooding. 

The Puerto Rico Department of Natural 
Resources is concerned about the sur- 
vival of C. rivalis and has introduced a 
small number of cultivated seedlings into 
Rio Abajo Commonwealth Forest. Al- 
though the transplant efforts appear to 
have been successful initially, it is not yet 
known if the palms will reproduce and 
colonize the area naturally. 

Small-anthered Bittercress 
(Cardamine micranthera) 

A perennial herb in the mustard family 
(Brassicaceae), the small-anthered bit- 
tercress grows up to about 16 inches (40 
centimeters) high and produces small 
white flowers. It is endemic to moist sites 
along a few small streams in the piedmont 
region of North Carolina. The type localilty 
in Forsyth County was destroyed in the 
early 1960's by conversion of the site to a 
cattle pasture, and the species was 
believed for almost 30 years to be extinct. 
In 1985, however, a population of C. 
micranthera was discovered in Stokes 
County. Since then, intensive searches by 
Service and State biologists have located 
two additional populations, both of them 
also in Stokes County. Cardamine 
micranthera was proposed on February 1 
for listing as Endangered. 

All three populations are small in num- 
bers of plants and extent of occupied hab- 
itat. The smallest population consists of 
only 3 plants and the largest, which num- 
bers about 200 plants, is concentrated 
along less than 0.1 mile (160 m) of a 
streambank. The sites are privately 
owned and thus subject to changes in 
management. Threats to the species' sur- 
vival include: conversion of habitat to 
improved pasture; habitat destruction and/ 
or dessication associated with logging; 
encroachment by such aggressive non- 
native species as the Japanese hon- 
eysuckle {Lonicera japonica); impound- 
ment or channelization of the small 
stream corridors it inhabits; and scouring 
of streamside habitat by floods. 

(continued on page 7) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



Concern Grows For Light-footed Clapper Rail 



James W. Wiley 1 and Richard Zembal 2 



The light-footed clapper rail (Rallus 
longirostris levipes) is a reclusive resident 
of dense marsh vegetation in coastal 
regions of southern California and north- 
ern Baja California, Mexico. In California, 
this Endangered bird currently occupies 
only a handful of remnant saltmarshes 
from Santa Barbara County south to the 
Tijuana Marsh on the U.S./Mexico border. 

Historical accounts suggest that the rail 
once was common in southern California. 
Since early in the twentieth century, 
however, this subspecies has experi- 
enced a severe population decline. By 
1972-1973, when Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice biologist Sanford Wilbur conducted the 
first extensive surveys, only 250-350 pairs 
of light-footed clapper rails remained in 
California. Despite additional rails found 
through improved censusing techniques 
and more complete coverage of popula- 
tions in later years, the numbers of rails 
detected from 1980 to 1986 showed an 
average annual decline of 29.6 percent. 
From 1984 to 1985, the population 
plummeted 48.7 percent. In 1986, a total 
of 143 pairs of light-footed clapper rails 
survived within the United States. 

Although the rail's decline has resulted 
from several environmental factors, all are 
ultimately linked to habitat destruction or 
degradation. In 1971, biologist John 
Speth estimated that 67 percent of Cal- 
ifornia's coastal saltmarshes had been 
lost because of past and current land 
uses. Habitat loss has been most severe 
in southern California, where only about 
25 percent of the coastal wetlands that 
existed in 1900 remain. The sites occu- 
pied by rails currently total only about 
3,000 acres (1,215 hectares) or about 35 
percent of the remaining coastal marsh- 
land. Light-footed clapper rails have been 
found in 21 southern California marshes 
in recent years. However, 88.1 percent of 
the State's rails inhabit only 6 marshes, 
and only 5 marshes were used by breed- 
ing rails in 1986. 

In addition to the direct loss of coastal 
wetlands, several other threats face the 
light-footed clapper rail. The remnant mar- 
shes are vulnerable to storm-driven tides 
and runoff, which disrupt rail nesting hab- 
itat and probably reduce food supplies. 
High tides force rails into artificially- 
created dry edge areas where they can 
be killed by introduced predators, such as 
red foxes, cats, and dogs. A severe winter 
storm could damage remnant wetland 
areas and devastate their rail populations. 
Dredge and fill operations also have 
altered the remaining marshes, making 
the rails more vulnerable to predation. 
Another potential threat is the high con- 
centration of environmental contaminants 
in some southern California marshes. 



Research Needs 

Largely through the efforts of Richard 
Zembal and Barbara Massey, substantial 
knowledge has been accumulated on 
light-footed clapper rail ecology and 
behavior, research techniques, and con- 
servation needs. Before the species can 
be recovered, however, additional re- 
search is needed on habitat requirements, 
habitat restoration and creation, popula- 
tion dynamics, and environmental con- 
taminants. 

To reclassify the bird to Threatened, the 
Light-footed Clapper Rail Recovery Plan 
(as revised in 1982) sets a goal of 800 
pairs in 20 secure marshes totalling 
10,000 acres (4,050 hectares). A substan- 
tial amount of additional marshland must 
be protected, and many existing marshes 
enhanced, to achieve this goal. This mar- 
shland then will need to be identified and 
ranked according to its potential as rail 
habitat. Habitat components critical to rail 
foraging, roosting, and breeding have to 
be identified for use in setting priorities for 
acquisition and restoration of marshlands. 
Water and vegetation management tech- 
niques that would improve the quality of 
marshlands and, thereby, the health of 
light-footed clapper rail populations also 
need to be developed. 

Floating nesting platforms could be a 
short-term solution to the relative lack of 
suitable nesting habitat observed at many 
marshes. Vigilance will be needed, 
however, to ensure that any predators 
drawn by the conspicuousness of the rafts 
do not destroy rail nests. Trials conducted 



by Zembal in 1987 resulted in substan- 
tially increased breeding success by clap- 
per rails using such platforms. This 
suggests that rail population growth in 
these areas is indeed limited by the avail- 
ability of suitable nesting sites. 

Light-footed clapper rails have been 
found to disperse from natal marshes. 
The frequency and importance of these 
movements to the genetic diversity of the 
southern California populations is un- 
known. If there is substantial gene flow 
among the populations, conservation 
strategies to preserve such genetic inter- 
change should be developed. Dispersal 
may also allow individuals to move from 
temporarily or seasonally unsuitable sites 
to more suitable marsh habitat. Studies of 
rail dispersion using radio-tagged and 
color-marked birds are needed to shed 
further light on this behavior. Such studies 
also would provide information for devel- 
opment of reintroduction and/or transloca- 
tion strategies. 

During recent surveys, some small pop- 
ulations of clapper rails were found to be 
composed of only males or females. The 
cause of this imbalance is unknown, as 
are the effects of losing these populations 
as breeders. However, the dynamics of 
the ecosystem should be investigated to 
determine if breeding populations can be 
reestablished in these areas. 

Also of recent concern is the finding of 
elevated DDE (a metabolite of the pes- 
ticide DDT) levels in clapper rail eggs in 
southern California. The significance of 
these elevated contaminant levels on 
(continued on next page) 




light-footed clapper rail 

ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



embryo viability has not yet been deter- 
mined. 

Cooperative Research 

As part of a new cooperative research 
project between the Service's Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center-Endangered 
Species Research Branch and the 
Laguna Niguel, California, Field Office, 
biologists will examine several of the 
problems identified above. Ecological cri- 
teria for ranking the suitability of coastal 
marshes for light-footed clapper rail re- 
introductions and restoration will be 
developed through literature reviews, con- 
sultations with experienced biologists, and 
on-site evaluations of areas currently and 
historically used by rails. 

Using these criteria, recommendations 
will be developed for specific marshland 
acquisitions and restoration. Sites that are 
still suitable for rails, or that could be 
enhanced or restored as rail habitat, will 
be ranked in order of their importance to 
the bird's recovery. An assessment of 
development pressures facing the sites 
will be included in the evaluation. 

The rail's population characteristics, 
dispersal dynamics, and population 
parameters (age/sex-specific mortality, 
survival, seasonal movements) will be 
determined over a 3-year period. Habitat 
used by marked birds will be monitored 
and characterized for physical and vege- 
tative elements. Radio telemetry and con- 
ventional color marking techniques should 
allow observers to monitor the move- 
ments of individual rails intermittently. 
Emphasis will be placed on determining 
dispersal dynamics of marked birds. This 
information is vital for determining the def- 
inition of a light-footed clapper rail popula- 
tion (i.e., What is the extent of gene flow 
among rails in disjunct marshes?). If 
radio-marked birds disappear from natal 
marshes, searches will be conducted at 
other sites. 

The nature of chemical residues (sub- 
stances and concentrations) in light- 
footed clapper rail eggs will be deter- 
mined as part of a broader study on the 
hatching success of rail eggs in nature. 
The number of eggs collected within any 
year and/or location will be restricted by 
the size of the local breeding population 
and the level of reproductive success. 
Samples will be analyzed at Patuxent's 
Environmental Contaminants Laboratory 
for standard chemical contaminants and 
heavy metals. Eggshells of collected eggs 
will be measured for thickness and com- 
pared with measurements of eggshells 
collected before the chemical pesticide 
era (1947 to present). 



Final Listing Rules Approved 



Michael D. Rees 

Division of Endangered Species 

and Habitat Conservation 

Washington, D.C. 

During February of 1989, Endangered 
Species Act protection was extended to 
two additional species: 

Cooley s Meadowrue 
(Thalictrum cooley i) 

This small, rhizomatous, perennial herb 
in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) 
rarely exceeds 3.2 feet (1 meter) in 
height, has narrow, lance-shaped leaves, 
and small unisexual flowers that vary 
somewhat in color and lack petals. 
Cooley's meadowrue is endemic to the 
southeastern coastal plain, where it 
occurs on the edges of bogs and sav- 
annas. It depends on some form of 
periodic disturbance, such as fire, to 
maintain the open sites in which it occurs. 
Sixteen populations of the plant were 
reported historically from 7 counties in 
North Carolina and Florida; however, the 
species currently is known to occur in only 
1 1 locations in North Carolina and 1 loca- 
tion in Florida. All 12 sites are in private 
ownership, with The Nature Conservancy 
owning part of one site in North Carolina. 

Fire suppression and silvicultural and 
agricultural activities are believed largely 
responsible for extirpating one-fourth of 
the populations known historically. Other 
potential threats include mining, drainage, 
highway construction, and herbicide use. 
At least 11 of the remaining 12 popula- 
tions are currently threatened by habitat 



alteration. All of the populations are small, 
which increases their vulnerability to extir- 
pation. Cooley's meadowrue was pro- 
posed for listing as an Endangered 
species in the April 21, 1988, Federal 
Register (see BULLETIN Vol. XIII, No. 5), 
and the final rule was published on Febru- 
ary 7, 1989. 

Speckled Pocketbook Mussel 
(Lampsilis streckeri) 

This freshwater mussel, about 3 inches 
(80 millimeters) in length, has a dark 
yellow or brown shell with chevron-like 
spots and rays. The mussel is found on 
coarse to muddy sand in streams up to 
1 .3 feet (0.4 meters) deep with a constant 
flow of water. It once occurred in the Little 
Red River and its tributaries in Arkansas, 
but is now limited to a stretch of about 6 
miles (10 kilometers) in the Middle Fork of 
the Little Red River. Only a few hundred 
individuals are believed to remain in this 
stretch. Construction of an impoundment, 
cold water discharges from the reservoir, 
pollution, floods, and modifications of river 
channels for flood control have been 
implicated in the species' disappearance 
from other parts of the river system. The 
species remains vulnerable to water 
quality degradation. The low density of 
the existing population also decreases the 
likelihood of successful reproduction. The 
speckled pocketbook mussel was pro- 
posed for listing as an Endangered 
species in the July 25, 1988, Federal 
Register (see BULLETIN Vol. XIII, No. 8), 
and the final rule was published on 
February 28, 1989. 



1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Patuxent 

Wildlife Research Center, Southwest 
Research Group, 2140 Eastman Avenue, 
Suite 100, Ventura. California 93003. 

2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laguna 

Niguel Field Office, 2400 Avila Road, 
Laguna Niguel. California 92677 



Listing Proposals 

(continued from page 5) 

Conservation Measures 

Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; restrictions on take and traffick- 
ing; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to seek land purchases 
or exchanges for important habitat; and 
the possibility of Federal aid to State and 
Commonwealth conservation depart- 
ments that have Endangered Species 
Cooperative Agreements with the Service. 
Listing also lends greater recognition to a 
species' precarious status, which encour- 
ages further conservation efforts by State 
and local agencies, independent organi- 
zations, and concerned individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 
cies. It also requires these agencies to 



ensure that any actions they fund, autho- 
rize, or carry out are not likely to jeopard- 
ize the survival of a listed species. If an 
agency finds that one of its activities may 
affect a listed species, it is required to 
consult with the Service on ways to avoid 
jeopardy. For species that are proposed 
for listing and for which jeopardy is found, 
Federal agencies are required to "confer'' 
with the Service, although the results of 
such a conference are not legally binding. 
Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or engage in 
interstate or international trafficking in 
listed animals except by permit for certain 
conservation purposes. For plants, it is 
unlawful to collect or maliciously damage 
any listed species on lands under Federal 
jurisdiction. Removing or damaging listed 
plants on State and private lands in know- 
ing violation of State law or in the course 
of violating a State criminal tresspass law 
also is illegal under the Act. In addition, 
some States have their own more restric- 
tive laws specifically against the take of 
State or federally listed plants and ani- 
mals. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 4) 

pack. The male wolf had been radio- 
collared and monitored since 1980, was 
at least 10 years old, had out-lived at 
least two mates, and had produced a litter 
with a third mate in 1988. 

The National Wildlife Health Research 
Center at Madison, Wisconsin, has found 
heartworm larvae in two gray wolves from 
the Superior National Forest, making a 
total of three cases identified in the past 
year. Each infected wolf has been in a dif- 
ferent pack, but with adjacent territories. 

Two sites in Arizona have been evalu- 
ated as possible masked bobwhite (Col- 
inus virginianus ridgwayi) propagation 
facilities. After years of effort, the wild 
population in Arizona, mainly at Buenos 
Aires National Wildlife Refuge, is around 
200 individuals. An unknown but very low 
number still exists in Mexico. 



BOX SCORE OF LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 







ENDANGERED 






THREATENED 






SPECIES 


Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


SPECIES- 


WITH 




Only 


Foreign 


Only 


Only 


Foreign 


Only 


TOTAL 


PLANS 


Mammals 


31 


19 


240 


5 


2 


23 


320 


24 


Birds 


61 


15 


145 


7 


3 





231 


57 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 


14 


4 


14 


106 


22 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 








17 


5 


Fishes 


45 


2 


11 


24 


6 





88 


47 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 








9 


7 


Clams 


32 





2 











34 


22 


Crustaceans 


8 








1 








9 


4 


Insects 


10 








7 








17 


12 


Arachnids 


3 

















3 





Plants 


152 


6 


1 


40 


6 


2 


207 


84 


TOTAL 


358 


49 


467 


107 


21 


39 


1041 


284** 



Total U.S. Endangered 407 
Total US Threatened 128 



Recovery Plans approved: 242 



Total U.S. Listed 



535 



'Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened 
are tallied twice. Those species are the leopard, gray wolf, grizzly bear, bald eagle, pip- 
ing plover, roseate tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive ridley sea turtle. For 
the purposes of the Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, 
subspecies, or distinct vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera 
or even families. 

"More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. Recovery plans are drawn up only 
for listed species that occur in the United States. 
Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 
March 31, 1989 36 plants 



March 1989 



Vol. XIV No. 3 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



TAKE 
PRIDE IN, 
AMERICA 1 




ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIV No. 3 (1989) 



/ I ' 



1987 INDEX Vol. XII Nos. 1-12 



T^f*hHlf*2ll Rl Id^in Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 



Washington, D.C. 20240 



fUBLIC DOCUMENTS 
.DEPOSITORY ITEM 

OCT 18 198^ 

■CLEMSON 
LIBRARY 



INDEX TO 
ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 



VOL. XII (1987) 



Abronia macrocarpa, proposed E, photo, Jul 3 
Acanthomintha obovata duttonii , second population 

discovered, Nov 2 
Agalinis acuta, proposed E, photo, Nov 5-6 
'Alala. See Crow, Hawaiian 
Albatross, short-tailed, Japanese-banded bird 

in AK, Nov 11 
Alligator, American, reclassified Threatened due 

to Similarity of Appearance, Jul 1 
Alligator mississippiensis. See Alligator, American 
Allium hickmanii , alternative road route to reduce 

impacts, Nov 2 
Amazona vittata. See Parrot, Puerto Rican 
Ambvstoma tigrinum stebbinsi. See Salamander, 

Sonoran tiger 
Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens. See Sparrow, 

dusky seaside 
Ammospiza maritima junicola. See Sparrow, 

Wakulla seaside 
Ammospiza maritima macgillivraii . See Sparrow, 

Macgillivray's seaside 
Ammospiza maritima pelonota. See Sparrow, 

Smyrna seaside 
Amphianthus, little. See Amphianthus pusillus 
Amphianthus pusillus, proposed T, habitat photo, 

Mar 1, 6 
Amphibians, list of all with approved recovery 

plans, Jan 12 
Amsonia kearnevana, proposed E, Aug 5 
Aneides hardii . See Salamander, Sacramento 

Mountains 
Anniella pulchra nigra . See Lizard, black legless 
Antilocapra americana sonoriensis. See Pronghorn, 

Sonoran 
Antioch Dunes NWR land exchange, Mar 3 
Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens . See Jay, 

Florida scrub 
Apodemia mormo langei . See Butterfly, Lange's 

metalmark 
Aquila chrysaetos. See Eagle, golden 
Arctomecon humilis , ecology study, Mar 7 
Arctostaphylos pungens var. r avenii, propagation 

and recovery effort, Oct 2 
Arenaria cumberlandensis, proposed E, photo, Aug 7 
Argemone pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisecta, proposed E, 

photo, Aug 5-6 
Asclepias meadii, proposed T, photo, Nov 5 
Asclepias welshii, final listing, Nov 8 
Astragalus montii . final T, Nov 8 
Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi , final E, Jul 1 



Banara vanderbiltii, final E, Feb 3 
Barbara's-buttons, Mohr's. See Marshallia mohrii 
Bat, eastern big-eared, Great Smoky Mts. National 

Park protection, Aug 10 
Bat, gray, benefits from protection, reestablishment 



successes, hibernation photo, Mar 4-5 
Bat, Indiana: radio-tracking studies, Feb 2-3; KY 

decline, Mar 7; abandoned mine donated as 

refuge, Aug 9; population decline, ecology and 

behavior, 1960-1987 hibernacula counts, 

preservation efforts, photo, table, Sep 9-11 
Bat, Mariana fruit, Rota population increase, May 9 
Bat, Mexican long-nosed, proposed E, photo, 

Aug 1, 5 
Bat, Ozark big-eared: cave surveys, Feb 2; 4-year 

maternity colony surveys, Feb 3; new maternity 

colony discovered, Aug 3; OK counts, Sep 3; 

radio tagging, Oct 3 
Bat, Sanborn's long-nosed, proposed E, photo, 

Aug 1, 5 
Bat, Virginia big-eared: 4-year maternity colony 

survey, Feb 3; population increase, Mar 7; 

maternity cave gated, May 11; maternity colony 

census, increase, Sep 11 
Bear, grizzly: Yellowstone Ecosystem recovery 

efforts, food supply, sightings, human-induced 

mortalities, Jan 15; reward for poacher 

conviction, Mar 6; killer's "constitutional rights" 

lawsuit, Jul 5 
Bear-poppy, dwarf. See Arctomecon humilis 
Beetle, valley elderberry longhorn: habitat 

destruction, surveys, May 2, Oct 2; continued 

elderberry plant contamination, eastern extension 

of known range, Nov 3 
Birds: list of all species with approved recovery 

plans, Jan 10-11; ID Center's raptor production, 

May 8; Rota forest bird survey, stable 

populations, May 8; Mauna Loa rat and predator 

survey, Jul 5 
Bird's-beak, palmate-bracted. See Cordylanthus 

palmatus 
Bladderpod, Missouri. See Lesquerella filiformis 
Bladderpod, white. See Lesquerella pallida 
Blazing star, Heller's. See Liatris helleri 
Blue-star, Kearney's. See Amsonia kearnevana 
Bobwhite, masked, dry conditions hamper release, 

radio tracking, Aug 9-10 
Boerhavia mathisiana, proposed E, Aug 6 
Boloria acrocnema . See Butterfly, Uncompahgre 

fritillary 
Bonamia, Florida. See Bonamia grandiflora 
Bonamia grandiflora, final T, Nov 8 
Branta canadensis leucopareia. See Goose, Aleutian 

Canada 
Bufo hemiophrvs baxteri. See Toad, Wyoming 
Bush-clover, Prairie. See Lespedeza leptostachya 
Butterfly, bay checkerspot, final T, Oct 6 
Butterfly, El Segundo blue, early mating flight, 

Sep 2 
Butterfly, Lange's metalmark: habitat proposal, 

Mar 3; early flight, Sep 2 
Butterfly, Pheres blue, does exist, May 8 



Butterfly, Smith's blue: habitat rezoning proposal, 
Apr 2; coastal dune presence confirmed, Oct 2 

Butterfly, Uncompahgre fritillary, 2 populations to be 
studied, Oct 8 

Butterfly plant, Colorado. See Gaura neomexicana 
ssp. coloradensis 

Buyer Beware ! brochure, Apr 7 



Cactus, Chisos Mountain hedgehog. See Echinocereus 

reichenbachii var. chisoensis 
Cactus, Knowlton pincushion. See Pediocactus 

knowltonii 
Cactus, San Rafael. See Pediocactus despainii 
Cactus, Thornber's fishhook. See Mammillaria 

thornberi 
Caddisfly, development threats, land-crawling larval 

stage, May 8 
Callirhoe scabriuscula , TX-FWS cooperative recovery 

agreement, Jan 7-8 
Callisaurus draconoides . See Lizard, zebra-tailed 
Cambarus zophonastes . See Crayfish, cave 
Canis lupus. See Wolf, gray 
Canis lupus bailevi . See Wolf, Mexican 
Caracara, Audubon's crested, final T, Aug 3 
Carbofuran, impact on eagles, Jul 5 
Caretta caretta . See Turtle, loggerhead 
Caribou, woodland, Canadian captures released in ID, 

Apr 3, Sep 2 
Carrizo Natural Heritage Reserve proposal, Apr 3 
Category 2 and 3C taxa explained, May 10 
Catfish. See Madtom, vellowfin 
Catostomus warnerensis. See Sucker, Warner 
Centrostegia leptoceras , final E, Oct 6 
Cereus robinii , recovery plan, Jan 8 
Cervus alfredi . See Deer, Visayan 
Charadrius melodus . See Plover, piping 
Chasmistes brevirostris . See Sucker, shortnose 
Chasmistes cuius . See Cui-ui 
Chelonia mydas . See Turtle, green 
Chionanthus pygmaeus, final E, Feb 3 
Chub, bonytail: stocking results, Mar 3; recovery 

plan update, May 12 
Chub, Borax Lake: cattle grazing damage to habitat, 

May 8; die-off due to high water temperatures, 

Aug 3 
Chub, Chihuahua, Dexter broodstock supplemented, 

May 9-10 
Chub, humpback, recovery plan update, May 12 
Cirsium pitcheri , proposed T, photo, Aug 6-7 
Cirsium vinaceum, final T, Forest Service protection, 

Jul 7-8 
Clam, fat pocketbook, TVA survey, Jan 8 
Clams: list of all with approved recovery plans, 

Jan 13; see also Mussels 
Clover, running buffalo. See Trifolium stoloniferum 
Colinus virginianus ridgwayi . See Bobwhite, masked 



Colorado River, Upper Basin Coordinating Committee 
plans, Jan 14-15 

Condor, Andean, proposed experimental release sites, 
Nov 11 

Condor, California: Hudson Ranch purchase 
agreement, release plans, current population, 
table, Jan 2-3; Bitter Creek NWR acreage 
purchase, Mar 2; proposed Carrizo Natural 
Heritage Reserve, Apr 3; last wild one captured, 
captive pair's courtship, Apr 7; role of lead in 
mortality, research, photo, Sep 6-7; research on 
release techniques, contaminant loads, Nov 11 

Conservation measures authorized by Endangered 
Species Act, Nov 8 

Cordylanthus palmatus , second colony confirmed, 
Jul 2 

Cornutia obovata . proposed E, May 4 

Corvus hawaiiensis . See Crow, Hawaiian 

Corvus kubaryi. See Crow, Mariana 

Cottus asperrimus. See Sculpin, rough 

Crane, greater sandhill, 3 eggs from Patuxent to FL 
for wild-nest fostering, Jul 5 

Crane, Mississippi sandhill: tumor death, Apr 7; 
habitat acquisition and management, captive 
propagation, reintroductions, photo, May 6-8; 
powerline collisions, Jul 3; cause of death at 
PWRC, Oct 7 

Crane, sandhill: poor Grays Lake production, Sep 11; 
4 wild captives to PWRC, Oct 2-3 

Crane, whooping: highest Aransas count, Jan 2-3; 
OK chick, other chicks survive, Mar 3; recovery 
activities, various sightings, Apr 3; Canadian 
recovery plan, Wood Buffalo nest count, egg 
transfers, spring aerial surveys, other sightings, 
May 9; Nature Conservancy purchases Matagorda 
Island for, May 10; NE aerial surveys, earliest 
arrival, longest stay, May 11; Wood Buffalo 
hatchings, egg transfers, other hatchings, 
powerline collisions, Jul 3; habitat affected by 
grazing and burning, Jul 4; PWRC egg 
production, hatchings, Jul 5; Canadian chick 
production, cyclical effects, Sep 3, 11; poor 
Grays Lake chick survival, Sep 11; delayed 
migration, Oct 2; cause of PWRC deaths, 
illustration, Oct 7 

Crayfish, cave, final E, May 3 

Crayfish, placid. See Crayfish, Shasta 

Crayfish, Shasta, reproposed, this time E, Aug 7-8 

Crescentia portoricensis, proposed E, photo, Feb 5 

Cress, toad-flax. See Glaucocarpum suffrutescens 

Crocodile, American, nesting increases, road kills, 
Nov 10 

Crocodile, Nile, ranched populations in Zimbabwe 
reclassified to T, proposed reclassification for 
wild populations, Jul 4 

Crocodylus acutus . See Crocodile, American 

Crocodylus niloticus . See Crocodile, Nile 



Crow, Hawaiian: moved to new captive breeding 
facilities, photos, Jan 5-6; dead egg, field surveys, 
May 8; egg-impaction death, 2 embryos die, Jul 2, 
Oct 8 
Crow, Mariana: stable status on Rota, May 9; spray 

program, Jul 2 
Crustacean, approved recovery plan, Jan 13 
Cucurbita martinezii, taxonomic status, Sep 11 
Cucurbita okeechobeensis, taxonomic status, Sep 11 
Cui-ui: NV run, May 2; run completed, Jul 2 
Cupressus abramsiana , final E, Feb 7-8 
Curlew, eskimo, increased observations, nesting pair, 

recovery ideas, photo, Aug 11 
Cvathea dryopteroides, final E, Jul 7 
Cypress, Santa Cruz. See Cupressus abramsiana 
Cvprinodon pecosensis. See Pupfish, Pecos 
Cvprinodon radiosus . See Pupfish, Owens 



Dace, blackside, final T, Jul 1 

Dace, Clover Valley speckled, proposed T, Oct 5 

Dace, Independence Valley speckled, proposed T, 

Oct 5 
Daisy, Lakeside. See Hvmenoxvs acaulis var. glabra 
Daphnopsis hellerana, proposed E, Aug 7 
Darter, boulder, proposed E, photo, Nov 6 
Darter, greenthroat, Bitter Lake NWR habitat 

management, Sep 11 
Darter, Okaloosa, golf course threat, May 11 
Darter, watercress, potential transplant sites, 

May 10 
Deer, Visayan, proposed E, Sep 8-9 
Delistings. See Extinctions 
Deltistes luxatus . See Sucker, Lost River 
Dendroica kirtlandii . See Warbler, Kirtland's 
Dermochelys coriacea . See Turtle, leatherback 
Desmocerus californicus dimorphus . See Beetle, 

valley elderberry longhorn. 
Desmona pethula . See Caddisfly 
Dicerandra frutescens, scrub tract purchase, Jan 8 
Diomedea albatrus. See Albatross, short-tailed 
Dipodomys ingens . See Kangaroo rat, giant 
Dipodomvs nitratoides mtratoides . See Kangaroo rat, 

Tipton 
Dipodomvs stephensi. See Kangaroo rat, Stephens' 
Diposaurus dorsalis . See Iguana, desert 
Dismal Swamp NWR, contaminants, May 11 
Division of Endangered Species and Habitat 

Conservation, responsibilities, Nov 1, 11 
Dolphin, Chinese river, NMFS review notice, Mar 3 



U.S., Jul 4-5; Carbofuran insecticide impact, 

Jul 5; 42 eggs, 15 eaglets produced at Patuxent, 

Jul 5; Canadian nestlings to CA, ID counts, 

Aug 2; protection for first TN productive nest, 

Aug 10; 15 PWRC eaglets released in 5 states, 

Aug 12; ID nesting successes, Nov 2 
Eagle, golden, contaminants analyzed for condor 

research, Nov 11 
Echinocereus reichenbachii var. chisoensis, proposed 

T, photos, Aug 1 
Endangered Species, Division of, reorganized staff, 

new responsibilities, Nov 1, 11 
Endangered Species Act, conservation measures 

authorized in, Nov 8 
Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, Univ. of 

Michigan reprint program, Oct 4 
Endangered and Threatened species: list of all with 

approved recovery plans, Jan 10-14; Threatened 

due to Similarity of Appearance (T/SA) 

classification, Jul 1; see also Species 
Enhydra lutris nereis. See Otter, southern sea 
Epioblasma ( = Dvsnomia') penita . See Mussel, 

penitent 
Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorum, final E, Oct 6 
Erubia. See Solanum drvmophilum 
Ervngium constancei, final E, Jan 3 
Eryngium cuneifolium, final E, Feb 3 
Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum , habitat 

proposal, Mar 3 
Etheostoma lepidum . See Darter, greenthroat 
Etheostoma nuchale . See Darter, watercress 
Etheostoma okaloosae. See Darter, Okaloosa 
Etheostoma sp. (Nothonotus). See Darter, boulder 
Eumeces egregius lividus . See Skink, blue-tailed 

mole 
Euphilotes battoides allvni . See Butterfly, 

El Segundo blue 
Euphilotes enoptes smithi. See Butterfly, 

Smith's blue 
Euphorbia deltoidea ssp. deltoidea, FL find, Feb 3 
Euphydryas editha bavensis . See Butterfly, bay 

checkerspot 
Evening primrose, Antioch Dunes. See Oenothera 

deltoides ssp. howellii 
Experimental populations, reintroduced species as, 

Octl 
Extinctions: Amistad gambusia, Apr 1; dusky seaside 

sparrow, May 1; Goff s pocket gopher, Aug 10; 

Anastasia Island cotton mouse, Aug 10; Smyrna 

seaside sparrow, Nov 10 



Eagle, bald: high ID winter count, Mar 2; Skagit 
night roosting survey, Mar 2; AZ study, efforts, 
Mar 7; lead contamination study, Apr 7; AZ sites, 
May 9; Grand Teton male casualty, female 
remates, May 11; Canada donates 22 young to 



Falcon, Arctic peregrine: injured bird recovering, 
Nov 10; see also Falcon, peregrine 

Falcon, peregrine: field projects, volunteer use, 
Feb 4; recovery activities, Mar 7; Region 6 
hatchings, Apr 6; ID Center produces 414 eggs, 



May 8; potential GA hacking sites, May 11; Salt 
Lake City hotel nesting, May 11; first Peregrine 
Fund group to hack sites, Jul 2; UT hacking 
successes, Jul 5; Salt Lake City fledglings rescued, 
UT nesting pairs, Aug 11; AK surveys, banding 
activities, improving status, TX trappings, Nov 11 
Falco peregrinus . See Falcon, peregrine 
Falco peregrinus tundrius . See Falcon, Arctic 

peregrine 
Falco punctatus . See Kestrel, Mauritius 
Felis concolor corvi. See Panther, Florida 
Felis pardalis. See Ocelot 
Fern, elfin tree. See Cyathea drvopteroides 
Ferret, black-footed: captive breeding facility, plans, 
Jan 14; captive breeding plans, facility 
description, Feb 4; sightings update, Feb 4; MT 
recovery tasks, 4-year-old male to captive 
breeding program, Apr 6; 6 born in captivity, 
May 11-12; captive-born doing well, Aug 11 
Fish and Wildlife Service, new organizational 

structure, Nov 1, 11 
Fishes: list of all with approved recovery plans, 
Jan 12-13; Upper Colorado River Basin recovery 
efforts, Jan 14-15; exotics removed from Aravaipa 
Creek, May 9; Bitter Lake NWR for native fishes, 
Sep 11 
Flycatcher, Tinian monarch, reclassified to T, May 3 
Fontelicella species. See Snail, Gila spring; Snail, 

New Mexico hot spring 
Fox, San Joaquin kit: seismic project may affect, 
Apr 2; proposed Carrizo Reserve, Apr 3; habitat 
mitigation, May 2; oil exploration concern, Sep 2 
Fringe tree, pygmy. See Chionanthus pygmaeus 
Frog, lowland leopard, studies recommended, May 10 
Frog, Tarahumara, U.S. extirpation, May 10 
Frogs, leopard, decline, adult die-offs, May 10 



Gambelia silus . See Lizard, blunt-nosed leopard 
Gambusia, Amistad, proposed delisting, extinct, 

Apr 1 
Gambusia, Pecos, Bitter Lake NWR habitat 

management, Sep 11 
Gambusia amistadensis . See Gambusia, Amistad 
Gambusia nobilis . See Gambusia, Pecos 
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni. See Stickleback, 

unarmored threespine 
Gaura neomexicana coloradensis, status discussions, 

Aug 10-11 
Geocarpon minimum, final T, Jul 8 
Geomys pinetis goffi . See Gopher, Goff s pocket 
Gerardia, sand plain. See Agalinis acuta 
Gila cypha . See Chub, humpback 
Gila elegans. See Chub, bonytail 
Gila nigrescens. See Chub, Chihuahua 
Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, final E, Nov 8 
Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus. See Squirrel, northern 



flying 
Goldenrod, Houghton's. See Solidago houghtonii 
Goldenrod, white-haired. See Solidago albopilosa 
Goose, Aleutian Canada: CA population high, 
survival of banded, Jan 15; avian cholera deaths, 
Feb 4, Mar 7-8; CA deaths, lead poisoning, 
photo, Apr 7; another lead poisoning death, May 
12; Amchitka translocations success, island 
nestings summarized, Sep 12 
Gopher, Goff s pocket, presumed extinct, Aug 10 
Gopherus flavomarginatus . See Tortoise, Bolson 
Gopherus polyphemus . See Tortoise, gopher 
Gourd, Mexican. See Cucurbita martinezii 
Gourd, Okeechobee. See Cucurbita okeechobeensis 
Graptemvs oculifera . See Turtle, ringed sawback 
Grus americana . See Crane, whooping 
Grus canadensis . See Crane, sandhill 
Grus canadensis pulla . See Crane, Mississippi 

sandhill 
Grus canadensis tabida . See Crane, greater sandhill 
Gymnogyps californianus . See Condor, California 



Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, Feb 4 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus . See Eagle, bald 
Heartworm, in MN wolves, May 5-6 
Heather, mountain golden. See Hudsonia montana 
Hesperia leonardus montana. See Skipper, Pawnee 

montane 
Higuero de Sierra. See Crescentia portoricensis 
Holly, Cook's. See Ilex cookii 
Hudsonia montana, prescribed burning, habitat 

management, May 10 
Hvmenoxys acaulis var. glabra, proposed T, photo, 

Sep 1 
Hypericum, highlands scrub. See Hypericum 

cumulicola 
Hypericum cumulicola , final E, Feb 3 
Hypomesus transpacificus . See Smelt, Delta 



Icaricia icarioides pheres. See Butterfly, Pheres 

blue 
Idaho, Cooperative Agreement on plants, May 8 
Iguana, desert, numbers decline, Aug 3 
Ilex cookii, final E, Jul 7 

Insecticide Carbofuran's impact on eagles, Jul 5 
Insects, list of all with approved recovery plans, 

Jan 13 
Invertebrates, 22 candidates recommended for CA, 

May 2 
Isoetes melanospora , proposed E, habitat photo, 

Mar 1, 6 
Isoetes tegetiformans, proposed E, habitat photo, 

Mar 1,6 
Ixia, Bartram's. See Spenostigma coelestinum 



Jay, Florida scrub, final T, Jul 1 



Kangaroo rat, giant: final E, Feb 8; seismic project 

threat, Apr 2; proposed Carrizo Reserve, Apr 3; 

oil exploration concern, Sep 2 
Kangaroo rat, Stephens', proposed E, Nov 6 
Kangaroo rat, Tipton, proposed E, habitat photo, 

photo, Aug 8-9 
Kestrel, Mauritius, ID Center's egg production, 

May 8 
Kinosternon hirtipes murravi . See Turtle, 

Chihuahuan mud 
Kite, snail, winter survey. Feb 3-4 



Lampsilis orbiculata . See Mussel, pink mucket pearly 
Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi. See Shrike, 

San Clemente loggerhead 
Lead poisoning: in Canada geese, Apr 7, May 12; in 

bald eagles, Apr 7; in condors, Sep 6-7, Nov 11 
Lepidochelys kempii. See Turtle, Kemp's ridley sea 
Lepidomeda vittata. See. Spinedace, Little Colorado 
Leptonycteris nivalis . See Bat, Mexican long-nosed 
Leptonycteris sanborni. See Bat, Sanborn's long- 
nosed 
Lespedeza leptostachya, final T, Feb 7 
Lesquerella filiformis , final E, Feb 3, 7 
Lesquerella pallida, E listing, Apr 3 
Liatris helleri : proposed T, photo, Mar 1; final T, 

Nov 8 
Lipotes vexillfer. See Dolphin, Chinese River 
Lizard, black legless, dune habitat documented, 

Oct 2 
Lizard, blunt-nosed leopard: seismic project may 

affect; Apr 2; proposed Carrizo Reserve, Apr 3; 

habitat mitigation, May 2; oil exploration concern, 

Sep 2 
Lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed, numbers decline, 

Aug 3 
Lizard, scrub, FL status survey, May 11 
Lizard, zebra-tailed, numbers decline, Aug 3 
Loosestrife, rough-leaved. See Lysimachia 

asperulaefolia 
Lupine, scrub. See Lupinus aridorum 
Lupinus aridorum, final E, May 3 
Lysimachia asperulaefolia , final E, Jul 8 



Madtom, yellowfin, proposed VA reintroduction as 

experimental population, photos, Oct 1 
Mammals: list of E and T species with approved 

recovery plans, Jan 10; status survey of 7 FL, 

Aug 10 
Mammillaria thornberi, proposed listing withdrawn, 

Aug 4 
Manatee: 5-year study of grassbeds, Mar 7; boat 



docking permits in Critical Habitat, Apr 6; absent 

from marina site, Hobe Sound boat-wakes study, 

culvert replacement recommended, May 11; FL 

human population explosion threatens, future 

protection plans, photo, Sep 7; marina 

recommendations rejected, Nov 10 
Manzanita, Raven's. See Arctostaphylos pungens 

var. ravenii 
Margaritifera hembeli. See Pearlshell, Louisiana 
Marina Dunes ecosystem conservation plan, Mar 2 
Marshallia mohrii , proposed T, photo, Nov 5 
Meda fulgida. See Spikedace 
Menidia extensa. See Silverside, Waccamaw 
Microtus mexicanus hualpaiensis . See. Vole, Hualapai 
Milk-vetch, Heliotrope. See Astragalus montii 
Milk-vetch, Jesup's. See Astragalus robbinsii var. 

jesup i 
Milkweed, Mead's. See Asclepias meadii 
Milkweed, Welsh's. See Asclepias welshii 
Minnow, loach, protection from exotic species, 

May 9 
Minnow, woundfin, being replaced by red shiners, 

May 10 
Mint, scrub. See Dicerandra frutescens 
Mitigation lands, CA court order on consultation 

reinitiation, Jul 5 
Mole, Anastasia Island, status survey, Aug 10 
Monarcha takatsukasae . See Flycatcher, Tinian 

monarch 
Mouse, Alabama beach, survey results, Apr 6 
Mouse, Anastasia Island beach: severe threat, 

Aug 10; E listing considered, Sep 11; Matanzas 

bridge may impact, Nov 10 
Mouse, Anastasia Island cotton, presumed extinct, 

Aug 10 
Mouse, Choctawhatchee beach: relocation success, 

Apr 6; first offspring from captive colony 

May 10 
Mouse, Perdido Key beach: translocated to dune 

enclosure, Feb 3; enclosure results, photo, Aug 4 
Mouse, salt marsh harvest: habitat protection, 

May 8; habitat illegally disked, Sep 2 
Mouse, southeastern beach: severe threat, Aug 10; 

considered for T listing, Sep 11 
Mussel, Curtus', final E, May 3 
Mussel, Judge Tait's, final E, May 3 
Mussel, Marshall's, final E, May 3 
Mussel, penitent, final E, May 3 
Mussel, James spiny. See Spinymussel, James 
Mussel, pink mucket pearly, Ohio River rediscovery, 

Sep 11-12 
Mussels, list of all with approved recovery plans, 

Jan 13 
Mustard, Carter's. See Warea carteri 
Mustela nigripes. See Ferret, black-footed 
Mycteria americana . See Stork, wood 
Myotis grisescens . See Bat, gray 



Myotis sodalis. See Bat, Indiana 



National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, grizzly-bear 

case reward, Mar 6 
National Marine Fisheries Service: dolphin, salmon 

review Mar 3; turtle excluder device proposal, 

Apr 1, 4-5 
Nature Conservancy, The (TNC): scrub plant tract, 

Jan 8; field survey of 32 candidate plants, 

Jan 8, 14; Matagorda Island purchase, May 10 
Neosops revnoldsi . See Skink, sand 
Nerodia harteri paucimaculata . See Snake, Concho 

water 
Notropis lutrensis . See Shiner, red 
Notropis mekistocholas . See Shiner, Cape Fear 
Notropis simus pecosensis. See Shiner, Pecos 

bluntnose 
Noturus flavipinnus . See Madtom, yellowfin 
Numenius borealis. See Curlew, Eskimo 



Oak, Hinckley. See Quercus hinckleyi 

Ocelot, TX auto kill, Feb 2 

Oenothera deltoides ssp. howellii : habitat proposal, 

Mar 3; fire enhances habitat, Aug 2-3 
Office of Endangered Species, new name, 

responsibilities, Nov 1, 11 
Oncorhvnchus tshawvtscha. See Salmon, chinook 
Onion, Hickman's. See Allium hickmanii 
Orthalicus reses nesodryas. See Snail, Stock Island 

tree 
Oryzomys argentatus. See Rat, silver rice 
Otter, southern sea: census results, Aug 2; CA 

translocations, photo, Nov 4, 11 



Pacifastacus fortis . See Crayfish, Shasta 
Palaemonias alabamae . See Shrimp. Alabama cave 
Palila: critical population, protection measures, 

illustration, Sep 6; nests monitored, low success, 

Nov 11 
Palo de Nigua. See Cornutia obovata 
Palo de Ramon. See Banara vanderbiltii 
Panther, Florida: revised recovery plan, research, 

captive breeding, photo, Jan 6-7; auto kills, 

Feb 3 
Paronychia chartacea , final T, Feb 3 
Parrot, Puerto Rican: research study, Feb 4; working 

group discussions, Mar 7; fertile eggs from captive 

flock, Apr 7; history, status, conservation, 

volunteer nest watchers honored, photos, Jul 6-7; 

egg production, hatchings, Jul 5 
Parrot, thick-billed, Chiricahua Mts. reestablishment 

results, Jan 3; 13 remain, Mar 7; 34 total releases, 

flock sedentary, May 9; return after 7- week 

disappearance, Aug 9 



Parvovirus in MN wolves, May 5-6 
Pearlshell, Louisiana, proposed E, May 4 
Pecosorbis kansasensis . See Snail, New Mexico 

ramshorn 
Pediocactus despainii , final E, Oct 6 
Pediocactus knowltonii, reintroduced plants doing 

well, Nov 10 
Pelecanus occidentalis. See Pelican, brown 
Pelican, brown, ecological studies, Feb 4 
Peltophrvne lemur . See Toad. Puerto Rican crested 
Penstemon, blowout. See Penstemon havdenii 
Penstemon havdenii , final E, Oct 6 
Peperomia, Wheeler's. See Peperomia wheeleri 
Peperomia wheeleri , final E, Feb 3 
Peromyscus gossypinus anastasae . See Mouse. 

Anastasia Island coton 
Peromyscus polionotus allophrys . See Mouse, 

Choctawhatchee beach 
Peromyscus polionotus ammobates . See Mouse, 

Alabama beach 
Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris . See Mouse, 

southeastern beach 
Peromyscus polionotus phasma . See Mouse, 

Anastasia Island beach 
Peromyscus polionotus trissvllepsis . See Mouse. 

Perdido Key beach 
Pesticides, EPA-FWS consultation, Mar 7 
Phoxinus cumberlandensis. See Dace, blackside 
Picoides borealis. See Woodpecker, red-cockaded 
Pipilo fuscus eremophilus. See Towhee, Inyo brown 
Pitcher plant, green. See Sarracenia oreophila 
Plagopterus argentissimus . See Minnow, woundfin 
Plants: TNC/FWS field survey of 32 candidate 
species, Jan 8, 14; list of all with approved 
recovery plans, Jan 13-14; listings approved for 
12 includes 7 FL scrub, Feb 3,7; interagency 
volunteer assistance in candidate listings, Feb 4; 
proposed listings for 3 granite outcrop species, 
habitat photo, Mar 1,6; ID Cooperative 
Agreement, May 8; mountain bald (alpine 
meadow) management, Roan Mountain Massif 
plans, May 10; NM monitoring plots for T and E 
species, Aug 3, 9 
Plecotus rafinesquii. See Bat, eastern big-eared 
Plecotus townsendii ingens . See Bat, Ozark big- 
eared 
Pleurobema collina. See Spinvmussel, James 
Pleurobema curtum . See Mussel, Curtus' 
Pleurobema marshalli. See Mussel, Marshall's 
Pleurobema taitianum . See Mussel, Judge Tait's 
Platte River, Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, 

Feb 4 
Plecotus townsendii virginianus . See Bat, Virginia 

big-eared 
Plethodon neomexicanus . See Salamander, Jemez 

Mountains 
Plover, piping: MT nest search, Mar 7; cooperative 



studies, wintering site surveys, Aug 11-12 
Plum, scrub. See Primus geniculata 
Pogonichthys macrolepidotus. See Splittail, 

Sacramento 
Polyborus plancus audubonii . See Caracara, 

Audubon's crested 
Polygala, tiny. See Polygala smalli 
Polygala smalli , FL find, Feb 3 
Polygonella basiramia , final E, Feb 3 
Polvstichum aleuticum: proposed E, May 5; 7 plants 

located, Sep 12 
Poppy, Sacramento prickly. See Argemone 

pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisecta 
Poppy-mallow, Texas. See Callirhoe scabriuscula 
Potamilus capax . See Clam, fat pocketbook 
Prairie chicken, Attwater's greater, Refuge count, 

Apr 3 
Pronghorn, Sonoran, recovery plans, Feb 2 
Prunus geniculata , final E, Feb 3 
Pseudemys alabamensis . See Turtle, Alabama red- 
bellied 
Pteropus mariannus mariannus. See Bat, Mariana 

fruit 
Ptychocheilus lucius . See Squawfish, Colorado 
Puerto Rico, Cooperative Research Units projects, 

Feb 4 
Pupfish, Owens, refugia contamination, Nov 2 
Pupfish, Pecos, Bitter Lake NWR habitat management, 

Sep 11 



Quadrula stapes. See Shell, stirrup 
Quercus hinckleyi, proposed T, photos, Oct 5 
Quillwort, black-spored. See Isoetes melanospora 
Quillwort, mat- forming. See Isoetes tegetiformans 



Rabbit, beach cottontail, status report, Aug 10 
Rail, light-footed clapper, mitigation lands issue, 

Jul 5 
Rallus longirostris levipes. See Rail, light-footed 

clapper 
Rana tarahumarae . See Frog, Tarahumara 
Rana yavapaiensis. See Frog, lowland leopard 
Rangifer tarandus caribou . See Caribou 
Rat, kangaroo. See Kangaroo rat 
Rat, seashore cotton, status survey, Aug 10 
Rat, silver rice, taxonomic evaluation, Mar 7 
Recovery plans, list of all approved, Jan 10-14 
Reintroduced species as "nonessential experimental 

populations," Oct 1 
Reithrodontomys raviventris . See Mouse, salt marsh 

harvest 
Reptiles, list of all with approved recovery plans, 

Jan 11-12 
Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus . See Dace, 

Independence Valley speckled 



Rhinichthys osculus oligoporus. See Dace, Clover 
Valley speckled 

Rhvnchopsitta pachvrhvncha . See Parrot, thick- 
billed 

Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus . See Kite, snail 



Salamander, Jemez Mountains, status studies, Aug 3 
Salamander, Sacramento Mountains, status studies, 

Aug 3 
Salamander, Sonoran tiger, category 2 status, 

May 10 
Salmo apache . See Trout, Apache 
Salmo aquabonita whitei. See Trout, Little Kern 

golden 
Salmo clarki henshawi. See Trout, Lahontan 

cutthroat 
Salmo clarki stomias. See Trout, greenback 

cutthroat 
Salmo gilae . See Trout, Gila 
Salmon, chinook, NMFS action, Mar 3 
San Bruno Mt., CA, Habitat Conservation Plan, 

May 8 
Sand-verbena, large-fruited. See Abronia 

macrocarpa 
Sandwort, Cumberland. See Arenaria 

cumberlandensis 
San Joaquin Valley, final Biological Opinion, Sep 2 
Sarracenia oreophila , research projects, Mar 8 
Scalopus aquaticus anastasae . See. Mole, Anastasia 

Island 
Sceloporus woodi. See Lizard, scrub 
Sculpin, rough, new locality, Jul 2 
Sea otter. See Otter, southern sea 
Serianthes nelsonii , final E, Mar 3 
Shell, stirrup, final E, May 3 
Shield-fern, Aleutian. See Polystichum aleuticum 
Shiner, Cape Fear, final E, Oct 7 
Shiner, Pecos bluntnose: final T, Mar 3; Bitter Lake 

NWR habitat management, Sep 11 
Shiner, red, replacing woundfin minnow, May 10 
Shrew, Dismal Swamp southeastern, contaminants 

impact, May 11 
Shrike, San Clemente loggerhead, final report 

recommendations, Mar 2 
Shrimp, Alabama cave, proposed listing, drawing, 

Nov 7 
Shrimp, California freshwater, proposed E, photo, 

May 1, 4 
Shrimp industry: turtle excluder devices (TEDs), 

Jan 3,7; Apr 1,4-5 
Sigmodon hispidus littoralis . See Rat, seashore 

cotton 
Silverside, Waccamaw, fmal T, May 3 
Skink, blue-tailed mole: proposed T, photo, Feb 6-7; 

final T, Nov 8 
Skink, sand: proposed T, photo, Feb 6-7; final T, 



Nov 8 
Skipper, Pawnee montane, final T, Oct 6 
Smelt, Delta: decline, listing recommended, Jul 2-3; 

testimony on, Nov 2 
Snail, Gila spring, proposed road impact, Jan 8 
Snail, New Mexico hot spring, proposed road impact, 

Jan 8 
Snail, New Mexico ramshorn, status and distribution 

study, May 10 
Snail, Stock Island tree, only remaining natural 

population, Apr 6 
Snails, list of all with approved recovery plans, 

Jan 13 
Snake, Concho water: Stacy Dam jeopardy prevention 

measures, Jan 7; implementation of measures, 

May 10 
Snake, San Francisco garter, destroyed habitat to be 

restored, Apr 2-3 
Snake root. See Ervngium cuneifolium 
Snowbells, Texas. See Stvrax texana 
Solanum drvmophilum , proposed E, Nov 6 
Solidag o albopilosa , proposed E, photo, May 4-5 
Solidago houghtonii, proposed T, Sep 1 
Sorex longirostris fisheri . See Shrew, Dismal Swamp 

southeastern 
Sparrow, dusky seaside, extinction, photo, May 1 
Sparrow, Macgillivray's seaside, FL breeding colony, 

Nov 10 
Sparrow, Smyrna seaside, apparently extinct, Nov 10 
Sparrow, Wakulla seaside, status survey, Nov 10 
Species: list of all E and T with approved recovery 

plans, Jan 10-14; Category 2 and 3C taxa 

explained, May 10; reintroduced as "nonessential 

experimental population," Oct 1; red wolves first 

species once extinct in wild released into wild, 

Nov 4 
Spenostigma coelestinum, search results, Aug 10 
Spiderling, Mathis. See Boerhavia mathisiana 
Spikedace, protection from exotic species, May 9 
Spinedace, Little Colorado, final T, Oct 7 
Spineflower, slender-horned. See Centrostegia 

leptoceras 
Spinymussel, James, proposed E, photo, Oct 3 
Splittail, Sacramento, future listing candidate, Nov 2 
Spurge, deltoid. See Euphorbia deltoidea ssp. 

deltoidea 
Squawfish, Colorado: first NM confirmation in 25 

years, May 9; recovery plan update, May 12; 

proposed reintroduction in Lower Colorado River, 

photo, Sep 3 
Squirrel, Mount Graham red: final E, Jul 1; midden 

count, Nov 10 
Squirrel, northern flying, new NC population, 

Nov 10 
Stephanomeria malheurensis: seedlings planted, 

May 8; plantings' survival, Sep 2 
Sterna antillarum . See Tern, least 



Sterna antillarum browni . See Tern, California least 
Sterna dougallii dougallii. See Tern, roseate 
Sternotherus depressus. See Turtle, flattened musk 
Stickleback, unarmored threespine, trapping of frog 

predators, Nov 2 
Stork, wood, creation of artificial foraging habitat, 

photos, Jan 4, 16 
Stvrax texana : new populations to be established, 

Mar 3; reestablishment plantings, May 9 
Sucker, Lost River, proposed E, Sep 1, 8 
Sucker, razorback: stocking results, Mar 3; E listing 

recommended, May 12 
Sucker, shortnose: proposed E, photo, Sep 1, 8; 

habitat-destroying project denied permit, Oct 2 
Sucker, Warner, habitat acquisition consideration, 

May 8 
Sylvilagus floridanus ammophilus . See Rabbit, beach 

cottontail 
Svncaris pacifica . See Shrimp, California freshwater 



Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis. See Squirrel, 

Mount Graham red 
TEDs (turtle excluder devices): mediation panel draft 

regulations, Jan 3,7; NMFS proposed use, 

approved devices, diagrams, Apr 1,4-5; Mexican 

use, Apr 3; final regulations, Aug 3; summary of 

regulations, table, Sep 5; Morrison version 

tested, Nov 10 
Tern, California least: Oakland Airport wetlands 

agreement, Apr 2, May 8; mitigation lands at 

issue, Jul 5 
Tern, least, first known MT nesting, Aug 11 
Tern, roseate, final E for northeastern U.S. 

population, T for Caribbean, Nov 8 
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia . See Snake, San 

Francisco garter 
Thistle, Loch Lomond coyote. See Ervngium 

constancei 
Thistle, Pitcher's. See Cirsium pitcheri 
Thistle, Sacramento Mountains. See Cirsium 

vinaceum 
Thornmint, San Mateo. See Acanthomintha obovata 

duttonii 
Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance (T/SA) 

classification, Jul 1 
Threatened species. See Endangered and Threatened 

Species; Species 
Tiaroga cobitis . See Minnow, loach 
Toad, Puerto Rican crested: proposed T, photo, 

Jan 9; final T, Sep 4 
Toad, Wyoming: survey planned, Apr 7; healthy 

population discovered, Nov 7 
Torreya, Florida. See Torreva taxifolia 
Torreva taxifolia, recovery plan, Jan 8 
Tortoise, Bolson, meeting on, Jan 8 
Tortoise, gopher: meeting on, Jan 8; final T, Aug 3 



Towhee, Inyo brown, final T, Sep 4 

Trade in illegal products, Buyer Beware! brochure, 

Apr 7 
Tree-cactus, Key. See Cereus robinii 
Trichechus manatus . See Manatee, West Indian 
Trichilia triacantha, proposed E, May 4 
Trifolium stoloniferum : final E, Jul 7; 3 new 

populations, photo, Sep 4 
Trillium, relict. See Trillium reliquum 
Trillium reliquum : proposed E, drawing, Feb 1, 5; 

North Augusta, SC plans, Aug 10 
Trout, Apache, hatchery culture, planned 

reintroductions, Apr 3 
Trout, Gila: Trail Creek stocking, other restockings, 

Oct 3; proposed reclassification from E to T, 

recovery progress, photo, Nov 3 
Trout, greenback cutthroat, study of competition 

with brook trout, Oct 3 
Trout, Lahontan cutthroat, salvage from dry creek, 

planned reintroduction, Aug 2 
Trout, Little Kern golden, Sequoia Forest timber 

harvesting precautions, May 8 
T/SA classification explained, Jul 1 
Turtle, Alabama red-bellied, final E, Jul 1 
Turtle, Chihuahuan mud, Category 2 to 3C 

recommendation, May 10 
Turtle, flattened musk, final T, Jul 1 
Turtle, green, nesting success, Jan 8 
Turtle, Kemp's ridley sea: nesting beach reports, 

Jul 4; prototype transmitters attached, Jul 4 
Turtle, leatherback, nesting success, Jan 8 
Turtle, loggerhead, nesting success, Jan 8 
Turtle, ringed sawback, final T, Jan 3 
Turtle excluder devices. See TEDs 
Turtles, sea: TED mandatory use draft regulations, 

Jan 3,7; nesting successes, Jan 8; Culebra 

Archipelago research, Puerto Rico studies, Feb 4; 

NMFS proposal for TEDs, stranding data, season 

and area requirements, Apr 1,4; Mexican 

conservation, Apr 3; final TED requirements, 

Aug 3; Center for Sea Turtle Research in FL, Aug 

10; summary of TED regulations, table, 

Sep 5; Morrison version of TED, Nov 10 
Tympanuchus cupido attwateri . See Prairie chicken, 

Attwater's greater 



Vireo, black-capped: proposed E, photo, Jan 1, 9; 

final E, Nov 8 
Vireo atricapillus. See Vireo, black-capped 



Vole, Hualapai: proposed E, drawing, Feb 5-6; final 

E, Nov 8 
Vulpes macrotis mutica. See Fox, San Joaquin kit 



Wallflower, Contra Costa. See Erysimum capitatum 
var. angustatum 

Warbler, Kirtland's: singing male census shows 
decline, Aug 12; remain in MI longer, activities 
detrimental to, Nov 11 

Warea, wide-leaf. See Warea amplexifolia 

Warea amplexifolia , final E, May 3 

Warea carteri , final E, Feb 3 

White-eye, Rota bridled, stable status, May 9 

Whitlow-wart, papery. See Paronychia chartacea 

Wildlife importations, Buyer Beware! brochure. Apr '/ 

Wirelettuce, Malheur. See Stephanomeria 
malheurensis 

Wire weed. See Polygonella basiramia 

Wolf, gray: parvovirus (CPV) and heartworm found 
in MN population, photo, May 5-6; Superior 
National Forest decline, Jul 5; male bred 2 
females, killed by moose, adjacent pack kills 
another, Oct 8 

Wolf, Mexican: reintroduction plans, photo, Apr 6; 
lineage of captive groups, possible cross 
breeding, Oct 3; 3 pairs sent to Mexico for 
captive breeding, Nov 3; White Sands Missile 
Range reintroduction stopped, Nov 9 

Wolf, red, 4 pairs released into wild, island 
projects, photo, Nov 4 

Woodpecker, red-cockaded: severe decline in TX, 
Jul 4; Ft. Benning colony to be relocated, Aug 
10; FL developers convicted in killings, photo, 
Nov 9; survey guidelines, Nov 10 

Wooly-star, Santa Ana. See Eriastrum densifolium 
ssp. sanctorum 



Xyrauchen texanus . See Sucker, razorback 









Uma inornata . See Lizard, Coachella Valley fringe- 
toed 
Ursus arctos horribilis . See Bear, grizzly 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, new organizational 
structure, Nov 1, 11 



Zosterops conspicillata rotensis . See White-eye, 
Rota bridled 



10 



1987 INDEX 




Vol. 


XII Nos. 1- 


-12 




miiilll 

ILIIII 


*^=?P 


iii II ii 

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IIIIIIIII 

mini 


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Technical Bulletin 


Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Washington, DC. 20240 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



* 7 . vy 

1986 



7 a 



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Vol. XI Nos. 1-12 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, D.C. 20240 



..Washington, D.C. 2024 
PUB L P ^ MCNT9 



DEP0SI7 ' ITEM 



INDEX TO ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 



VOL. XI (1986) 



DEC £3 19ff? 

CLEMSON 
I IRRARM 



Abronia macrocarpa, TX population, Jun 10 
Abutilon menziesii, final E, Oct 3 
Achyranthes rotundata, final E, photo, Apr 1 
Acipenser brevirostrum . See Sturgeon, shortnose 
Aconitum noveboracense: specialists' meeting, 

Jan 10, Feb 2; recovery plan update, Feb 2; 

algific habitat protection, Jul 9; WI sites visited, 

Aug 9; Driftless Area acquisition, Oct 10 
Agelaius xanthomus . See_ Blackbird, yellow- 
shouldered 
' Ahinahina. See Argvroxiphium sandwicense ssp. 

sandwicense 
' Akepa, Hawai' i, refuge established for, litho, Jan 5 
' Akiapola'au, refuge established for, litho, Jan 5 
' Alala. See Crow, Hawaiian 
Algific slopes, protection, Jul 9 
Alligator, American: poaching conviction, Jan 12; 

proposed rangewide reclassification to T/SA, 

photo, Jul 8 
Alligator mississippiensis. See 

Alligator, American 
Alopex lagopus . See Fox, Arctic 
Amazona ochrocephala . See Parrot, yellow-headed 

amazon 
Amazona vittata. See Parrot, Puerto Rican 
Ambvstoma macrodactvlum croceum. See Salamander, 

Santa Cruz long-toed 
Ameiva polops. See Lizard, St. Croix ground 
Ammodramus savannarum floridanus. See Sparrow, 

Florida grasshopper 
Ammospiza maritima mirabilis. See Sparrow, Cape 

Sable seaside 
Amphianthus pusillus : status survey, Mar 10; 

status review, Jun 10 
Anas bahamensis . See Pintail, white-cheeked 
Anole, Culebra giant, search planned, Mar 10 
Anolis roosevelti . See Anole, Culebra giant 
Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens . See Jay, 

Florida scrub 
Aquatic animals, habitat threat, photos, Feb 1, 4-5 
Arctocephalus townsendii . See Seal. Guadalupe fur 



Arenaria alabamensis , status survey, May 14 
Argvroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, final E, 

photo, Apr 1, 4 
Arkansia wheeleri , status survey, Oct 10 
Ash, prickly. See Zanthoxylum thomasianum 
Asimina tetramera, final E, Oct 3 
Aster, Florida golden. See Chrvsopsis floridana 
Astragalus robbinsii var. jesupi , proposed T, Jan 6-7 



Banara vanderbiltii, listing proposal, Mar 4, May 8 
Bat, Indiana: 3 new colonies, Mar 11; radio- 
tracking, Oct 10 
Bat, Mariana fruit, Yap survey, subsistence taking, 

Aug 2, 7 
Bat, Ozark big-eared, radio telemetry, Oct. 8 
Bat, Virginia big-eared: WV colony found, Mar 11; 

maternity colony census, Aug 11 
Bats, long-nosed: roosting site numbers decline, 

Jan 11; status reports, May 13 
Beach mouse. See Mouse 
Bear, grizzly: Interagency Committee, Jan 11; 

hunting regulations change, map, photo, Oct 4 
Beauty, Harper's. See HarperocaUis flava 
Beetle, Travertine band-thigh diving, population 

found, Aug 2 
Beetle, valley elderberry longhorn: mitigation of 

habitat loss, Mar 7; habitat acquisition, Jul 2; 

habitat restoration, new population, Oct 7-8 
Biodiversity forum, Jul 11 
Birds: refuge for Hawaiian forest species, 

lithographs, Jan 5; genetic relationships defined 

by mitochondrial DNA analysis, Mar 11 
Bird's-beak, palmate-bracted. See Cordvlanthus 

palmatus 
Bird's beak, salt marsh. See Cordvlanthus maritimus 
Blackbird, yellow-shouldered, new nest boxes, 

Aug 10 
Bladderpod, Missouri. See Lesquerella filiformis 
Bladderpod, white. See Lesquerella pallida 



Blarina carolinensis shermani. See Shrew, Sherman's 

short-tailed 
Bobwhite, masked: Mexican importations to PWRC, 

Jan 2, Jul 11; PWRC hatched to be released, 

foster-parented in AZ, May 13; AZ releases, 

Aug 9, Oct 9 
Boerhavia mathisiana, population discovery, Jun 10 
Bonamia, Florida. See Bonamia grandiflora 
Bonamia grandiflora, proposed T, drawing, Dec 4-5 
Boxwood, Vahl's. See Buxus vahlii 
Branta canadensis leucopareia. See Goose, Aleutian 

Canada 
Brennania belkini. See Fly, Belkin's dune tabanid 
Buckwheat, spreading wild. See Eriogonum 

humivagans 
Buckwheat, steamboat. See Eriogonum ovalifolium 

var. williamsae 
Bush-clover, prairie. See Lespedeza leptostachya 
Butterfly, bay checkerspot, review panel findings, 

Jul 11 
Butterfly, Lotis blue, approved recovery plan, 

Jun 8-9 
Butterfly, Oregon silverspot: habitat threat, Jul 9; 

landowner interest, Aug 8 
Butterfly, Smith's blue: Santa Cruz intergrade 

population, Jul 2; conservation plans, Aug 2, 

Oct. 8 
Butterfly, Tilden's blue, Santa Cruz intergrade 

population, Jul 2 
Buxus vahlii , current status, Mar 3 
Buzzard, Mexican. See Caracara, Audubon's crested 



Cactus, Cochise pincushion. See Corvphantha 

robbinsorum 
Cactus, Florida semaphore. See Opuntia 

spinosissima 
Cactus, Knowlton's. See Pediocactus knowltonii 
Cactus, San Rafael. See Pediocactus despainii 
Calamovilfa brevipilis , status survey, May 14 
Cambarus zophonastes , proposed E, photo, Jun 6-7 
Campephilus principalis bairdii . See Woodpecker, 

ivory-billed 
Canis lupus . See Wolf, timber 
Canis lupus bailevi . See Wolf, Mexican 
Canis rufus . See Wolf, red 
Caracara, Audubon's crested, FL population proposed 

T, on Mexican seal, photo, Jul 1, 4 
Caribbean Islands plants, unique problems, photo, 

Mar 3-4 
Carrizo Plain preserve plan, Oct 7 
Castilleia christii. on USFS lands in ID, Oct 2 
Catostomus snvderi . See Sucker, Klamath largescale 
Catostomus warnerensis. See Sucker, Warner 
Cavefish, Alabama, hydrology study protects, Jul 11 
Centrostegia leptoceras , proposed E, May 8-9 
Charadrius melodus . See Plover, piping 
Chasmistes brevirostris . See Sucker, shortnose 
Chasmistes cuius . See Cui-ui 



Chasmistes liorus . See Sucker, June 
Chionanthus pvgmaeus, proposed E, May 1, 6 
Chrvsopsis floridana, final E, Jun 3 
Chub, bonytail: refuge stocking, Mar 8; CO River 

reintroductions, Apr 2; may control flies, Jun 9; 

CO River recovery activities, Jul 5-7, 12 
Chub, Borax Lake, population estimate, Aug 8 
Chub, Dixie Valley tui, population located, Aug 8 
Chub, Fish Creek Springs tui, listing proposal 

withdrawn, Apr 8 
Chub, humpback, CO River recovery activities, photo, 

Jul 5-7, 12 
Chub, Mohave tui: pesticide effect, Feb 7; 

population decrease, Mar 2 
Chub, Owens tui, habitat maintenance, Oct 7 
Chub, Sonora, final T, May 5-6 
Chub, Virgin River: proposed E, illustration, Jul 3; 

public hearing, strong year class, Oct 9-10 
CITES. See Convention on International Trade in 

Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 
Clams. See Mussels 
Clematis socialis : proposed E, drawing, Jan 1, 6; 

final E, Oct 3 
Clover, running buffalo. See Trifolium stoloniferum 
Colinus virginianus ridgwayi . See Bobwhite, masked 
Colorado River, E fish recovery activities in upper 

basin, photos, map, Jul 5-7, 12 
Commelina gigas, may not be valid taxon, Feb 5 
Condor, California: capture effort suspended, Jan 4; 

capture ban extended, Feb 3; wild egg broken, 

Apr 10; wild pair's second egg transported, 2 

males captured, May 15; last known wild female 

captured, wild egg hatched in captivity, Aug 11, 

16; trappings, Oct 12 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered 

Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Fifth 

Conference report, uniform marking for ranched 

specimens, pre-CITES certification, Bolivian 

exports, transfer proposals, Jan 8-10; U.S. annual 

reports available, May 15-16 
Cordvlanthus maritimus, approved recovery plan, 

Mar 7 
Cordvlanthus palmatus , final E, Aug 6 
Corvus hawaiiensis . See Crow, Hawaiian 
Corvphantha robbinsorum , final T, Feb 3 
Coyote-thistle, delta. See Ervngium racemosum 
Coyote-thistle, Loch Lomond. See Ervngium 

constancei 
Crane, Florida sandhill, as foster parents for 

Mississippi sandhill, Feb 8 
Crane, Mississippi sandhill: release successes, 

Jan 11; FL sandhill as foster parents, Feb 8; 

PWRC reared by models, Jul 11; experimental 

hunt, Oct 9 
Crane, whooping: TV special, Aransas count, Jan 2; 

new PWRC breeding complex, Jan 11; NM injured 

bird, Texas sightings, counts, Feb 2; 

consultations, interstate meetings, draft 

handbook, Feb 7; NM sightings, Mar 8; 



tuberculosis death, injury recovery, 97 in TX, 
hazings to avoid chemicals, Apr 10; spring 
migration monitoring, Apr 11; powerline kill, TB 
death, research meeting, May 2; migration 
sightings, May 15; Canadian eggs to Grays Lake 
and Patuxent, Jun 9; cardiac arrest death, 
tuberculosis cases, Grays Lake and PWRC 
developments, Jul 9; Wood Buffalo hatchings, 
tuberculosis research, Aug 8; public service 
announcements, other educational efforts, Oct 8- 
9; migration sightings, Oct 11; Aransas arrivals, 
Rocky Mt. population, Dec 3; record number of 
migration sightings, photo, Dec 7 
Cranes, CITES listings, Jan 9 
Crayfish, Nashville: proposed E, habitat 

degradation, photo, Feb 4-5; final E, Oct 3 
Crayfish, prairie, biologists study, species decline, 

photo, Aug 15 
Crenichthys nevadae . See Springfish, Railroad 

Valley 
Cricket, prairie mole, status survey, Apr 10 
Crocodile, American: proposed FL highway 
improvements, May 14; nest survey and 
monitoring, Dec 7 
Crocodile, Nile: CITES transfer proposal, Jan 9; 
reclassification proposed for ranched in 
Zimbabwe, photo, Apr 7; petition to reclassify all 
wild, Apr 7 
Crocodile, saltwater, CITES transfer, Jan 9 
Crocodvlus acutus . See Crocodile, American 
Crocodvlus niloticus . See Crocodile, Nile 
Crocodvlus porosus . See Crocodile, saltwater 
Crow, Hawaiian, breeding facility progress, Jun 9 
Cui-ui: information to tribal members, Jan 2; 
Truckee River run, Jun 9, Jul 2; Marble Bluff 
health, safety recommendations, Oct 7 
Cyathea dryopteroides, proposed E, Oct 1 
Cycladenia, Jones. See Cycladenia humillis var. 

jonesii 
Cycladenia humillis var. jonesii , final T, Jun 3-4 
Cvprinodon diabolis . See Pupfish, Devil's Hole 
Cyprinodon macularius . See Pupfish, desert 
Cvprinodon pecosensis. See Pupfish, Pecos 
Cvprinodon tularosa. See Pupfish, White Sands 
Cvprinodon variegatus . See Minnow, sheephead 
Cystophora cristata. See Seal, hooded 



Dace, blackside, proposed T, habitat photos, Jun 5 

Dace, desert, T listing, Jan 3-4 

Darter, Maryland, sighting, photo of search for, 

Jun 11 
Darter, trispot, listing proposal withdrawn, Feb 7 
Darter, watercress, population survey, Aug 10 
Dayflower, climbing. See Commelina gigas 
Deer, key, proposed highway protection, May 14 
Deeringothamnus pulchellus, final E, Oct 3 
Deeringothamnus rugelii, final E, Oct 3 
Deltistes luxatus . See Sucker, Lost River 



Dendroica kirtlandii . See Warbler, Kirtland's 
Desmocerus californicus dimorphus . See Beetle, 

valley elderberry longhorn 
Dipodomys heermanni morroensis. See Rat, Morro 

Bay kangaroo 
Dipodomys ingens . See Rat, giant kangaroo 
Discus macclintocki . See Snail, Iowa Pleistocene 
Driftless Area acquisition project, Oct 10 
Dropwort, Canby's. See Oxypolis canbyi 
Dudleya traskiae , approved recovery plan, photo, 

Mar 4-6 



Eagle, bald: possession conviction, Jan 12; MO 
"Eagle Days," Feb 2, 5; communal roost survey, 
Mar 2; wintering surveys, Apr 2; AZ nests, 
fostering success, May 13; LA nesting increases, 
NC roost study, May 14; AK translocations pairing 
in NY, May 14-15; CA egg transfers, Pit River 
Management Plan, NV nesting pair return, Jun 2; 
MI highway median strip nesting, Jun 10; AZ 
breeding successes, Jul 9; CA releases, Aug 8; 
Chesapeake Bay reproduction, Aug 11; Willamette 
River fish prey sampling, Oct 2; ID nestings, 
Oct 8; working groups, Dec 6 

Eagle, Mexican. See Caracara, Audubon's crested 

Endangered species: Coordinators Meeting, Oct 10; 
TV series on, Oct 11 

Endangered Species Act, final Section 7 regulations 
approved, Aug 3 

Enforcement Operation PISCES uncovers widespread 
illegal trade, photo, Jul 10 

Enhydra lutris nereis. See Otter, southern sea 

Epioblasma penita . See Mussel, penitent 

Eremichthys acros . See Dace, desert 

Eriastrum densifolium ssp. sanctorum, proposed E, 
photo, May 8-9 

Eriogonum humivagans, proposed E, drawing, 
May 11-12 

Eriogonum ovalifolium var. williamsae , final E, 
Aug 6-7 

Eryngium constancei, proposed E, habitat photo, 
Apr 4 

Eryngium cuneifolium, proposed E, drawing, May 6 

Eryngium racemosum , populations confirmed, Aug 2 

Ervthronium propullans : final E, Apr 4-5; recovery 
plan, Apr 10 

Etheostoma nuchale . See Darter, watercress 

Etheostoma sellare . See Darter, Maryland 

Etheostoma trisella. See Darter, trispot 

Eupatorium resinosum , status survey, May 14 

Euphilotes enoptes smithi. See Butterfly, Smith's 
blue 

Euphilotes enoptes tildeni . See Butterfly, Tilden's 
blue 

Euphorbia deltoidea ssp. deltoidea: Army management 
plan, May 14; Miami tract public ownership, Jul 10 

Euphydryas editha bayensis . See Butterfly, bay 
checkerspot 



Falco femoralis septentrionalis . See Falcon, 

northern aplomado 
Falcon, American peregrine: AK survey results, 
Oct 11; AK-banded killed by CA airline collision, 
Dec 7-8; see also Falcon, peregrine 
Falcon, northern aplomado: final E, photo, Mar 1; 

TX releases, Aug 9 
Falcon, peregrine: parking-lot feaster demonstrates 
hacking successes, photo, 7-year success table, 
Mar 9; Peregrine Fund's disease control program, 
Apr 2; Region 3 release plans, Apr 11; NH and 
VT sightings, Apr 11; embryonic mortality at ID 
facility, May 14; CA egg removals, Jun 2; on 
Mississippi River bluffs, MN building, Jun 10; WA 
cooperative surveys, Jul 9; WA egg recovery, 
Aug 7; Big Bend, TX reproduction problems, Aug 
8-9; first Midwest wild hatch, Aug 9; Region 5 
nesting successes, Aug 11; AK river surveys, 
Aug 11; Salt Lake City hotel roof nesting, 
Aug 11; ID fledgings, Coos Bay surveys, Oct 2; 
Eastern Recovery Team meeting, Oct 11; AK 
river surveys, banding recoveries, Oct 11-12 
Falco peregrinus . See Falcon, peregrine 
Falco peregrinus anatum. See Falcon, American 

peregrine 
Falco rusticolus . See Gvrfalcon 
Famphur R, toxicity to birds, Mar 8 
Felis concolor corvi. See Panther, Florida 
Felis yagouaroundi cacomitli . See Jaguarundi 
Fern, Aleutian shield. See Polvstichum aleuticum 
Fern, elfin tree. See Cvathea drvopteroides 
Ferret, black-footed: survey results, captive 
breeding recommendations, Jan 11; 2 dead, 
breeding facility funding, Feb 7-8; fund 
donations, photo, Apr 9; captive breeding 
facility, Apr 11, May 15; captive breeding failure, 
TV program, May 15; summer survey, capture 
recommendations, Aug 11; all known wild to be 
captured, Oct 11 
Fishes: Dexter successes, Jan 2, 10; Desert Fishes 
Recovery Team first meeting, Jan 2; CO River 
refuge aquatic habitats, Mar 8-9; Pecos River 
samplings, Apr 10; Desert Fishes Recovery Team 
actions, May 2, 13; recovery activities in CO 
River upper basin, photos, map, Jul 5-7, 12; San 
Juan River survey, Oct 10; possible Leslie Creek 
acquisition for Yaqui River species, Dec 2-3 
Florida: proposed listing for 8 sand pine scrub 
plants, drawings, photo, May 1, 6-7; status 
survey for 7 mammal, 2 bird species, Jun 10 
Flowers: CITES listing for Australian wildflowers, 

Jan 9-10 
Fly, Belkin's dune tabanid, new populations, Oct 7 
Fly, caddis, native fishes may control, Jun 9 
Four-o'clock, MacFarlane's. See Mirabilis 

macfarlanei 
Fox, Arctic, Kiska eradication program, Apr 11-12, 

May 15, Jul 11 
Fringe tree, pygmy. See Chionanthus pygmaeus 



Gambusia, Pecos, reintroduction plan, Apr 10 
Gambusia nobilis . See Gambusia, Pecos 
Geocarpon minimum, proposed T, May 9 
Geothlvpis trichas sinuosa. See Yellowthroat, salt 

marsh 
Gila bicolor euchila . See Chub, Fish Creek Springs 

tui 
Gila bicolor mohavensis . See Chub, Mohave tui 
Gila bicolor snvderi . See Chub, Owens tui 
Gila boraxobius . See Chub, Borax Lake 
Gila cvpha . See Chub, humpback 
Gila ditaenia. See Chub, Sonora 
Gila elegans. See Chub, bonvtail 
Gila robusta seminuda . See Chub, Virgin River 
Glaucomys sabrinus . See Squirrel, northern flying 
Glaucomvs sabrinus griseifrons. See Squirrel, Prince 

of Wales flying 
Globe-berry, Tumamoc. See Tumamoca macdougalii 
Goetzea elegans, current status, Mar 3 
Goose, Aleutian Canada: Japanese breeding 

successes, Jan 11; relict populations on 2 islands, 

mitochondrial DNA analysis, Mar 11; Kiska fox 

eradication program, Apr 11-12, Jul 11; proposed 

Amchitka radar facility, Oct 12; zoo cooperators, 

Dec 8 
Goose, Hawaiian, pesticides' effects on, Feb 7 
Gopherus polvphemus . See Tortoise, gopher 
Graptemvs oculifera . See Turtle, ringed sawback 
Grus americana . See Crane, whooping 
Grus canadensis pratensis . See Crane, Florida 

sandhill 
Grus canadensis pulla . See Crane, Mississippi 

sandhill 
Grvllotalpa major . See Cricket, prairie mole 
Gull, herring, AL nesting, Aug 10 
Gyrfalcon, CITES transfer proposal, Jan 9 



Habitat rehabilitation, waterway project, Aug 14 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus . See Eagle, bald 
Harperocallis flava , transplant success, Aug 10 
Hawaii, Hakalau Forest NWR established for birds, 

Jan 5 
Hedeoma todsenii, type locality relocated, Aug 9 
Hemignathus munroi. See ' Akiapola ' au 
Hesperia leonardus montana. See Skipper, Pawnee 

montane 
Hexastylis lewisii, status survey, May 14 
Hibiscadelphus distans, final E, May 5-6 
Holly, Cook's. See Ilex cookii 
Hygrotus fontinalis. See Beetle. Travertine band- 
thigh diving 
Hvmenoxvs texana, final E, Apr 5 
Hypericum, Highlands scrub. See Hypericum 

cumulicola 
Hypericum cumulicola , proposed E, May 6 

Ilex cookii. proposed E, Oct 1 

' Iliahi. See Santalum frevcinetianum var. lanaiense 



Iliamna corei, final E, drawing, Jun 3 
Insecticide Famphur R toxic to birds, Mar 8 
Isoetes tegetiformans, status review, Jun 10 
Isotria medeoloides, NH vandalism, drawing, Dec 6 



Jaguarundi, TX road kill, photo, Aug 9 
Jay, Florida scrub, proposed T, photo, Jun 6 
Kite, Florida snail, potential impacts, Aug 10 
Ko 'oloa 'ula. See Abutilon menziesii 
Kuahiwi, Kaua ' i hau. See Hibiscadelphus distans 



Ladies'-tresses, Navasota. See Spiranthes parksii 
Lampsilis higginsi . See Mussel, Higgin's eye pearly 
Lampsilis streckeri, status survey, Oct 10 
Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi. See Shrike, San 

Clemente Island loggerhead 
Larus argentatus. See Gull, herring 
Law enforcement convictions, Jan 12 
Leather flower, Alabama. See Clematis socialis 
Lepidochelvs kempii. See Turtle, Kemp's ridley sea 
Lepidomeda albivallis. See Spinedace, White River 
Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis . See Spinedace, 

Big Spring 
Leptonvcteris nivalis . See Bats, long-nosed 
Leptonvcteris sanborni. See Bats, long-nosed 
Lespedeza leptostachva: proposed T, Jan 6; WI 

population, Aug 9 
Lesquerella filiformis , proposed E, photo, May 10-11 
Lesquerella pallida, proposed E, May 10 
Lily, Minnesota trout. See Ervthronium propullans 
Lindera melissifolia, final E, Aug 7 
Lindera subcoriacea, status survey, Aug 11 
Liveforever, Santa Barbara Island. See Dudleva 

traskiae 
Lizard, scrub, status survey, Dec 7 
Lizard, St. Croix ground, population ecology study, 

Aug 10 
Lomatium, Bradshav/s. See Lomatium bradshawii 
Lomatium bradshawii, proposed E, Dec 5 
Loosestrife, rough-leaved. See Lvsimachia 

asperulaefolia 
Loxops coccineus coccineus . See 'Akepa, Hawai 'i 
Lupine, scrub. See Lupinus aridorum 
Lupinus aridorum, proposed E, photo, May 1 
Lycaeides idas lotis. See Butterfly, Lotis blue 
Lvsimachia asperulaefolia , proposed E, photo, 

May 9-10 



Mallow, Peter's Mountain. See Iliamna corei 
Mammals, proposed E for 8 foreign, Jun 4 
Manatee, West Indian: FL and PR continuing 

efforts to save, photo, Apr 8; Tampa zoo 

facilities, Aug 9 
Meda fulgida . See Spikedace 
Melamprosops phaesoma . See Po 'ouli 



Melospiza melodia amaka . See Sparrow, Amak song 

Mesurol, no-spray zones, Jul 2, 9 

Mezoneuron kavaiense , final E, Aug 6 

Microtus oeconomus amakensis . See Vole, Amak 

Microtus oeconomus elvmocetes . See Vole, 

Montague 
Milk-vetch, Jesup's. See Astragalus robbinsii 

var. jesupi 
Minnow, loach, final T, Oct 3 
Minnow, sheephead, threatens Pecos pupfish, Aug 8 
Mirabilis macfarlanei: approved recovery plan, 

habitat photo, Mar 6; large population found, 

Jul 2 
Monkshood, northern. See Aconitum noveboracense 
Monodon monoceros . See Narwhal 
Montana Natural Heritage Program funded, Jan 11 
Mouse, Alabama beach: hurricane damage to habitat, 

dune photos, Jan 7-8; habitat damage repair 

efforts, May 14; field survey, recovery plan draft, 

Aug 10 
Mouse, Chadwick cotton, status survey, appears 

extinct, Mar 10-11 
Mouse, Choctawhatchee beach: hurricanes damage 

habitat, dune photos, Jan 7-8; residential 

development threat, Jan 10; draft recovery plan, 

Aug 10 
Mouse, Key Largo cotton, Critical Habitat proposal 

withdrawn, HCP to be developed, Apr 9 
Mouse, Perdido Key beach: hurricanes damage 

habitat, dune photos, Jan 7-8; field survey, draft 

recovery plan, Aug 10; population estimates, 

Oct 10-11 
Mussel, Curtus', proposed E, May 3 
Mussel, fat pocketbook, St. Francis Floodway survey, 

April 
Mussel, Higgin's Eye Pearly, Recovery Team tasks, 

Jun 10 
Mussel, Judge Tait's, proposed E, habitat photo, 

May 3 
Mussel, Marshall's, proposed E, May 3 
Mussel, penitent, proposed E, drawing, May 3-4 
Mussel, stirrup shell, proposed E, habitat photo, 

May 3 
Mussels: multi-state freshwater die-off, Mar 11; 

proposed E for 5 Tombigbee River, habitat photo, 

drawing, May 3-4; die-off meetings, Jul 9, Aug 16; 

status surveys for 2 freshwater, Oct 10 
Mustard, Carter's. See Warea carteri 
Mustela nigripes. See Ferret, black-footed 
Mvotis sodalis. See Bat, Indiana 



Narwhal, CITES transfer proposal, Jan 9 
Naupaka, dwarf. See Scaevola coriacea 
Neotoma floridana smalli . See Woodrat, Key Largo 
Nerodia harteri paucimaculata . See Snake, Concho 

water 
Nesochen sandvicensis . See Goose, Hawaiian 



Notropis mekistocholas . See Shiner, Cape Fear 
Notropis simus pecosensis . See Shiner, bluntnose 



Odocoileus virginianus clavium . See Deer, key 
Opuntia spinosissima, FL sighting, status reappraisal, 

Caribbean distribution, Apr 11 
Orchid, western prairie fringed. See Plantanthera 

praeclara 
Qrconectes shoupi. See Crayfish, Nashville 
Qrthalicus reses reses . See Snail, Stock Island tree 
Oryzomys palustris planirostris . See Rat, Pine Island 

rice 
Oryzomys palustris sanibeli . See Rat, Sanibel Island 

rice 
Otter, southern sea: fall count, Jan 2; translocation 
plans, Mar 7, Apr 2; CA population survey, survey 
techniques, May 15; overview, population status, 
conflicts over, recovery program, photo, Aug 12- 
14; law enforcement boat, gill net drownings, 
Oct 2; translocation proposal, containment plans, 
management compromises, maps, Oct 5-7 
'O 'u, refuge established for, litho, Jan 5 
Oxypolis canbyi , final E, Mar 1, 12 



Paintbrush, golden. See Castilleja christii 
Palmetto, Miami. See Sabal miamiensis 
Palo de Ramon. See Banara vanderbiltii 
Panther, Florida: road kill, planned highway 

improvements, Jan 10; draft recovery plan, Apr 

11; interagency Advisory Council a possibility, 

May 14; captive breeding progress, Dec 3, 7 
Paronychia chartacea , proposed T, May 6 
Parrot, Puerto Rican, male missing, population 

figures, Jul 11 
Parrot, thick-billed: illegal imports confiscated, 

planned reintroductions, Jul 9; AZ releases, 

behavior, photo, Oct 8-9 
Parrot, yellow-headed Amazon, humane transport 

regulations, photo, Jan 9 
Pawpaw, beautiful. See Deeringothamnus pulchellus 
Pawpaw, four-petal. See Asimina tetramera 
Pawpaw, Rugel's. See Deeringothamnus rugelii 
Pediocactus despainii , proposed E, photo, Apr 3 
Pediocactus knowltonii, reintroduction results, 

Jun 10, Oct 9 
Pennyroyal, Todsen's. See Hedeoma todsenii 
Penstemon, blowout. See Penstemon haydenii 
Penstemon havdenii , proposed E, drawing, May 12 
Peperomia, Wheeler's. See Pepperomia wheeleri 
Peperomia wheeleri , proposed E, photo, May 7 
Peromyscus gossypinus allaoaticola . See Mouse, Key 

Largo cotton 
Peromyscus gossypinus restrictus. See Mouse, 

Chadwick cotton 
Peromyscus polionotus allophrvs . See Mouse. 

Choctawhatchee beach 



Peromyscus polionotus ammobates . See Mouse, 

Alabama beach 
Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis . See Mouse, 

Perdido Key beach 
Pesticides: Diazinon's adverse effects, Feb 7; 

Famphur R toxic to birds, Mar 8 
Phoxinus cumberlandensis. See Dace, blackside 
Picoides borealis. See Woodpecker, red-cockaded 
Pintail, white-cheeked, petition to list Puerto Rican, 

Virgin Islands population, Feb 5 
Pitcher plant, green. See Sarracenia oreophila 
Plagopterus argentissimus . See Woundfin 
Plantanthera praeclara, population eaten, Aug 9 
Plants: CITES decision on parts and derivatives, 
Jan 10; Cooperative Agreements with 4 states, 
Feb 5; of Caribbean Islands, unique problems, 
photo, Mar 3-4; revised publication on AK 
candidate listings, Mar 11; FWS/NV cooperative 
program, Apr 3; 18 proposed for listing, FL scrub 
taxa, photos, drawings, May 1, 6-13; MO meeting 
on rare, candidate taxa ranked, May 13; NPS/NC 
training program on, May 14; status surveys of 
four NC, May 14; WV cooperative conservation 
agreement, Oct 11; CA Native Plant Society 
conference, Dec 2 
Platte River, endangered species, water development 

issues, Oct 11 
Plecotus townsendii ingens . See Bat, Ozark big- 
eared 
Plecotus townsendii virginianus . See Bat, Virginia 

big-eared. 
Plethodon caddoensis . See Salamander, Caddo 

Mountain 
Pleurobema curtum . See Mussel, Curtus' 
Pleurobema marshalli. See Mussel, Marshall's 
Pleurobema taitianum . See Mussel, Judge Tait's 
Plover, piping: E in Great Lakes region, 

T elsewhere, drawing, Jan 3; recovery team, 
Feb 7; Canadian Wildlife Service cooperation, 
Mar 10; recovery plans, Apr 10; Atlantic coast 
nesting survey, Jun 11; breeding pairs survey, 
Oct 11; preliminary draft recovery plan, Dec 7 
Plum, scrub. See Prunus geniculata 
Pogonia, small whorled. See Isotria medeoloides 
Polyborus plancus audubonii . See Caracara, 

Audubon's crested 
Polygonella basiramia , proposed E, May 6 
Polystichum aleuticum, search for, Aug 11 
Pondberry. See Lindera melissifolia 
Po 'ouli, first observation of fledging, Jul 11 
Potamilus capax . See Mussel, fat pocketbook 
Prairie chicken, Attwater's greater: TX survey, 
declines, Apr 10; rains imperil hatch, plans for 
second refuge, Jul 9 
Preserve plan for four species at Carrizo Plain, 

Oct 7 
Procambarus barbiger , biologists study, decline, 

photo, Aug 15 
Procambarus species. See Crayfish, prairie 



Prunus geniculata , proposed E, May 1 
Pseudemys alabamensis . See Turtle, Alabama 

red-bellied 
Pseudemys rubriventris bangsi . See Turtle, Plymouth 

red-bellied 
Psittirostra psittacea . See ' O ' u 
Pteropus mariannus mariannus. See Bat, Mariana 

fruit 
Ptychocheilus lucius . See Squawfish, Colorado 
Pupfish, desert: land purchased for, Mar 7-8; 

final E, photo Apr 5-6 
Pupfish, Devil's Hole, population decline, Oct 2 
Pupfish, Pecos, sheephead minnow threatens, Aug 8 
Pupfish, White Sands, management plan, Jul 9 



Quadrula stapes . See Mussel, stirrup shell 



Rail, light-footed clapper, pipeline threat, Jun 2 
Rallus longirostris levipes. See Rail, light-footed 

clapper 
Rat, giant kangaroo, oil-spill kills, Jun 2 
Rat, Morro Bay kangaroo, Habitat Conservation Plan, 

Oct 7 
Rat, Pine Island rice, status survey, Mar 10-11 
Rat, Sanibel Island rice, status survey, Mar 10-11 
Rehabilitation of waterways, Aug 14 
Rhododendron, Chapman. See Rhododendron 

chapmanni 
Rhododendron chapmanni , current status, photo, 

Mar 8 
Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha . See Parrot, thick-billed 
Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus . See Kite, Florida 

snail 



Sabal miamiensis: new species description, Jun 10; 

proposed E, photo, Dec 4 
Salamander, Caddo Mountain, status review, 

Feb 5, 7 
Salamander, Santa Cruz long-toed, no-spray zone, 

Jul 9 
Salmo apache . See Trout, Apache 
Salmo clarki henshawi. See Trout, Lahontan 

cutthroat 
Salmo clarki seleniris . See Trout, Paiute cutthroat 
Sandalwood, Lana ' i. See Santalum freycinetianum 

var. lanaiense 
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, final E, 

Feb 3 
Sarracenia oreophila , insect damage study, Oct 10 
Scaevola coriacea , final E, Jun 3 
Scaphirhvnchus platorvnchus ssp. See Sturgeon, 

Alabama shovelnose 
Sceloporus woodi. See Lizard, scrub 
Sciurus niger cinereus . See Squirrel, Delmarva fox 
Scutellaria montana, final E, Jul 7 
Seal, Guadalupe fur, final E, Jan 4 



Seal, hooded, CITES proposal, Jan 9 
Sea otter. See Otter, southern sea 
Section 7, final regulations approved, Aug 3 
Shiner, bluntnose, Pecos River samplings, Apr 10 
Shiner, Cape Fear, proposed E, habitat photo, 

Aug 5-6 
Shipment of wildlife, proposed humane regulations, 

Jan 9 
Shrew, Dismal Swamp, final T, Oct 3 
Shrew, Homosassa, status survey, Mar 10 
Shrew, Sherman's short-tailed, status survey, 

Mar 10-11 
Shrike, San Clemente Island loggerhead, survey 

results, Oct 7 
Silverside, Waccamaw, public hearing, May 14 
Silversword, Mauna Kea. See Argvroxiphium 

sandwicense ssp. sandwicense 
Skipper, Pawnee montane, proposed T, Oct 1 
Skullcap, large-flowered. See Scutellaria montana 
Snail, Iowa Pleistocene: habitat protection, Jul 9; 

Driftless Area acquisition, Oct 10 
Snail, Stock Island tree, population extirpation, 

Aug 10 
Snake, Concho water: proposed T, photo, Feb 1, 4; 

public hearing, Stacy Dam concern, May 13; final 

T, Oct 3 
Snake, San Francisco garter: no-spray zone, Jul 9; 

habitat protection plan, Oct 8 
Snakeroot. See Eryngium cuneifolium 
Sorex longirostris. See Shrew, Dismal Swamp 
Sorex longirostris eionis . See Shrew, Homosassa 
Sparrow, Amak song, status unknown, Aug 11 
Sparrow, Cape Sable seaside, habitat model, Mar 11 
Sparrow, Florida grasshopper: proposed E, photo, 

Jan 1, 7; final E, Aug 6; unthreatened by Air 

Park, Oct 10 
Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni. See Cavefish, Alabama 
Speyeria zerene hippolvta . See Butterfly, Oregon 

silverspot 
Spiderling, Mathis. See Boerhavia mathisiana 
Spikedace, final T, Aug 6 
Spinedace, Big Spring, status survey, Jul 2 
Spinedace, White River, irrigation-water management, 

Jun 9 
Spineflower, slender-horned. See Centrostegia 

leptoceras 
Spiranthes parksii, monitoring program, Oct 9 
Springfish, Railroad Valley, final T, photo, Apr 6 
Spurge, deltoid. See Euphorbia deltoidea ssp. 

deltoidea 
Squawfish, Colorado: CO River ^introductions, 

Apr 2; first Salt River survival in 30 years, Jun 9; 

CO River upper basin recovery activities, Jul 5-7, 

12; trophy sport fishery proposal, Aug 8, Dec 2 
Squirrel, Delmarva fox, DL releases, Jun 10 
Squirrel, Mount Graham red, proposed E, photo, 

Jun 1, 4-5 
Squirrel, northern flying: recovery team, Feb 7; 

coop studies on life history, ecology, Jun 10 



Squirrel, Prince of Wales flying, and USFS 

management plans, Jan 11 
Sterna antillarum . See Tern, least 
Sterna antillarum athalassos . See Tern, interior least 
Sterna antillarum browni . See Tern, California least 
Sterna dougallii dougallii. See Tern, roseate 
Sternotherus depressus. See Turtle, flattened musk 
Sturgeon, Alabama shovelnose, status review, Apr 11 
Sturgeon, shortnose, illegal trade uncovered, photo, 

JullO 
Sucker, June, final E, drawing, Apr 5 
Sucker, Klamath largescale, Klamath River basin 

decline, Jun 9 
Sucker, Lost River, Klamath River basin decline, 

Jun 2, 9 
Sucker, razorback: may control flies, Jun 9; 

CO River recovery activities, Jul 5-7, 12 
Sucker, shortnose, Klamath River basin decline, 

Jun 2, 9 
Sucker, Warner, highway impacts, Aug 8 



Turtle, flattened musk: research summary, habitat 

photo, Feb 6; public hearing, Mar 10; disease 

problem, Jun 10; stream survey results, Oct 12 
Turtle, Kemp's ridley sea, Rancho Nuevo hatching 

successes, Oct 8 
Turtle, Plymouth red-bellied, release of aquarium 

grown, Aug 11 
Turtle, ringed sawback, proposed T, habitat loss, 

photo, Feb 4 
Turtles, sea: CITES rejects transfers of ranched, 

Jan 9; management meeting, nest protection, 

Apr 11; TED required for shrimp trawls, Oct 8; 

TED effectiveness tests, Oct 10; Mexico's 16 

nesting refuges, Dec 2 
Tvmpanuchus cupido attwateri . See Prairie chicken, 

Attwater's greater 



Uhiuhi. See Mezoneuron kavaiense 
Ursus arctos horribilis . See Bear, grizzly 



Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis. See Squirrel, 

Mount Graham red 
Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway habitat rehabilitation, 

Aug 14 
Tern, California least, pipeline threat, Jun 2 
Tern, interior least, nesting survey, Oct 11 
Tern, least: Mississippi River interior colonies 

survey, Feb 5, Mar 11; NM fledgings, OK surveys, 

Aug 9 
Tern, roseate, proposed E for North American, T for 

Caribbean, photo, Dec 1, 4 
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia . See Snake, San 

Francisco garter 
Thrvomanes bewickii altus . See Wren, Bewick's 
Tiaroga cobitis . See Minnow, loach 
Tortoise, gopher: habitat management 

recommendations, Jan 10-11; proposed T for 

western population, photo, Aug 4-5; Relocation 

Symposium, Dec 7 
Transport of wildlife, proposed humane regulations, 

Jan 9 
Trichechus manatus . See Manatee, West Indian 
Trifolium stoloniferum : proposed E, Apr 3; WV 

conservation, Oct 11 
Trout; Apache, first hatchery-cultured 

reintroduction, May 2 
Trout, Lahontan cutthroat, large Truckee River run, 

Jun 9 
Trout, Paiute cutthroat, volunteer recovery aid, 

Aug 8 
Trout lily, Minnesota. See Ervthronium propullans 
Tumamoca macdougalii . final E, drawing, May 4-6 
Turtle, Alabama red-bellied, proposed T, photo, 

Aug 1, 3-4 



Verbena, large-fruited sand. See Abronia 

macrocarpa 
Vireo, least Bell's: flood control impacts, draft 

management plan, Mar 2; pipeline threat, Jun 2; 

final E, critical habitat question, Jun 4; 

unauthorized habitat clearing, Aug 2 
Vireo belli pusillus . See Vireo, least Bell's 
Vole, Amak, none found, Aug 11 
Vole, Montague, and USFS management plans, 

Jan 11 



Warbler, Kirtland's: Bahama field work, Jan 10, 
Feb 8; color-marking proposal, Mar 10; first 
breeding-ground song, Jun 10; Bahama winter 
work ends, MI census, Jul 9; banded male sighted 
on both grounds, first radio- tagging, Aug 16; 
radio-tracking results, Oct 10 
Warea, wide-leaf. See Warea amplexifolia 
Warea amplexifolia , proposed E, Jun 7-8 
Warea carteri , proposed E, May 6 
Waterways rehabilitation, Aug 14 
Whitlow-wort, papery. See Paronychia chartacea 
Wildlife shipment, proposed humane regulations, 

Jan 9 
Wireweed. See Polygonella basiramia 
Wisconsin, oil and gas lease management, Jun 10 
Wolf, Mexican: MX symposium, reintroduction 
plans, Apr 10; captive breeding results, Jun 9 
Wolf, red: captive breeding results, proposed NC 
reintroduction, Jun 9-10; experimental population 
proposal, reintroduction plans, photo, Aug 1, 7; 
4 pairs to NC, photo, Dec 3 
Wolf, timber, MN international center, Jan 10 



Woodpecker, ivory-billed, rediscovery of Cuban 

subspecies, May 15 
Woodpecker, red-cockaded, test range management 

plan, Jul 10 
Woodrat, Key Largo, Critical Habitat proposal 

withdrawn, HCP to be developed, Apr 9 
Woolly-star, Santa Ana River. See Eriastrum 

densifolium ssp. sanctorum 
Working groups, effectiveness of, Dec 6 



Woundfin: collection for reintroduction, Mar 10; 

Virgin River monitoring, May 2, Oct 9 
Wren, Appalachian Bewick's, listing petition, Oct 10 



Xyrauchen texanus . See Sucker, razorback 



Yellowthroat, salt marsh, status and distribution 
report, Apr 10 



Zanthoxylum thomasianum , current status, Mar 4 



Index prepared for 

Office of Endangered Species 

by Nancy E. MacClintock 



1986 



Vol. XI Nos. 1-12 





FIRST CLASS 




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 


U.S. 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




PERMIT NO. G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of interior u.S Fish and Wildlife Service 
Endangered Species Program, Washington, DC. 20240 



, 77 *' A^/ 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 
DEPQC i rORV I TEM 



January 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 1 




TiBRAffl 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20204 



Habitat Loss Threatens Two Midwestern Plants 



Two species of plants endemic to small 
areas of the northern midwest were pro- 
posed by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
during December 1987 for listing as 
Threatened. Both grow only along lake- 
shores, lands that are in demand for 
development. If the proposals are made 
final, Endangered Species Act protection 
will be extended to the following: 

Fassett's Locoweed 
(Oxytropis campestris var. 
chartaceae) 

A perennial herb native to central 
Wisconsin, Fassett's locoweed is a mem- 
ber of the pea family (Fabaceae). It pro- 
duces a rosette of pinnately compound 
leaves clustered at the base of the stem 
and attractive rose-purple flowers. The 
total known population of about 4,500 
plants is concentrated at 6 sites in Por- 
tage and Waushara Counties. 

Several historical populations of 
Fassett's locoweed were lost to lakeside 
construction and other modifications of 
the habitat. All of the remaining sites are 
on privately owned land open to additional 
development. Because of the species' 
vulnerability, the Service has proposed 
listing Fassett's locoweed as Threatened 
(F.R. 12/4/87). 

Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris) 

As suggested by its common name, this 
plant is small — less than 6 inches high — 
and grows along lakeshores. (It also 




dwarf lake iris 

occurs in the partially shaded areas of 
upper beach habitat.) Currently, about 70 
known sites are found on the northern 
shores of Lake Michigan and Huron in 
Wisconsin and Michigan, and there are 
about a dozen more sites in Ontario, 
Canada. 

Construction of lakeside housing and 
other development, which resulted in 
major losses of historical habitat, con- 
tinues to be a threat. Most sites of the 
dwarf lake iris are on private property and 
are vulnerable to change. However, one 
dwarf lake iris site is on Federal land, a 



U.S. Coast Guard lighthouse station in 
Michigan, and several are on protected 
State lands. 

The Service has proposed to list the 
dwarf lake iris as Threatened (F.R. 
12/4/87). A Federal listing under the 
Endangered Species Act would comple- 
ment and reinforce the protection already 
given the species by Wisconsin and Mich- 
igan. Potential recovery activities include 
management of the habitat to reduce 
competition from other plants and trans- 
planting irises to previously occupied sites 
(if any are found suitable). 



Alabama Cavefish, Now Considered Nearer to Extinction, 

is Proposed for Reclassification 



The Alabama cavefish (Speoplaty- 
rhinus poulsoni) is a small, blind, color- 
less fish known only from Key Cave in 
Lauderdale County, Alabama. It was 
listed by the Fish and Wildlife Service as 
a Threatened species in 1977. Since that 
time, studies of 120 other caves in north- 
eastern Alabama failed to locate any 
other S. poulsoni sites. The only known 
population is estimated to number fewer 
than 100 individuals, and its aquatic hab- 
itat is believed to be vulnerable to sewage 
and pesticide pollution. Because the Ala- 
bama cavefish is now considered in 



immediate danger of extinction, the Serv- 
ice has proposed to reclassify it from 
Threatened to the more critical category 
of Endangered (F.R. 12/4/87). 

The quality of .Key Cave's environment 
is directly influenced by what takes place 
above-ground in the drainage or recharge 
area. Contaminants can enter the cave 
through sinkholes or other water collect- 
ing depressions. Within the probable 
recharge area are two activities that could 
affect groundwater quality: 1) the use of 
pesticides and other agricultural chemi- 



cals on row crops and 2) a sewage sludge 
disposal operation developed by the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority and operated 
intermittently by the City of Florence, Ala- 
bama. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service is working 
with the Environmental Protection Agency 
in an attempt to control possible sources 
of water pollution in the area. In the 
meantime, however, the Service believes 
that the category of Endangered repre- 
sents the true status of the Alabama 
cavefish. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 1 (1988) 




Regional endangered species biolo- 
gists have reported the following news 
and activities for December: 

Region 1 — An Area of Critical Environ- 
mental Concern designation has been 



recommended for a 40-acre site at Walker 
Flat near McMinnville, Oregon. Such a 
designation would authorize the Bureau of 
Land Management to develop an interim 
habitat management plan for Nelson's 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Robert Smith, Acting Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Office of 

Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN Staff 

Michael Bender, Editor 

Denise Henne, Assistant Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; William F. 
Shake, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); 



James C. Gritman, Regional Director; 
John S. Popowski, Assistant Regional 
Director; James M. Engel, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director; 
Marshall P. Jones, Endangered Spe- 
cies Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant Regional 
Director; Paul Nickerson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; John D. Green, Assistant 
Regional Dirrector; Barry S. Mulder, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Robert E. 
Gilmore, Regional Director; Jon 
Nelson, Assistant Regional Director; 
Dennis Money, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N: Smith, Regional Director; 
Endangered Species Staff; Clarence 
Johnson, fish and crustaceans (202- 
653-8772); Bettina Sparrowe, other 
animals and plants (202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1: California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Pacific Trust Territories. Region 2: Arizona. New 
Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 
Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida. Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi. North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire. New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia. Region 6: Colo- 
rado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: Alaska. Region 8: 
Research and Development nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



checker-mallow (Sidalcea nelsoniana), a 
Category 2 candidate for a future listing 
proposal. 



The Fish and Wildlife Service's Great 
Basin Complex Station at Reno, Nevada, 
met with the Bureau of Land Management 
and local landowners at Condor Canyon 
in Nevada's Lincoln County to observe 
grazing practices for effects on Big Spring 
spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pra- 
tensis) habitat. It was found that current 
grazing practices in the area are not sig- 
nificantly affecting spinedace habitat. 
Next, there was an inspection of a pro- 
posed desert tortoise (Xerobates agas- 
sizii) relocation study site near Pahrump. 
The experimental project would involve 
moving tortoises away from an area near 
Las Vegas that is subject to being sub- 
divided and developed. 
* * * 

Recently the Laguna Niguel Office 
issued a "no-jeopardy" Biological Opinion 
on the Devers Palo Verde-500 KV trans- 
mission line for effects on the Coachella 
Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata) 
and Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris 
yumanensis). Compensation for disturb- 
ance of 12.8 acres in the Coachella Valley 
fringe-toed lizard mitigation fee area was 
in the form of a payment to The Nature 
Conservancy, as provided for in the Hab- 
itat Conservation Plan. 



Recent research, using implanted radio 
transmitters, indicates that the San Fran- 
cisco garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis 
tetrataenia), once considered to be strictly 
an aquatic species, ranges at least 175 
yards away from wetlands into adjacent 
upland habitats. In an ongoing study, at 
least six snakes were observed using 
rodent burrows on dry hillside grasslands, 
presumably as hibernation sites for the 
winter. These findings will be very timely 
for addressing effects from a number of 
upcoming major projects. 



Sixty-five light-footed clapper rail 
(Rallus longirostris levipes) nesting plat- 
forms will be constructed at Point Magu, 
Carpenteria Marsh, and the Kendall-Frost 
Reserve in California. These platforms 
are designed to ride up and down with the 
tides to minimize possible flooding and 
loss of the nests. Moreover, they can be 
placed to reduce the likelihood of egg pre- 
dation by land-based predators. Similarly 
designed platforms, recently installed at 
the Anaheim Bay National Wildlife Ref- 
uge, were used extensively by rails during 
the 1986 breeding season. 

Region 2— Aerial surveys in early 
December confirmed that 134 whooping 
cranes [Grus americana) had reached 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 1 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 



Texas. The 109 adults and subadutts that 
departed northward in April and the 25 
young that fledged in Canada had all 
returned to their southern wintering areas. 
One hundred and thirty-three of the birds 
were on the Texas coast and one juvenile 
was in the Texas panhandle. The last 
time all spring migrants returned safely in 
fall was in 1976, when the population (57) 
was less than half its current size. The 
Rocky Mountain whooping crane popula- 
tion is estimated at 18-20 birds wintering 
in New Mexico and Mexican State of 
Chihuahua. 

In the summer of 1986, plant, animal, 
and sediment samples were collected at 
the three main refuges used by the Rocky 
Mountain whoopers. The samples from 
Bosque del Apache (New Mexico), 
Alamosa/Monte Vista (Colorado), and 
Grays Lake (Idaho) National Wildlife Ref- 
uges are to, be analyzed for contaminants. 
Only the data from Alamosa/Monte Vista 
are available at this time. Heavy metals 
(chromium, arsenic, mercury, copper, 
zinc, and lead) were unusually high in 
some samples. For example, while cop- 
per levels of 21 to 40 parts per billion are 
toxic to bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus), 
levels sampled in carp (Cyprinus carpio) 
at the refuge were 564 parts per billion. 
These high levels in the environment are 
believed to be a result of almost a century 
of silver and gold mining activities in the 
mountains surrounding the San Luis Val- 
ley where the Alamosa/Monte Vista Ref- 
uge is located. Whooping cranes spend 6 
to 12 weeks within the valley each year. 



On November 28 and 29, nine Sonoran 
pronghorn (Antilocapra americana 
sonoriensis) were captured and radio-col- 
lared in southwestern Arizona. A net was 
fired from a gun in a low-flying helicopter 
to catch the animals. Blood samples, as 
well as other data, were collected before 
the pronghorn were released. The radio- 
collared animals will be monitored bi- 
weekly from the air and weekly from the 
ground. Funding for this study was ob- 
tained by the Arizona Game and Fish 
Department. 

Region 4 — Range extensions were 
reported recently for two listed Florida 
plant species. Carter's mustard (Warea 
carteri) has been sighted on a county rec- 
reational complex on a barrier island near 
Melbourne. The site is oak scrub. This is 
the first time this Endangered species has 
been found outside Polk and Highlands 
Counties in central Florida since the 
1930's. The discovery shows that special 
searches for the plant during its fall 
flowering season are probably justified. A 
second report, not yet verified but from an 

(continued on page 4) 



Protection Approved 
for Puerto Rican Plant 



Crescentia portoricensis, or Higuero de 
Sierra, is an evergreen, vine-like shrub or 
small tree endemic to the mountains of 
southwestern Puerto Rico. Only 42 indi- 
viduals of this species are known to sur- 
vive. Although all six known populations 
are on forest lands owned and managed 
by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, 
deforestation of surrounding lands has led 
to erosion and flash flooding of C. por- 
toricensis habitat. A proposed U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers flood control project 
may add to this threat if it includes an 
impoundment that floods C. portoricensis 
habitat in Maricao Commonwealth Forest. 



The Service proposed January 14, 
1987, to list C. portoricensis as Endan- 
gered (see story in BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 
2), and the final rule was published in the 
December 4, 1987, Federal Register. 
This species is now eligible for all protec- 
tion and recovery benefits authorized for 
listed plants under the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act. In accordance with Section 7 of 
the Act, if formal planning for the flood 
control project is initiated, the Corps of 
Engineers will consult with the Service on 
ways to avoid jeopardizing C. portori- 
censis. 



Amistad Gambusia 
is Removed from List 



The Amistad gambusia (Gambusia 
amistadensis), a small fish known only 
from a single Texas spring, was removed 
by the Service from the Federal list of 
Endangered wildlife on December 4, 
1987. All available data indicate that this 
species is extinct. 

Goodenough spring, a triouiary or me 
Rio Grande in Val Verde County, is the 
only site at which the Amistad gambusia 
has ever been found, despite extensive 
searches of other springs in the region. 



This fish was not recognized as a distinct 
species until well after its required spring 
habitat was permanently inundated by the 
rising Amistad Reservoir in 1968. By the 
time the species was formally described 
(1973), the Amistad gambusia survived 
only in captive propagation facilities. 
Since that time, all known captive popula- 
tions have died or have been eliminated 
by hybridization with, or predation by, the 
related but common mosquitofish (Gam- 
busia af finis). 



Service Decides Not to List 
Spotted Owl at This Time 



The Fish and Wildlife Service has 
announced its decision that listing of the 
northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis 
caurina) as Threatened or Endangered is 
not warranted at this time. This finding 
came in response to listing petitions that 
cited habitat destruction from logging as a 
threat to the owl's survival. A formal 
notice of the Service's decision was pub- 
lished in the December 23, 1987, Federal 
Register. 

An estimated 4,000-6,000 individual 
birds occur through western Washington 
and Oregon to northern California. Most 
have been found in old-growth or mature 
forests. Approximately 70 percent of suit- 
able northern spotted owl habitat is 
administered by the U.S. Forest Service, 
which has signed an agreement with the 
Fish and Wildlife Service for coordinated 
research and monitoring. This agreement 
requires production of an annual report by 
both agencies on the owl's status. The 
Fish and Wildlife Service hopes to estab- 
lish similar interagency agreements with 
the National Park Service and Bureau of 
Land Management, which administer 
other areas of northern spotted owl hab- 
itat. 



The Forest Service is preparing a final 
Supplemental Environmental Impact 
Statement concerning its management of 
the northern spotted owl. The preferred 
alternative identified through this docu- 
ment will guide the agency's owl manage- 
ment efforts. Individual forest plans are to 
be brought into compliance with the pre- 
ferred alternative. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service has hired 
a person to coordinate all of the agency's 
activities regarding the spotted owl. His 
duties will include reviewing draft forest 
management plans for spotted owl con- 
cerns and pursuing (and implementing) 
additional interagency agreements. 



Correction 

Both photographs of the Hinckley 
oak (Quercus hinckleyi) in BULLETIN 
Vol. XII No. 10 should have been 
credited to A.M. Powell. We regret 
the error. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 1 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 



extremely reliable source, indicates that 
the Miccosukee gooseberry (Ribes 
echinellum) is present on private land in 
Gadsden County. Florida. This would be 
the third known locality for this Threat- 
ened plant, which also occurs at Lake 
Miccosukee in Jefferson County, Florida, 
and at Stevens Creek in South Carolina. 



The population of Endangered mussels 
in the Tombigbee River continues to 
decline. A recent survey, conducted at the 
Gainesville Bendway in Alabama, yielded 
only a few scattered common mussel spe- 
cies. None of the four listed species were 
found. Dr. Paul Yokley, who conducted 
the survey, reported that the water has 
too little flow, is accumulating some silt, 
and possibly does not provide suitable 
habitat for host fish species. A gradual 
4-year accumulation of sediment also 
threatens mussel populations on the East 
Fork. The siltation appears to be caused 
by the alteration of water flows from Bull 
Mountain Creek by the Tennessee-Tom- 
bigbee Waterway. Immediate action is 
warranted on both the East Fork and the 
Gainesville Bendway. The entire popula- 
tion of Curtus' mussel {Pleurobema cur- 
ium) is restricted to the East Fork, and the 
Gainesville Bendway is the only known 
remaining habitat for Marshall's mussel 
{Pleurobema marshalli). Also, the loss of 
the Gainesville Bendway and the East 
Fork would confine the stirrup shell 
(Quadrula stapes) and penitent mussel 
(Epioblasma penita) to the Sipsey and 
Buttahatchie Rivers, respectively. 



The American Cave Conservation 
Association, in cooperation with the city of 



BOX SCORE OF U.S. LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 







ENDANGERED 






THREATENED 






SPECIES 


Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


SPECIES* 


WITH 




Only 


Foreign 


Only 


Only 


Foreign 


Only 


TOTAL 


PLANS 


Mammals 


28 


19 


240 


3 


3 


23 


316 


23 


Birds 


60 


15 


146 


7 


3 





231 


55 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 


14 


4 


14 


106 


21 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 








17 


6 


Fishes 


39 


4 


11 


25 


6 





85 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 








9 


7 


Clams 


28 





2 











30 


21 


Crustaceans 


5 








1 








6 


1 


Insects 


8 








7 








15 


12 


Plants 


134 


6 


1 


30 


3 


2 


176 


56 


TOTAL 


318 


51 


468 


96 


19 


39 


991 


263** 



Total U.S. Endangered 369 
Total U.S. Threatened 115 

Total U.S. Listed 484 

•Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened are 
tallied twice. Those species are: the leopard, gray wolf, bald eagle, piping plover, roseate 
tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive ridley sea turtle. For the purposes of the 
Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, subspecies, or distinct 
vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera or even families. 

**More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Recovery Plans approved: 223 
Number of species currently proposed for listing: 17 animals 

32 plants 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 

36 plants 
December 31, 1987 



Horse Cave, Kentucky, and others inter- 
ested in cave conservation have obtained 
a $250,000 grant to begin work on estab- 
lishing a national center on cave and karst 
resources. The Fish and Wildlife Service 
will actively participate in the center's 



development. The museum associated 
with the center will provide an excellent 
opportunity for the Service to present 
information on, and gain public support 
for, listed cave-dependent organisms. 



January 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 1 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, DC. 20240 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO. G-77 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 1 (1988) 



/ ' ' ' ' ' ' ^/ </ 
February 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 2 





Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20204 



The Farm Bill (Food Security Act) and Endangered Species 



K. Bruce Jones 

Division of Endangered Species 

and Habitat Conservation 

Washington, D.C. 

The Food Security Act of 1985, popu- 
larly known as the Farm Bill, was passed 
to help reverse the declining economic 
environment on the American farm. As 
part of this legislation, Congress recog- 
nized a need to more effectively manage 
the physical environment upon which 
American farmers depend. Several con- 
servation provisions were included in the 
Farm Bill that, in addition to providing a 
better long-term economic base for Amer- 
ica's farmers, present an unparalleled 
opportunity to conserve and restore mil- 
lions of acres of wetlands and other hab- 
itat for migratory birds, anadromous fish, 
and species that are federally listed as 
Endangered or Threatened (or proposed 
for listing). One of the principal conserva- 
tion goals of the Farm Bill is to reverse the 
loss of wetlands in the United States. 
Only 45 percent of our Nation's original 
wetlands remain and a large majority of 
converted wetlands (greater than 80 per- 
cent) have been lost due to agricultural 
activities. 

The Service is playing a major role in 
realizing wildlife conservation benefits 
associated with the Farm Bill. The Serv- 
ice's principal responsibility is to support 
and assist the U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture in implementing the conservation 
provisions of this act. There are five major 
provisions that provide opportunities to 
conserve, restore, and enhance wildlife 
habitats, including those of Endangered 
and Threatened species. These provi- 
sions are known as "Swampbuster," 
"Sodbuster," the Conservation Reserve 
Program, Section 1318 conservation set- 
aside easements, and Section 1314 con- 
servation easements. The principal oppor- 
tunities for Endangered and Threatened 
species under the Farm Bill are in recov- 
ery (e.g., restoration of habitat) and hab- 
itat protection (e.g., protection of existing 
habitats). 

Swampbuster 

Swampbuster is a special wetland con- 
servation provision that discourages the 



conversion of wetlands to agricultural pro- 
duction. Under Swampbuster, any person 
who produces an agricultural commodity 
on wetlands that are converted after 
December 23, 1985, becomes ineligible 
for most Federal agricultural subsidies. 
The restriction applies to the year such 
production occurs and to all lands, includ- 
ing non-wetland, under control of that per- 
son. The Service's principal responsibility 
in this area is to provide technical support 
(e.g., providing updated lists of plants that 
occur on wetlands and assisting in 
wetland determinations) to the Soil Con- 
servation Service and the Agricultural Sta- 
bilization and Conservation Service. This 
provision of the Farm Bill should have a 
positive effect on proposed and listed 
species that depend upon wetlands. For 
example, the whooping crane (Grus 
americana) requires wetlands for over- 
night resting and foraging along its entire 
migration route, including wetlands on pri- 
vate lands. Therefore, Swampbuster 
should help to conserve vital whooping 
crane habitat on private lands. 

Sodbuster 

Sodbuster is a provision of the Farm Bill 
that reduces erosion and the loss of top- 



soil from agricultural lands by reducing 
the conversion of highly erodible lands to 
agricultural production. Under this provi- 
sion, any person who produces an agri- 
cultural commodity on highly erodible 
lands (as determined by the Soil Conser- 
vation Service) after December 23, 1985, 
becomes ineligible for most agricultural 
subsidies, unless they farm such lands 
under a Conservation Plan that has been 
approved by the local Soil Conservation 
Service Soil and Water Conservation Dis- 
trict or by the Secretary of Agriculture. 
This provision will affect approximately 
227 million acres of highly erodible range- 
land, pasture, and forest. Although the 
Service does not participate directly in 
Sodbuster, this program should help 
improve the quality of streams and rivers 
by reducing silt loads, especially in water- 
sheds with farms. Many Endangered and 
Threatened species would benefit from 
reduced silt loads in streams and rivers 
(e.g., clams, fish). 

Conservation Reserve 

The Farm Bill's Conservation Reserve 

Program provides an opportunity for 

farmers to enter into a 10-year contract 

(continued on page 5) 




Progressive land use practices can allow agriculture and wetland wildlife to coexist in the 
prairie pothole region and elsewhere. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 




Endangered species regional staff 
members have reported the following 
recent activities: 

Region 2 — Under contract with the 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Dr. Barbara 
Phillips and Dr. Art Phillips of the Museum 



of Northern Arizona established four 
monitoring plots through the range of the 
Peebles Navajo cactus (Pediocactus 
peeblesianus var. peeblesianus), an Ari- 
zona plant listed in 1979 as Endangered. 
Data collected in 1987 indicate that sig- 



ns. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
WASHINGTON, DC. 20240 



Frank Dunkel. Director 

(202-343-4171) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Robert P. Smith, Acting Chief. 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Acting Chief. 

Office of Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 



TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 

(703-235-2407) 



Regional Offices 



Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. 
Wallcnstrom, Regional Director, 
David F. Riley, Assistant Regional 
Director, Wayne S. White, Endan- 
gered Species Specialist. 



Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director, Conrad A. 
Fjctland, Assistant Regional Direc- 
tor; James Johnson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, 
Twin Cities, MN 55111 (612-725- 
3500); James C. Gritman, Regional 
Director, John S. Popowski, Assis- 
tant Regional Director, James M. 
Engel, Endangered Species Special- 



Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 
30303 (404-331-3580); James W. 
Pulliam, Regional Director, John I. 
Christian, Deputy Assistant Region- 
al Director, Marshall P. Jones, 
Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617- 
965-5100); Howard Larson, Regional 
Director, Ralph Pisapia, Assistant 
Regional Director, Paul Nickerson, 
Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303- 
236-7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Re- 
gional Director, Robert E. Jacobsen, 
Assistant Regional Director, Larry 
Shanks, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter 
O. Stieglitz, Regional Director, 
Rowan Gould, Assistant Regional 
Director, Ron Garrett, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 8, (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Direc- 
tor; Endangered Species Staff; 
Clarence Johnson, fish and crus- 
taceans (202-653-8772); Bettina 
Sparrowe, other animals and plants 
(202-653-8762). 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1 California. Hawaii. Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Pacific Trust Tcrntones. Region i Arizona, 
New Mexico. Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan. Minnesota. Missoun, Ohio, and 
Wisconsin. Region 4 Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky. Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina. South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine. Maryland. 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jercey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West 
Virginia Region 6. Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 
7 Alaska Region 8; Research and Development nationwide. 

77ie ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C 20240. 



nificant seedling germination occurred 
from mid-August through mid-October, 
when approximately 100 seedlings were 
discovered during an intensive inventory. 

Seedlings 2 millimeters in diameter and 
3 mm tall are beet red with many spines 
on top. Within a month, the seedlings turn 
green as they develop their chlorophyll, 
and they double their height while main- 
taining their original diameters. Most of 
the seedlings are found within 2 centi- 
meters of the parent plant: however, a few 
have been found as far as 1.5 meters 
away. 

Prior to this field season, it was 
believed that Peebles Navajo cacti germi- 
nated in the spring following winter strat- 
ification. The plants flower in late April, 
with seeds ripening and falling to the 
ground in June. However, this is the 
height of the arid foresummer in Arizona, 
when soil temperatures reach 1 10° F for 8 
hours per day and there is no moisture for 
the seeds to absorb. Summer rains usu- 
ally arrive in July and ameliorate the hot 
soil temperatures, providing favorable 
environmental conditions for germination. 

Museum of Northern Arizona personnel 
will monitor the plots again in April 1988 
and check for seedling survival. It has 
been observed that Pediocacti are very 
sensitive to rot, and it is expected that a 
fair proportion of seedlings will not survive 
the winter snows that cover them for fairly 
long periods. The data gathered during 
these studies will be extremely useful in 
planning for the reintroduction and recov- 
ery of the Peebles Navajo cactus. 

The New Mexico ramshorn snail 
(Pecosorbis kansasensis) was originally 
described as a Pliocene fossil from 
Kansas. Discovery by Dwight W. Taylor of 
live populations in the Pecos River Valley 
in New Mexico prompted the State to add 
the New Mexico ramshorn to its own 
endangered species list and the Service 
to place it in Category 2 of the notice of 
review of invertebrate candidates for Fed- 
eral listing. A status survey of the species 
was jointly funded by the Service, the 
U.S. Forest Service, the New Mexico 
Department of Game and Fish, and the 
Bureau of Land Management. A final 
report of this survey by Richard A. Smartt 
and Artie L. Metcalf indicates that the 
New Mexico ramshorn was found alive at 
48 of the 123 localities examined. The 
positive localities were distributed across 
seven New Mexico counties. Accordingly, 
New Mexico has removed this species 
from the State endangered list, and the 
Service is placing it in Category 3C of its 
invertebrate notice to reflect that it is no 
longer being considered for listing. 
Although the New Mexico ramshorn is 
more widespread and abundant than for- 
merly believed, it remains of historical and 
geological significance because its fossil 
distribution is much greater than that of 
living populations. 

(continued on page 9) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Manatee Research Efforts Under Way 
on Florida's East Coast 



Thomas J. O'Shea 

Sirenia Project Leader 

National Ecology Research Center 

Gainesville, Florida 

The West Indian manatee {Trichechus 
manatus), a member of the mammalian 
order Sirenia, reaches its northern range 
limits in the southeastern United States. 
This aquatic mammal occurs elsewhere in 
the Caribbean, Central America, and 
northern South America, but its range out- 
side of the United States has become 
fragmented and populations have been 
reduced by hunting of the animal for its 
meat. The manatee is listed throughout its 
range as Endangered. 

Florida harbors the only significant 
year-round population of manatees in the 
United States, and the Florida subspecies 
(7". m. latirostris) is considered distinct. 
The current distribution of the Florida 
manatee is similar to that in the past. A 
physiological inability to persist outside of 
warm tropical or subtropical waters sets 
the distribution limits for this unique 
aquatic herbivore. Even in Florida, most 
manatees must seek out sources of warm 
water during winter, and significant 
aggregations occur at discharge sites for 
heated power-plant effluents and at natu- 
ral warm-water springs like the Crystal 
River on Florida's Gulf Coast. At least 
1 ,200 manatees have been accounted for 
at wintering areas in Florida. 

The major problems faced by manatees 
in Florida are increasing mortality due to 
accidental collisions with boats and accel- 
erating modification of habitat by develop- 
ment. The annual number of boat-killed 
manatees recovered during carcass sal- 
vage operations has doubled in the past 3 
years. Prodigious human population 
growth in Florida has resulted in an 
increase in the number of boats regis- 
tered in those counties where people 
share waters with manatees, rising from 
about 300,000 a decade ago to nearly 
450,000 today. Florida is now the fastest 
growing State, with hundreds of new 
residents moving in every day. New hous- 
ing developments and boating facilities in 
manatee habitat result in an increasing 
number of accidental manatee deaths. 
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Army 
Corps of Engineers, and State agencies 
must grapple with decisions on how per- 
mits related to such development might 
affect manatees, all too often with an 
insufficient data base. This problem has 
become increasingly critical in eastern 
Florida. 

Until recently, the most intensive field 
research efforts on manatee biology and 
habitat requirements had focused on the 
Gulf Coast. The population that winters at 
Crystal River was monitored in detail 



through aerial surveys and recognition of 
individual animals based on boat propeller 
scar patterns. The latter technique also 
provided the first information on manatee 
reproductive traits through long-term field 
studies, which emphasize resighting 
known females every winter. Manatees 
give birth to one offspring every 2 to 3 
years (although some females breed less 
frequently), and females typically do not 
successfully raise calves until they are 5 
to 8 years old. These reproductive traits 
suggest that the species has a low poten- 
tial rate of population increase, which 
makes the population more susceptible to 
decline from an increasing number of 
boat-kills. On the positive side, research 
at Crystal River has led to intensified 
recovery efforts in that region, and 
increased protection and management 
are at least partially responsible for a 
noteworthy increase in the Crystal River 
winter population size, from about 50 
manatees 20 years ago to over 200 
today. 

Development of radio-telemetry tech- 
niques for manatees also took place in 
the Crystal River region. The major obsta- 
cle in using telemetry on manatees was 
the salt water barrier to radio-signal trans- 
mission. A newly-developed floating 
transmitter connected by a stiff tether to a 
belt attached around the narrow peduncle 
above the manatee's tail, allowing the sig- 
nal to be broadcast in the air, was 
developed by Sirenia Project researchers 
working at Crystal River. Telemetry and 
aerial surveys in the Crystal River region 
have better defined summer habitat, 
which has subsequently come under 
increased protection. Aerial surveys and 
telemetry techniques were later applied to 
manatees in the lower Caloosahatchee 
River on the Gulf Coast in southwestern 



Captive California 

Condors Produce 
Their First Egg 

The first fertile egg ever produced by a 
captive pair of the critically endangered 
California condor (Gymnogyps califor- 
nianus) was laid March 3 at the San 
Diego Wild Animal Park. In accordance 
with scheduled protocols, the egg was 
removed and placed in an incubator, 
where biologists hope it will hatch 
between April 28 and May 3. 

Taking the egg away at an early point 
may lead the pair to lay another egg this 
year, possibly around the first week in 
April; indeed, the pair resumed mating 
activity the next day. The male bird, at 7 
years of age, is in his first breeding sea- 
son. His mate was first observed in the 
wild as an adult, so her age is unknown. 

Condors in the wild have shown the 
ability to produce up to three eggs in a 
season to replace ones that are lost. By 
inducing multiple clutches, biologists may 
hasten the day when the captive breeding 
population is large enough to furnish 
young condors for release into the wild. 



Florida, where over 300 have been 
counted at a power plant effluent dis- 
charge site near Fort Myers. This work is 
ongoing, and is providing a growing data 
base for management decisions in this 
region. 

Work in eastern Florida has lagged 

behind that on the Gulf Coast because of 

limited resources. This is unfortunate 

(continued on page 4) 




West Indian manatee and calf 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Manatee 

(continued from page 3) 

because development is growing in eastern 
Florida, and earlier in the research and 
recovery program it was recognized that 
the number of boat-killed manatees was 
much higher in the east than on the Gulf 
Coast despite an approximately equal 
number of animals. In the past 2 to 3 years, 
however, the effort in eastern Florida has 
expanded due to a cooperative effort in- 
volving researchers from the National Ecol- 
ogy Research Center's Sirenia Project 
(Fish and Wildlife Service); the Marine 
Research Laboratory (Florida Department 
of Natural Resources); and the Beaufort 
Laboratory (National Marine Fisheries 
Service.) Significant involvement and sup- 
port to the program also have been pro- 
vided by the Marine Mammal Commission, 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Florida 
Power and Light Company, Florida Au- 
dubon Society, Eckerd College, Bionetics 
Corporation, the Fish and Wildlife Service's 
Jacksonville Field Office, and the Hobe 
Sound and Merritt Island National Wildlife 
Refuges. 

Current research involves telemetry 
(including the highly successful use of 
satellite-monitored transmitters), aerial 
surveys, expanded monitoring of individ- 
uals at winter aggregations through use of 
scar patterns, food habits analysis, and 
determination of the effects of increased 
boat traffic on the seagrass used by man- 
atees as a food base. 

The retrieval and necropsy of manatee 
carcasses in eastern Florida by the State 
and its cooperators have remained a sig- 
nificant part of the effort. 

Data on local habitat use are quickly 
made available to managers who must 
meet deadlines on permit decisions under 
the Section 7 interagency consultation 
requirements of the Endangered Species 
Act. Over a longer term, the steady 
accumulation of information on basic biol- 
ogy will provide the key to the integrated 
approach that is necessary for manatee 
recovery in eastern Florida. 

Initial research results show that some 
movement and seasonal habitat use 
patterns in eastern Florida are radically 
different from those on the Gulf Coast 
Movements are much more extensive, 
and seasonal migrations of 530 miles 
(850 kilometers) have been documented 
Telemetry has shown, however, that 
extensive movements also occur within 
seasons. In summer, some individuals 
have spent considerable time in southern 
Georgia or in the vicinity of Merritt Island 
National Wildlife Refuge on the central 
Atlantic coast of Florida, frequently 
switching between these areas but using 
little of the intervening 155 miles (250 km) 
of coastal waterways. Manatees seem to 
find and favor quiet areas, and some 
large bodies of water where boats are 
prohibited, such as the Kennedy Space 




After netting this manatee, biologists with the Fish and Wildlife Service's Sirenia Project 
quickly attached a radio transmitter so that the animal's movements can be tracked. 




Signals from the radio transmitter trailed by this manatee are tracked by sattelite. 



Center on the Merritt Island National Wild- 
life Refuge, show increasing use by man- 
atees as outside waters show increasing 
use by boats. In winter, research is begin- 
ning to reveal the locations of importan 1 
feeding areas for the manatees that use 
power plant warm-water effluents. Man- 
atees are versatile in their food habits, 
and in summer the same individuals can 
feed in regions where the predominant 
items are marine seagrasses or in dif- 
ferent areas where saltmarsh grasses at 
high tide are the only available forage. 
Preliminary findings, however, suggest 
that turbidity caused by boat wakes may 
limit seagrass abundance in manatee 
feeding areas. 



Although the eastern Florida research 
program has only recently expanded and 
the results are preliminary, some encour- 
agement can be found in the initial find- 
ings Certain areas needing better pro- 
tection are being revealed, and manatees 
are clearly showing that they will find and 
use sanctuaries if provided Areas where 
boat traffic is reduced or slowed could 
provide increased safety from collisions 
and could promote the growth of under- 
water vegetation. Intensive work will be 
needed over the next several years to 
shed more light on these possibilities and 
thereby secure a future for the manatee 
along Florida's east coast. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Farm Bill 

(continued from page 1) 



with the Department of Agriculture. Under 
this contract, the farmer takes specified 
highly erodible land out of annual crop 
production and receives annual rental 
payments for applying soil conservation 
procedures and prescriptions, such as the 
planting and maintenance of trees for 
wildlife. The farmer also receives Federal 
cost-sharing benefits to help defray the 
expense of establishing permanent vege- 
tative cover on his land. Currently, there 
are 23 million acres of land signed up for 
the Conservation Reserve Program in 44 
States. Of this total, 1.5 million acres of 
trees and over 6 million acres of native 
grasses are to be planted. The Service's 
role in this program is to provide technical 
expertise and assistance to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in developing cover 
types beneficial to wildlife. Currently, it is 
unknown how many proposed and listed 
species will benefit from the Conservation 
Reserve Program, although there should 
be opportunities to restore or enhance 
habitats of these species on Conservation 
Reserve lands. 

Conservation Set-aside 
(Section 1318) 

One of the two other major conserva- 
tion provisions that involve working with 
the Farmers Home Administration, the 
farm debt restructure and conservation 
set-aside provision (Section 1318), allows 
the Secretary of Agriculture to grant par- 
tial debt relief to a current borrower 
(farmer) in exchange for a not-less-than 
50-year conservation easement on se- 
lected lands held by the borrower. This 
provision is intended to help borrowers in 
debt to the Farmers Home Administration 
regain a positive cash flow by allowing 
them to place selected lands in a conser- 
vation easement status while continuing 
to farm more productive lands. A number 
of habitat conservation and enhancement 
easements can be adopted through this 
provision of the Farm Bill. Currently, no 
debt restructure easements have been 
adopted, and a final rule to implement this 
provision has not yet been published. The 
Service will, based on the law, serve as a 
technical consultant to the Farmers Home 
Administration in recommending and 
enforcing a wide range of Section 1318 
conservation easements. This provision 
may provide some benefits for the recov- 
ery of listed species. On sites with listed 
species, it might be possible to include 
measures that will secure or enhance 
existing habitat. In addition, on lands adja- 
cent to areas with listed species, it may 
be possible to include measures that 
would restore listed species' former hab- 
itat. In this manner, the range of certain 
listed species could be expanded. 




Bushy Lake 

State and Federal agencies are cooperating under the Farm Bill to protect and 
restore wetlands at the Bushy Lake State Natural Area in eastern North Carolina. 
This site is considered one of the Nation's best remaining pocosin-dominated 
Carolina bays. Concentrated on the coastal plain of the Carolinas and Georgia, 
the Carolina bays are oval wetland depressions of mysterious origin with a sand, 
peat, or clay substrate. They are the strongholds of pocosin vegetation, an 
unusual, shrub-dominated plant community found only in the southeastern U.S. 
Among the species associated with Carolina bays are carnivorous plants and 
other rare flora. At least one plant listed federally as Endangered, the roughleaf 
loosestrife (Lysimachia asperulaefolia), occurs at Bushy Lake. 

In recent years, most areas in which Carolina bays occur have experienced 
widespread drainage and conversion of their wetlands for such uses as agricul- 
ture and tree farming. At Bushy Lake, private land was partially cleared and a 
large drainage ditch was dug. When the farm later went bankrupt, the foreclosed 
property transferred to the Farmers Home Administration. Although the farming 
attempt was abandoned, the ditch continued to drain water from the bay. Recog- 
nizing the opportunities opened by the Farm Bill, the North Carolina Natural 
Heritage Program worked with Federal and State agencies, along with the North 
Carolina Nature Conservancy, to develop a habitat restoration plan. In August 
1987, the Fish and Wildlife Service assembled personnel and equipment from 
several national wildlife refuges to construct a 200-foot-long earthen plug that has 
effectively stopped the drainage and is restoring water levels in the wetlands. 
Also, the North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation has joined the Service 
in asking the Farmers Home Administration to apply stringent deed restrictions 
on the foreclosed property and to grant a conservation easement for protection of 
the adjacent 1,200-acre Bushy Lake State Natural Area. 

—information provided courtesy of the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 



Conservation Easements 
(Section 1314) 

Another conservation easement provi- 
sion of the Farm Bill, Section 1314, 
addresses lands acquired by the Farmers 
Home Administration from farm fore- 
closures and voluntary conveyance 
(inventory lands). This section allows the 
Secretary of Agriculture to grant or sell 
easements, restrictions, development 
rights, or the equivalent thereof to a local 
or State government or a private non- 
profit organization for conservation pur- 
poses. These actions would precede 
resale of Farmers Home Administration 
inventory lands. Federal agencies cannot 
be assigned enforcement or management 



responsibilities under this provision of the 
Farm Bill (but see below relative to the 
Wetlands Executive Order). Currently, 
very few conservation easements under 
this provision of the Farm Bill have been 
adopted. Potential benefits to listed spe- 
cies under this provision would be similar 
to those under Section 1318 conservation 
easements. 

Related Conservation 
Opportunities 

Three other legislative authorities are 

related to, and enhance, the Service's 

opportunities under the Farm Bill. The 

Service and Farmers Home Administra- 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



tion have signed a Memorandum of 
Understanding that will provide significant 
opportunities to protect and restore wet- 
lands, principally through the Executive 
Orders on the Protection of Wetlands 
(E.O. 1 1990) and Floodplain Management 
(E.O. 11988). The Farmers Home Admin- 
istration has concluded that it has an 
affirmative responsibility to protect and 
enhance wetlands and floodplains in con- 
junction with its property (inventory lands) 
disposal process. Consequently, the 
Service has been given an opportunity to 
recommend deed restrictions on inventory 
lands prior to resale. Unlike the case with 
conservation easements under Section 
1314, the Service or a State agency may 
be the enforcement authority on these 
deed restrictions. In addition to recom- 
mending deed restrictions to protect, 
enhance, or restore wetland values, the 
Farmers Home Administration has given 
the Service an opportunity to recommend 
and enforce deed restrictions to protect or 
enhance other high priority resources, 
such as listed, proposed, and candidate 





species. The deed restrictions may even 
be enforced under provisions of the 
National Wildlife Refuge System Admin- 
istration Act. 

There are currently 1.7 million acres of 
inventory lands, and the Service is gear- 
ing up its field offices to provide the 
Farmers Home Administration with rec- 
ommendations for deed restrictions on a 
large number of inventory lands through- 
out the country. When listed species 
occur on inventory lands, the Service will 
recommend deed restrictions to protect 
and enhance these species' habitats. The 
Service also will recommend deed restric- 
tions on inventory lands with habitats that 
have a potential for recovery of listed spe- 
cies, even though the species may not 
currently occupy the inventory land. This 
program should assist in the recovery of 
certain listed species, especially those 
that have declined because of agricultural 
development. 

Finally, Section 616 of the Agricultural 
Credit Act of 1987 provides an opportunity 



Crop production in and immediately adjacent to wetlands increases silt loads and destroys 
cover. Providing a small buffer zone around this wetland could enhance wildlife values 
without significant inconvenience to farm operations. 

whereby the Service can secure and bring 
into its management system inventory 
lands with important wildlife values, 
including those lands with listed species. 



The Farm Bill and related legislation 
and programs (e.g., the Memorandum of 
Understanding between the Service and 
Farmers Home Administration) discussed 
in this article should help the Service's 
efforts to secure and enhance habitat of 
listed, proposed, and candidate species. 
However, these programs are not 
intended to supersede, or substitute for, 
the Endangered Species Act. All provi- 
sions of the Endangered Species Act will 
continue to apply to all Federal activities, 
including those of the Department of Agri- 
culture. However, the Service believes 
that the Farm Bill and associated legisla- 
tion and programs will be valuable tools in 
protecting and recovering certain listed 
species, especially in areas with small 
amounts of public land. 

Questions or comments on the Serv- 
ice's role concerning various aspects of the 
Farm Bill and associated programs should 
be directed to the following Regional Farm 
Bill Coordinators: 

Phone Number 



for the Service to secure, at no cost, 
Farmers Home Administration inventory 
lands if the Secretary of Agriculture deter- 
mines that the property is suitable or sur- 
plus and: (1) has marginal value for 
agricultural production; (2) is environmen- 
tally sensitive; or (3) has special manage- 
ment importance. Although the Farmers 
Home Administration has not yet promul- 
gated implementing regulations, this legis- 
lation should provide a mechanism 



Office/Region 



Coordinator 



Region 1 
Region 2 
Region 3 
Region 4 
Region 5 
Region 6 
Region 7 
National Coordinator 



Dennis Peters 
Warren Hagenbuck 
Bob Lange 
Ronnie Haynes 
Dick Dyer 
Ralph Fries 
Stephen Wilson 
David Smith 



(503)-231-6154 
(505)-766-2174 
(612)-725-3570 
(404)-331-6343 
(617)-965-5100 
(303)-236-8148 
(907)-786-3467 
(703)-235-2760 



For the address of each Regional Office, see the insert on page 2 of the 
BULLETIN. 



6 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



The Vaquita: Can It Survive? 

Robert L. Brownell, Jr. 

National Ecology Research Center 

San Simeon, California 



The vaquita (Spanish for "little cow"), or 
Gulf of California harbor porpoise 
(Phocoena sinus), has the most limited 
range of any marine cetacean and is 
probably the rarest. It has been caught 
incidentally in gill nets set commercially 
for totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), large 
fish that were over-exploited in the upper 
Gulf of California until they, too, were 
endangered. In 1975, the Mexican Gov- 
ernment announced a total indefinite clo- 
sure on fishing for totoaba. Between the 
time this porpoise was described as new 
to science (1958) and its listing by the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as Endan- 
gered (early 1985), the vaquita was 
known from only 26 confirmed records 
(partial remains found on beaches) and a 
few sightings of live animals. (Note: the 
vernacular name "cochito" was cited 
when this animal was listed, but biologists 
have since learned that "vaquita" is the 
term used by most local fishermen.) The 
Endangered Species Technical Bulletin 
story about its listing (see BULLETIN Vol. 
X No. 2) said the species was on the brink 
of extinction "if it still exists." 

In the spring of 1985, the Mexican Gov- 
ernment conducted experimental fishing 
operations to assess the population status 
of totoaba in the upper Gulf of California. 
During these fishing operations and some 
illegal gill-net sets for totoaba by regional 
fishermen, at least 13 vaquitas were cap- 
tured and killed accidentally in the gill 
nets. Because these specimens were col- 
lected when fresh, scientists were able to 
examine the external appearance of this 
species for the first time (Brownell, ef a/., 
1987). They found that the most striking 
features of the coloration are the large 
black eye patches and the upper and 
lower lip patches. The most striking mor- 
phological feature distinguishing vaquitas 
from the other two species of Phocoena is 
the proportionately higher dorsal fin. Total 
lengths of these 13 vaquitas ranged from 
70.3 centimeters (a neonate) to 143 cm 
(an adult female). 

During the spring of 1986, Silver (In 
press) conducted an extensive survey in 
the northern Gulf of California in an 
attempt to find live vaquitas and better 
understand their distribution. He was suc- 
cessful in finding these animals on only 
12 occasions. These sightings are 
thought to represent approximately 31 
individuals. Also during the spring of 
1986, some additional (and continued ille- 
gal) experimental gill net fishing for 
totoaba was conducted and at least a few 
porpoises were again taken (Findley, 
pers. comm.). Illegal and limited experi- 
mental fishing continued in the spring of 
1987 but it is unknown whether or not any 
more vaquitas were taken. Silber (pers. 



comm.) also returned to the upper Gulf of 
California to search for the vaquita and 
again he found small numbers of them in 
the same general area as in 1986. What 
does the future hold for these porpoises? 
Several threats to the species, such as 
habitat degradation and destruction, 
effects of organochlorine pollutants, and 
reduction of its food supply from overfish- 
ing, were discussed when it was listed as 
Endangered. However, the major problem 
faced by the vaquita is still the continua- 
tion of experimental, illegal, or commercial 
fishing for totoaba and its sale on the 



black market. Any other fishing operations 
(e.g., shark and manta ray) that involve 
gill nets also may affect the recovery of 
these porpoises. 

Barlow (1987) reviewed the factors 
affecting the possible recovery of P. sinus 
and concluded that, given the available 
data and the inadequacy of current survey 
techniques for accurately determining the 
population size of this species, it will be 
many years before scientists will be able 
to determine whether the population is 
increasing or decreasing. It is quite possi- 
(continued on page 8) 




The vaquitas most distinctive markings are the black eye patch and the upper and lower 
lip patches. Pseudo-stalked barnacles (Xenobalanus globicipitis) can be seen attached to 
the flipper of this specimen. 




This vaquita was captured in a gill net that was set for totoaba. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Vaquita 

(continued from page 7) 

ble, therefore, that the vaquita could 
become extinct betore scientists have 
clearly documented a decline in its popu- 
lation or learned much more about its nat- 
ural history. 



Peregrine Falcon Exhibit Tours Region 5 



References 



Barlow. Jay. 1986. Factors affecting the 
recovery of Phocoena sinus, the 
vaquita or Gulf of California harbor 
porpoise. NMFS Admin. Report 
LJ-86-37. La Jolla. 19 pp. 

Brownell. Robert L, Jr., Lloyd T. Findley. 
Omar Vidal, Alejandro Robles, and 
Silvia Manzanilla N. 1987. External 
morphology and pigmentation of the 
Vaquita Phocoena sinus (Cetacea: 
Mammalia). Mar. Mamm. Sci., 
3(1):22-30. 

Silber, Gregory K. (In press) Recent sight- 
ings of the Gulf of California harbor 
porpoise, Phocoena sinus. J. Mamm. 

Pesticide Labeling 
Program Delayed 

The Environmental Protection Agency 
announced in early January that it is 
deferring implementation of its pesticide 
labeling program (which was intended to 
protect Endangered and Threatened spe- 
cies) until 1989. Although the program 
had been scheduled for implementation 
on February 1, 1988, the Agency deter- 
mined that more time is needed to im- 
prove the accuracy and public awareness 
of the program. 

The main purpose of the program is to 
preclude the exposure of certain sensitive 
listed species to a group of toxic pesti- 
cides registered for use on corn, cotton, 
soybeans, sorghum, small grains, range- 
land, forestland, and mosquito larvae. 
Deferring the implementation will give 
affected Federal and State agencies, user 
groups, and conservation organizations 
time to improve the program s accuracy 
and lessen its impacts on pesticide users. 

Listing Proposal 
Withdrawn 

A proposal to list a Utah plant, the 
spreading wild buckwheat (Eriogonum 
humivagans), as an Endangered species 
has been withdrawn (F.R. 1/25/88). New 
information received since the April 7, 
1986, proposal led the Service to con- 
clude that the plant is not taxonomically 
distinct from Eriogonum lonchophyllum, 
which is not in danger of extinction. As a 
plant population rather than a distinct 
taxon, it is not legally eligible for 
Endangered Species Act protection. 

8 



Ron Joseph 
Concord, New Hampshire, Field Office 



One of the tasks identified in the 
revised Eastern Peregrine Falcon Recov- 
ery Plan is to attain greater public support 
for, and understanding of, peregrine fal- 
cons (Falco pereghnus) through informa- 
tion and education. As a means of con- 
tributing to the plan's public education 
objective, the Service's Concord, New 
Hampshire, Field Office developed a 
Take Pride in Peregrines" exhibit. The 
exhibit has been on loan to libraries, 
museums, and other educational centers 
almost every month since August 1986. 
An estimated 35,000 to 45,000 people 
have viewed the exhibit in such places as 



Atlantic and southern States. In short, the 
species has come a long way since 1965 
when Dr. Joseph Hickey convened the 
first international conference to investi- 
gate the reasons for the extirpation of the 
eastern "rock" peregrine and seriously 
depleted races worldwide. 

Exhibit visitors of all ages learn of the 
combined work of many agencies, organi- 
zations, and individuals in restoring this 
magnificent and noble bird to the eastern 
United States. Foremost among them is 
The Peregrine Fund, Inc., which cele- 
brated the release of its 2,000th peregrine 
last summer. The exhibit also portrays the 




Public education is important for the recovery of the peregrine falcon, as well as for other 
listed animals and plants. 



the Boston Museum of Science, Forsyth 
National Wildlife Refuge, and Acadia 
National Park. The theme of the exhibit is 
the gradual recovery of the species in the 
Northeast where, prior to the mid-1 940's, 
over 100 pairs of falcons nested in the 
States of Pennsylvania, New York, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
and Maine. 

The peregrine is gradually recovering to 
reoccupy former breeding sites in the 
East. Over 850 young peregrines have 
been released by The Peregrine Fund, 
Inc., in conjunction with many private, 
State, and Federal agencies. Since the 
celebrated arrival of the first wild cliff-nest- 
ing peregrines at Franconia Notch, New 
Hampshire, in 1981, the recovering popu- 
lation now numbers a minimum of 18 
nesting pairs in the Northeast. An addi- 
tional 38 breeding pairs occur in the mid- 



new challenge facing peregrines in the 
east, particularly the potential threat rock 
climbers pose to nesting birds. 

Individuals or organizations interested 
in borrowing the exhibit for a month 
should contact Ron Joseph of the Fish 
and Wildlife Service, 22 Bridge Street, 
Concord, New Hampshire 03301; (603) 
225-1411. 



We Need Your Help 

To make thisyour BULLETIN, as well as 
ours, we need your help. Please send the 
Editor any comments for improving the 
format, ideas for articles, photographs, 
and reports on current research and 
management activities. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Recovery Plans Approved in 1987 

Recovery plans for the following Endangered and Threatened species were 
approved during calendar year 1987: 



Common Name 

Tar River spiny mussel 
Borax Lake chub 
black lace cactus 

Tobusch fishook cactus 
Beautiful goetzea 
Vahl's boxwood 
Florida mints 

longspurred mint 

scrub mint 

Lakela's mint 
Texas snowbells 
Nashville crayfish 
Gulf Coast beach mice 

Alabama beach mouse 

Choctawhatchee beach mouse 
Perdido Key beach mouse 

Navajo sedge 

Blue Ridge goldenrod 

Minnesota trout lily 



Scientific Name 

Elliptio steinstansana 
Gila boraxobius 
Echinocereus reichenbachii 

var. albertii 
Ancistrocactus tobuschii 
Goetzea elegans 
Buxus vahlii 

Dicerandra cornutlssima 
Dicerandra frutescens 
Dicerandra immaculata 
Styrax texana 
Orconectes shoupi 

Peromyscus polionotus 

ammobates 
Peromyscus polionotus allophrys 
Peromyscus polionotus 

trissyllepsis 
Carex specuicola 
Solidago spithamaea 
Erythronium propullans 



Date Approved 

01/16/87 
02/05/87 
03/18/87 

03/18/87 
04/28/87 
04/28/87 
07/01/87 



07/31/87 
08/12/87 
08/17/87 



08/19/87 
10/28/87 
12/16/87 



As of December 31, 1987, a total of 223 recovery plans covering 263 species had 
been approved by the Fish and Wildlife Service. (See BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 1 for a list 
of those plans approved prior to 1987.) Some species have separate recovery plans 
covering different parts of their range (e.g., the bald eagle), and some plans cover more 
than one species. Recovery plans also are revised and updated as needed. 

Copies of recovery plans are available for purchase about 6 months after they are 
approved. Requests can be sent to the Fish and Wildlife Reference Service, 6011 
Executive Boulevard, Rockville, Maryland 20852, or call toll-free 800/582-3421. (In 
Maryland, dial 301/770-3000.) 



Regional News 

(continued from 2) 

Regional Office representatives from 
Regions 1, 2, and 6 met in Las Vegas, 
Nevada, to discuss eradication of a non- 
native fish, the red shiner (Notropis 
lutrensis), from a reach of the Virgin River 
in Utah. Since 1984, when it was first 
found in the Utah portion of the river, this 
species has almost completely replaced 
an Endangered native fish, the woundfin 
(Plagopterus argentissimus). The Wash- 
ington Fields Irrigation Diversion Dam is 
the only structure currently preventing the 
red shiners access to the last uncontami 
nated reach of woundfin habitat. Based 
on previous red shiner success a + 
eliminating woundfin from the lower 
reaches of the river, once the exotic spe- 
cies gains access to the upper reach it 
will only take a few years to completely 
replace the woundfin. 

A plan was adopted to construct a fish 
barrier and then eradicate all fish between 
the barrier and the dam. Each Region 
committed resources to the project, which 
will be conducted jointly with the States of 
Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. In addition, 
the Washington County (Utah) Conserva- 
tion District showed strong support for the 



project by pledging both funds and assist- 
ance. 

Region 4 — In December 1987, the U.S. 
House of Representatives voted on two 
proposed Endangered Species Act 
amendments to modify the National 
Marine Fisheries Service's Turtle 
Excluder Device (TED) regulations One 
of the amendments would have prevented 
implementation of these regulations in the 
Gulf of Mexico for 2 years, but it was 
defeated. The other amendment, how- 
ever, did pass the House. It would delay 
implementation of the regulations in all 
inshore waters for 2 years and stipulate 
that the National Marine Fisheries Service 
must conduct a comprehensive investiga- 
tion of sea turtle biology and conservation 
in inshore waters. This amendment, how- 
ever, awaits further consideration in the 
Senate TED regulations have been used 
successfully in Cape Canaveral, Florida, 
waters since October 1, 1987. 

Region 5 — A team has been 
appointed to draft a recovery plan for the 
northeastern United States population of 
the roseate term (Sterna dougalii dou- 
galii), which was listed recently as Endan- 
gered (F.R. 11/2/87). Ralph Andrews of 
the Service's Region 5 office is the team 



leader. Other members represent State 
and private interests. 



Cooperative Agreements with several 
northeastern State conservation agen- 
cies, authorized under Section 6 of the 
Endangered Species Act, were approved 
recently. An agreement with Vermont 
covering listed animals was signed 
November 19, 1987, and a plant agree- 
ment with Maryland was signed Decem- 
ber 17, 1987. (Maryland now has Section 
6 agreements for both animals and 
plants.) As of February 1, 1988, all 13 of 
the States in Region 5 had approved 
agreements for animals and 10 had 
agreements for plants. 

Region 6 — One of the 25 black-footed 
ferrets (Mustela nigripes) housed in the 
Wyoming Game and Fish Department's 
Sybille captive breeding facility died Janu- 
ary 25 of a "nasal carcinoma." The 
4-year-old female named Willa was cap- 
tured in fall 1985 near Meeteetse, Wyom- 
ing. She had not produced offspring while 
in captivity and is unrelated to other cap- 
tive ferrets, so her death is a loss, both 
genetically and physically, to the captive 
breeding program. 



In May 1987, the Fish and Wildlife 
Service initiated efforts to establish an 
interstate coordinating committee to 
address general issues and problems 
relating to recovery of the black-footed 
ferret. Members of the committee include 
staff biologists from each of the Service's 
affected Enhancement State Offices, 
State biologists from each State par- 
ticipating in ferret recovery, a representa- 
tive of the Service's National Ecology 
Research Center, and a member of the 
Captive Breeding Specialist Group of the 
International Union for the Conservation 
of Nature. State and Service biologists 
serving on this committee are responsible 
for organizing working groups to provide a 
Statewide representation of disciplines 
with influence and responsibilities for fer- 
ret recovery actions in their respective 
States. Other specialists will be invited, as 
needed, to provide input. 

The interstate committee held its first 
meeting in Billings, Montana, in July 1987 
This meeting resulted in recommenda- 
tions to: 

1 develop an interstate cooperative 
agreement to conduct black-footed ferret 
searches and administer a national ferret 
reward fund. 

2. develop contingency plans for ferrets 
located in the wild outside of the Meet- 
eetse, Wyoming, ferret area. 

3. develop minimum criteria for evaluat- 
ing potential reintroduction sites for fer- 
rets; 

4. develop and recommend a funding 
strategy plan for ferret recovery; and 

(continued on page 10) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 9) 

5. develop and recommend draft policy 
for management of potential ferret habitat 
outside potential reintroduction areas 
identified by each State working group 
over the next 5 or more years. 

The next meeting of the committee is 
scheduled for March 1988 in Denver, Col- 
orado. This session will attempt to bring 
together preliminary maps of prairie dog 
distribution and discuss final recommen- 
dations for criteria and standards to be 
applied to potential ferret reintroduction 
sites. 



In summer 1986, the Montana Depart- 
ment of Fish, Wildlife and Parks began a 
Statewide ferret reward program spon- 
sored by Wildlife Conservation Interna- 
tional (WCI), a division of the New York 
Zoological Society. Persons submitting 
photographs or information that result in 
the verification of one or more live black- 
footed ferrets will be awarded $5,000 by 
WCI. The Montana Department of Fish 
Wildlife and Parks designed and circu- 
lated new reward posters, sighting report 
mail-in forms, and a sighting ranking 
guide. 

In fall 1987, the National Ecology 
Research Center began working with WCI 
on an expanded reward program in most 
of the States that still have adequate fer- 
ret habitat. Participating States will send 
reports to the Service's Ferret Search 
Coordinator at the Center in Fort Collins, 
Colorado. Service personnel at the Center 
have conducted searches throughout the 
former range of the black-footed ferret 
and were principal investigators of the 
Meeteetse site. They are equipped to 
respond to the most promising reports 
with on-site investigations. 

At present, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, 
Colorado, Oklahoma, and South Dakota 
are participating in the reward program. 
Reward posters are being displayed 
throughout the participating States, and 
State and local organizational newsletters 
will assist in publicizing the reward pro- 
gram. Contingency plans are being formu- 
lated in each State in the event a new 
population of black-footed ferrets is 
located. 



Colorado's peregrine falcon (Falco per- 
egrinus) population is recovering more 
rapidly than the State had originally antici- 
pated. The official recovery goal had been 
31 effective breeding pairs by 1995. It 
now appears that this goal may be 
reached as soon as 1988. For the 1987 
season, there were 24 pairs: 23 of these 
pairs laid eggs and 22 pairs successfully 
fledged at least 55 young. The Colorado 
Division of Wildlife removed 17 eggs for 



transfer to The Peregrine Fund; of the 17, 
12 hatched. Seventeen young were 
returned to five sites, and all but one 
fledged. In addition, 22 peregrines were 
released from 5 hack sites, with 19 reach- 
ing independence. 

Wyoming had four known pairs of per- 
egrines in the 1987 season. One of the 
two hack sites in Yellowstone National 
Park fledged three young, but the second 
pair failed to raise young. Several weeks 
after young peregrines were released 
from a new site on lands administered by 
the U.S. Forest Service, a banded adult 
was sighted. Five days later, the adult 
was back, accompanied by an unbanded, 
immature peregrine that kept screaming 
at the adult for food. The young peregrine 
must have been one of the offspring from 
a successful nesting in the area. Five 
hack sites were used in Wyoming, and 25 
peregrines were released, with 21 reach- 
ing independence. 

Four of five known pairs in northern 
Utah are nesting on hack towers con- 
structed by the Utah Division of Wildlife 
Resources and Utah Power and Light 
Company. All of the pairs on towers pro- 
duced eggs and three of the four pairs 
produced seven young (of which at least 
two fledged successfully). The pair at the 
Hotel Utah was successful and fledged 
two young. Nineteen peregrines were 
released from four hack sites, with sixteen 
reaching independence. 

In southern Utah, personnel from The 
Peregrine Fund and National Park Serv- 
ice conducted a survey and found 19 



occupied territories. Twelve pairs were 
successful in producing at least three 
young. Fifty occupied territories have 
been identified over the past 2 years in 
southern Utah. 

Region 8 (Research) — A juvenile 
whooping crane (Grus americana) was 
fatally injured during fall migration when it 
struck a powerline bordering Monte Vista 
National Wildlife Refuge. Necropsy at the 
National Wildlife Health Research Center 
in Madison, Wisconsin, indicated the bird, 
although not emaciated, was suffering 
from an advanced case of avian tuber- 
culosis. Of 16 whoopers necropsied at the 
Center over the past decade, 6 were 
found to have avian tuberculosis, an 
unusually high prevalence in a wild popu- 
lation. 



More than 150 brown pelicans (Pel- 
ecanus occidentalis) were found dead in 
October in the San Luis Obispo and Mon- 
terey, California, areas. Two of the birds, 
necropsied at the Center, were found to 
be infected with Erysipelothrix 
rhusiopathiae, a bacteria common on the 
surface of fish and marine mammals. 
Four additional pelicans from a later, 
smaller die-off also were necropsied. 
Erysipelothrix was again found to be the 
cause of death. Collaborative investiga- 
tions by the California Department of Fish 
and Game, The Health Center, and the 
University of California at Davis are 
attempting to locate the source of the 
infection. 




brown pelican 



10 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



Recovery Efforts Initiated for Humpback and Right Whales 



Gloria Thompson 
National Marine Fisheries Service 



The National Marine Fisheries Service 
has initiated recovery efforts under the 
Endangered Species Act for the hump- 
back whale (Megaptera novaengliae) and 
the right whale (Balaena glacialis), both 
of which are listed as Endangered. Under 
the Act, the agency has responsibility for 
developing and implementing recovery 
plans for most listed marine species. 

During reauthorization hearings for the 
Act in April 1987, Dr. William E. Evans, 



the agency's Assistant Administrator, 
committed it to develop recovery plans for 
these Endangered whales. Subsequently, 
the agency set up recovery teams com- 
prised of scientists and managers knowl- 
edgeable in matters concerning the two 
whales to review and comment on the 
recovery plans that are being prepared by 
the agency's Office of Protected Re- 
sources and Habitat Programs (with 
assistance from the agency's five regional 



offices). Draft plans will be made available 
for public review in May 1988 for the 
humpback whale and in July 1988 for the 
right whale. 

For further information, please contact 
Gloria Thompson for the humpback whale 
plan and Bob Ziobro for the right whale 
plan at the Office of Protected Resources 
and Habitat Programs, National Marine 
Fisheries Service (202) 673-5348). 



i i 

I 






humpback whale breaking the ocean surface 

ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



11 



BOX SCORE OF U.S. LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 







ENDANGERED 






THREATENED 






SPECIES 


Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


SPECIES- 


WITH 




Only 


Foreign 


Only 


Only 


Foreign 


Only 


TOTAL 


PLANS 


Mammals 


28 


19 


240 


3 


3 


23 


316 


23 


Birds 


60 


15 


146 


7 


3 





231 


55 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 


14 


4 


14 


106 


21 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 








17 


6 


Fishes 


39 


4 


11 


25 


6 





85 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 








9 


7 


Clams 


28 





2 











30 


21 


Crustaceans 


5 








1 








6 


1 


Insects 


8 








7 








15 


12 


Plants 


134 


6 


1 


30 


3 


2 


176 


56 


TOTAL 


318 


51 


468 


96 


19 


39 


991 


263** 



Total U.S. Endangered 369 
Total U.S. Threatened 115 

Total U.S. Listed 484 



Recovery Plans approved: 223 
Species currently proposed for listing: 17 animals 

31 plants 



'Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened are 
tallied twice. Those species are: the leopard, gray wolf, bald eagle, piping plover, roseate 
tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive ridley sea turtle. For the purposes of the 
Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, subspecies, or distinct 
vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera or even families. 

**More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 
January 31, 1988 36 plantS 



February 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 2 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 





FIRST CLASS 


POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




PERMIT NO G-77 


.* 




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3D 

10 


L!C P 

POSIT 


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30 ~> 


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12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 2 (1988) 



ri 



March 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 3 






Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, 
Service, Washington, D.C. 



hj8 



Fi§h .and Wildlife 
'ZNTS 

onv ITCM 



Help Is On the Way for Rare Fishes of 
the Upper Colorado River Basin 



Sharon Rose and John Hamill 
Denver Regional Office 

On January 21-22, 1988, the Governors 
of Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah joined 
Secretary of the Interior Hodel and the 
Administrator of the Western Area Power 
Administration in signing a cooperative 
agreement to implement a recovery pro- 
gram for rare and endangered species of 
fish in the Upper Colorado River Basin. 
The recovery program is a milestone 
effort that coordinates Federal, State, and 
private actions to conserve the fish in a 
manner compatible with States' water 
rights allocation systems and the various 
interstate compacts that guide water al- 
location, development, and management 
in the Upper Colorado River Basin. 

The Colorado River is over 1 ,400 miles 
long, passes through two countries, and 
has a drainage basin of 242,000 square 
miles in the United States, yet it provides 
less water per square mile in its basin 
than any other major river system in the 
United States. Demands on this limited 
resource are high. The Colorado River 
serves 15 million people by supplying 
water for irrigation, hydroelectric power 
generation, industrial and municipal pur- 
poses, recreation, and fish and wildlife 
enhancement. 

The headwater streams of the Upper 
Colorado River originate in the Rocky and 
Uinta Mountains. Downstream, the main- 
stem river historically was characterized 
by silty, turbulent flows with large varia- 
tions in annual discharge. The native 
warmwater fishes adapted to this de- 
manding environment; however, to meet 
man's ever increasing demands for water, 
impoundments were constructed that radi- 
cally changed the ecological characteris- 
tics of the river. 

Some native warmwater species en- 
demic to the Colorado River Basin, includ- 
ing the Colorado squawfish (Ptycho- 
cheilus lucius), humpback chub (G/7a 
cypha), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), and 
razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), 
were unable to adjust to the modifications 
of their environment. Changes in stream- 
flow and water temperature, direct loss of 
(continued on page 6) 



MAY '8 1988 

CLEMS0N 
LIBRARY 




Upper Cross Mountain Canyon on the Yampa River historically was habitat for the Colorado 
squawfish, humpback chub, razorback sucker, and bonytail chub. The first three can still be 
found in this stretch, but the bonytail's presence is unknown because the species' numbers 
are so low. This section of the Yampa River may be a suitable site for restocking of these 
rare native fishes. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



1 




Endangered species regional staff 
members have reported the following 
news: 

Region 3 — With the use of a Federal 
grant authorized under Section 6 of the 
Endangered Species Act, the State of 



Iowa has purchased a 13-acre site near 
St. Olaf that contains habitat for the larg- 
est known population of the northern wild 
monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense). 
The site, with over 10,000 monkshoods, 
will be fenced this summer. 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Robert P. Smith, Acting Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Acting Chief, 

Office of Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; David F. 
Riley, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); 



James C. Gritman, Regional Director; 
John S. Popowski, Assistant Regional 
Director; James M. Engel, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg.. 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; Tom Olds, Assistant 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director 
and acting Endangered Species Spe- 
cialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant Regional 
Director; Paul Nickerson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; Robert E. Jacobsen, Assistant 
Regional Director; Larry Shanks, 
Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Rowan 
Gould, Assistant Regional Director; 
Ron Garrett, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 8, (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; Rich- 
ard N. Smith, Regional Director; Bet- 
tina Sparrowe (202-653-8762), 
Endangered Species Specialist. 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 
Region 1: California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Trust Territories. 
Region 2: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Flor- 
ida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, District of 
Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Region 6: Colorado, 
Kansas, Montana. Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: 
Alaska. Region 8: Research and Development nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
ish and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 20240. 



Region 4 — A Conservation Agreement 
has been established between the Fish 
and Wildlife Service and The Nature Con- 
servancy to protect one of the two remain- 
ing populations of the Endangered Ala- 
bama leather flower (Clematis socialis). 
This population is located on The Conser- 
vancy's Virgin's Bower Preserve in St. 
Clair County, Alabama. Under the terms 
of the agreement, the Service will assume 
management responsibility for the site. 



In the past, up to 50,000 Indiana bats 
(Myotis socialis) hibernated at Long's 
Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park, 
Kentucky. At present, however, only 
2,500 to 7,000 bats remain. One reason 
for this serious decline is the presence of 
a poorly designed gate, located at the 
entrance, that restricts air flow and bat 
movement into the cave. The National 
Park Service plans to replace the gate 
with a new angle-iron bat gate in FY 
1988 or FY 1989. Biologists from the 
Service's Asheville, North Carolina, Field 
Office have been gathering baseline data 
on temperature and humidity levels in the 
cave. The information, which is being col- 
lected before and after gate replacement, 
will help the Service to better predict the 
results of future modifications to the en- 
trances of bat hibernation caves. 



Region 6 — The Peregrine Partnership, 
which includes the Colorado Division of 
Wildlife, Colorado Wildlife Federation, and 
Denver Museum of Natural History, is 
planning to place up to six American per- 
egrine falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) 
chicks in a hack box on the 23rd floor of a 
building in downtown Denver. The high- 
rise habitat is similar to that in other cities 
where peregrines have been successfully 
hacked. The city's large populations of 
pigeons and starlings will be prey for the 
urban falcons. Similar programs have 
been successful in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 
Salt Lake City, Utah; Albany, New York; 
and Baltimore, Maryland. 



The final recovery plan for the Wright 
fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae) 
has been printed and distributed. The 
plan calls for the establishment of two 
self-sustaining populations of 10,000 indi- 
viduals each before the species will be 
considered for downlisting to Threatened 
status. A third such population must be 
established before the species can be 
delisted. The Wright fishhook cactus, 
listed in 1979 as Endangered, is currently 
known from a limited number of small 
populations in Emery and Wayne Coun- 
ties, Utah. 

The final recovery plan for the spineless 
hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus triglochidi- 
atus var. inermis) has been printed. This En- 

(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



Loss of Wetlands Threatens Four Plants 



Four species of plants in the eastern 
United States were identified during Feb- 
ruary as vulnerable to extinction because 
of a decline in their freshwater wetland 
habitat. In order to make them eligible for 
protection under the Endangered Species 
Act, Endangered or Threatened listings 
were proposed for the following: 

Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant 
(Sarracenia rubra 
ssp. jonesii) 

Carnivorous plants, or plants that trap 
and consume insects, have long fasci- 
nated many people. Although the Venus 
flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is the best 
known example, carnivorous plants take a 
number of other forms. Pitcher plants, for 
example, produce clusters of erect, trum- 
pet-shaped leaves that form roughly tubu- 
lar "pitchers" covered by a chordate 
hood. Insects are attracted to nectar 
secreted by glands near the pitcher orifice 
or to the plant's showy coloration, and 
some crawl or fall into the pitchers. Just 
inside the mouth of the pitcher tube is a 
very smooth surface, which offers no 
footholds to most insects, and below that 
the interior is lined with stiff downward- 
pointing hairs that further hamper escape. 
Those insects that cannot get away are 
eventually digested by enzymes in the 
fluid secreted inside the pitchers. 

The mountain sweet pitcher plant is a 
subspecies endemic to a few mountain 
bogs and streamsides in southwestern 
North Carolina and northwestern South 
Carolina along the Blue Ridge Divide. Of 
the 26 populations known historically, only 
10 remain. The others were eliminated by 
drainage of boggy habitats; flooding by 
impoundments; conversion of the sites to 
agricultural and grazing land; collection; 
and various forms of development. Eight 
of the ten surviving populations are on pri- 
vate property where they may face threats 
from habitat alteration and collectors of 
carnivorous plants. Two occur on State of 
South Carolina lands, but even these pop- 
ulations are vulnerable to illegal take and, 
in one case, impacts from recreation. 

In light of these threats, the Service has 
proposed to list Sarracenia rubra ssp. 
jonesii as Endangered (F.R. 2/10/88). 
Comments on the proposal should be 
sent to the Asheville Field Office, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, 100 Otis Street, 
Room 224, Asheville, North Carolina 
28801, by April 11, 1988. 



Decurrent False Aster 
(Boltonia decurrens) 

Endemic to the wet floodplains of the 
Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, the decur- 
rent false aster is known only from the 




States of Illinois and Missouri. This im- 
pressive perennial herb in the family 
Asteraceae grows up to 79 inches (2 
meters) in height. It produces clusters of 
attractive aster-like flowers with yellow 
disks and white to (more commonly) pur- 
ple rays. The flower heads, which are 
about the size of a quarter-dollar, are 
borne in small clusters on branched in- 
florescenses. 

Destruction or modification of native 
floodplain habitat has significantly re- 
duced the distribution of B. decurrens 
from historical levels. Extensive surveys 
by State botanists from 1980 to 1985 
located a total of 12 surviving populations 
in Illinois. There are another two popula- 
tions known in Missouri. Drainage of mar- 
shes and wet prairies for agricultural 
development has been a problem for the 
species, but the main continuing threat is 
thought to be siltation. As a result of 
extensive row crop agriculture within the 
watershed and the alterations of natural 
water flow cycles by numerous levee sys- 
tems, heavy loads of silt — up to 3 inches 
(76 millimeters) in a year — are deposited 
in the floodplains, preventing seed ger- 




The mountain sweet pitcher plant is an 
o herbaceous perennial that grows up to 29 
8 inches (73 centimeters) in height. Its 
a, pitchers are a waxy green, usually lined with 
= maroon-purple veins. The uniquely showy 
£ and fragrant flowers have recurving sepals, 
% are borne singly on erect scapes, and are 
o. usually maroon in color. 



mination. Because of these threats, the 
Service has proposed to list the decurrent 
false aster as Threatened (F.R. 2/25/88). 

Four of the populations known to re- 
main occur on public lands, three of them 
on Illinois State property and one on land 
administered by the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers in St. Charles County, Mis- 
souri. Management plans are being de- 
veloped for the B. decurrens populations 
in Illinois, and the Corps of Engineers 
may soon enter into a cooperative man- 
agement agreement with the Missouri 
Department of Conservation. Because of 
the habitat siltation, certain agricultural 
practices and other means of soil manip- 
ulation may be helpful to conserve current 
populations and to establish new ones. It 
has been observed that the species does 
grow in some disturbed alluvial deposits. 

Comments on the proposal to list B. 
decurrens as a Threatened species 
should be sent to the Regional Director, 
Region 3 (address on page 2 of the BUL- 
LETIN), by April 25, 1988. 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



Wetland Plants 

(continued from page 3) 

Harperella 
(Ptilimnium nodosum) 

Named after Dr. Roland M. Harper, who 
discovered this plant in 1902, the har- 
perella is an annual in the parsley family 
(Apiaceae). This species grows up to 39 
inches (one meter) in height and pro- 
duces small white flowers in heads not 
unlike those of the Queen Anne's lace 
(Daucus carota). It occurs in Alabama, 
Georgia, the Carolinas, West Virginia, and 
Maryland. 

Another wetland-dependent plant, the 
harperella is always found on saturated 
substrates and it readily tolerates 
periodic, moderate flooding. It occurs in 
two specific habitat types: 1) the shoals 
and margins of clear, swift-flowing 
streams, and 2) the edges of shallow, 
intermittently flooded ponds and wet 
meadows on the coastal plain. The spe- 
cies' tolerance of flooding may be of key 
importance because few potential com- 
petitors are adapted to such water fluctua- 
tions. However, the amount and fre- 
quency of flooding is critical; prolonged or 
extensive floods can wash away the seed 
bank, while insufficient flooding can 
lessen the species' competitive edge over 
other plants. 

More than one-half of the historically 
known harperella populations have disap- 
peared. Extensive surveys by The Nature 
Conservancy and State Natural Heritage 
Programs have documented only 10 re- 
maining populations. Because P. 
nodosum has such specific ecological re- 
quirements, it can easily be extirpated 
from an area even by seemingly minor 
alteration of the habitat. Wetland drain- 
age, water quality degradation, siltation, 
and various forms of development 
threaten the harperella's habitat. In West 
Virginia, approximately 10,000 plants 
were destroyed by the construction of a 
vacation home development in 1984. 

P. nodosum is not known to occur on 
any Federal lands. Some populations are 
found on State lands, along streams over 
which States have jurisdiction, or on pre- 
serves owned by The Nature Conser- 
vancy. State Natural Heritage Programs, 
particularly in South Carolina and West 
Virginia, have been actively pursuing 
easements and voluntary protection 
agreements with landowners. Such 
agreements, while potentially very useful 
in protecting the plants, have no legal 
authority; accordingly, the Service has 
proposed to list the harperella as Endan- 
gered (F.R. 2/25/88). 

Comments on the listing proposal 
should be sent to the Ecological Services 
Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, 1825 Virginia Street, Annapolis, Mary- 
land 21401, by April 25, 1988. 




Among the distinguishing characteristics of Boltonia decurrens are its decurrent (down- 
wardly curved) leaves and attractive, aster-like flowers. 




(continued on next page) The harperella's small white flowers may appear from May to frost. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



(continued from page 4) 

Swamp Pink 
(Helonias bullata) 

Another plant threatened by the loss of 
wetland habitat is the swamp pink, a 
perennial in the lily family (Liliaceae). This 
plant, characterized by attractive pink to 
purplish flowers, represents the only spe- 
cies in its genus. Historically, it occurred 
in swamps, bogs, spring seepages, 
meadows, and streams edges from New 
York to Georgia. 

The widespread drainage and develop- 
ment of eastern wetlands eliminated the 
swamp pink from many former habitats. 
For example, the species has been extir- 
pated from New York, and the number of 
reported sites in New Jersey has declined 
from approximately 100 historically to 
35-40 today. Other colonies remain in Vir- 
ginia (eight sites), North Carolina (seven 
sites), Delaware (six sites), and Maryland, 
Georgia, and South Carolina (one site 
each). Most of these populations are on 
private lands where they are vulnerable to 
further losses of wetland habitat. 

Collecting, though not as great a dan- 
ger to the swamp pink as habitat loss, is a 
significant threat. This species is referred 
to in a number of wildfiower books and 
field guides as one of the most beautiful 
plants in the eastern United States, a 
description that attracts many garden 
hobbyists and curiosity seekers. Plants 
have frequently been taken from the wild, 
often without the consent of the land- 
owners. Commercial trafficking in wild H. 







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bullata does not appear to be serious at 
this time; a few nurseries do sell swamp 
pinks cultivated from seed. 

A few swamp pink populations occur on 
Federal or State lands, where they re- 
ceive some protection from collecting and 
habitat degradation. However, these sites 
are not enough to ensure the species' 
long term survival. On February 25, the 
Service proposed to list H. bullata as a 
Threatened species. 

Comments on the listing proposal 
should be sent to the Regional Director, 
Region 5, by April 25, 1988. 



Conservation Measures 
Authorized by the 
Endangered Species Act 

Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; restrictions on take and traffick- 
ing; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to seek land purchases 
or exchanges for important habitat; and 
the possibility of Federal aid to State or 
Commonwealth conservation depart- 
ments that have signed Endangered Spe- 



cies Cooperative Agreements with the 
Service. Listing also lends greater recog- 
nition to a species' precarious status, 
which encourages further conservation 
efforts by State and local agencies, inde- 
pendent organizations, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 
cies. It also requires these agencies to 
ensure that any actions they authorize, 
fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopard- 
ize the survival of a listed species. If an 
agency finds that one of its activities may 
affect a listed species, it is required to 
consult with the Service on ways to avoid 
jeopardy. For species that are proposed 
for listing and for which jeopardy is found, 
Federal agencies are required to "confer" 
with the Service, although the results of 
such a conference are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or traffic in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. (See Code of Federal 
Regulations, Title 50, Part 17.) For plants, 
the prohibition against collecting applies 
only to listed taxa found on lands under 
Federal jurisdiction. Some States, how- 
ever, have their own more restrictive laws 
against the take of listed plants. 



Protection Approved for Six Species 



The swamp pink, a very distinctive plant, is 
named for its wetland habitat and the strik- 
ingly attractive pink to purplish flowers. The 
flower clusters are borne at the end of a hol- 
low stem up to 2 feet (60 centimeters) in 
height that grows from a basal rosette of 
lance-shaped, evergreen leaves. 



A freshwater mussel and five plants 
were listed during February as Threat- 
ened or Endangered species. The protec- 
tion authorized by the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act is now available to the following: 

• Louisiana Pearlshell (Margaritifera 
hembeli) — This freshwater mussel or 
clam is endemic to a single drainage, the 
Bayou Boeuf, in Louisiana. Reservoir con- 
struction, pollution, and siltation from land 
disturbances in the watershed have de- 
graded the pearlshell's aquatic habitat 
and reduced its range to only a few head- 
water streams. Most of the remaining 
habitat is within Kisatchie National Forest, 
and the Fish and Wildlife Service will work 
with the U.S. Forest Service to design log- 
ging operations that will produce less 
harmful runoff. The final rule listing the 
Louisiana pearlshell as Endangered was 
published in the February 5, 1988, Fed- 
eral Register. 

• Aleutian Shield-fern (Polystichum 
aleuticum) — One of the rarest ferns in 
North America, P. aleuticum apparently is 
restricted to two mountain sites in the 
Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Only one pop- 
ulation, consisting of six individual plants, 
is known to survive. The Service will work 
with the U.S. Navy, which holds develop- 
ment rights to the island (Adak) on which 
the population was discovered, to con- 
serve the plant's naturally harsh alpine 
habitat. Surveys will be conducted at 
potential sites in an effort to locate other 



populations. The Aleutian shield-fern is 
now listed as Endangered (F.R. 2/17/88). 

• Baricao (Trichilia triacantha) — This 
evergreen shrub or small tree is native to 
low elevation semideciduous forests in 
southwestern Puerto Rico. A total of 18 
individuals remains at 5 sites, all within 
Guanica Commonwealth Forest. Its range 
may have been considerably broader 
before the widespread deforestation of 
Puerto Rico in past years. The remaining 
populations are in ravines where they are 
vulnerable to damage or destruction by 
flash-floods. Any illegal cutting of these 
trees, which have wood of desirable quali- 
ties, would also threaten the species with 
extinction. For these reasons, the Service 
has listed T. triacantha as an Endangered 
species (F.R. 2/5/88). 

• Black-spored Quillwort (Isoetes 
melanospora), Mat-forming Quillwort (/. 
tegetiformans), and Little Amphianthus 
(Amphianthus pusillus) — All three of 
these small aquatic plants are endemic to 
pools on the surface of granite outcrops in 
Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina. 
Many of these outcrops are subject to 
quarrying, heavy recreational use, dump- 
ing, and other activities dangerous to the 
plants. Both Isoetes taxa have been listed 
as Endangered (F.R. 2/5/88). A. pusillus 
occurs over a somewhat wider range than 
the other two species; therefore, it was 
listed as Threatened. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



Colorado River Fishes 

(continued from page 1) 

habitat due to inundation by reservoirs, 
blockage of migration routes, and interac- 
tions with introduced, non-native fish spe- 
cies (predation and competition) are 
primarily responsible for the decline of 
these native fish species. Due to their low 
numbers and inadequate recruitment, 
three of the fishes— the Colorado squaw- 
fish, humpback chub, and bonytail chub — 
have been federally listed as Endangered. 
A fourth, the razorback sucker, is a candi- 
date for Federal listing. 

Since 1978, the Service has issued 
over 100 Biological Opinions (pursuant to 
Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act) 
on water development projects in the 
Upper Colorado River Basin, all of which 
concluded that the cumulative effects of 
water depletions from the Upper Colorado 
River system were likely to jeopardize the 
survival of the endangered Colorado 
River fishes. In 1984, the Service also 
produced a draft conservation plan that 
specified minimum flows for the listed 
fishes throughout the Upper Basin. Sev- 
eral States and water development organ- 
izations responded that the Service's 
position on water depletions and minimum 
streamflows was in direct conflict with 
State water rights systems, Interstate 
Compacts, and related Supreme Court 
decrees. The result was that a major con- 
troversy threatened to develop and em- 
broil the various State, Federal, and 
private interests in a confrontation over 
endangered species protection and water 
resource development. These parties rec- 
ognized that such a confrontation was 
unlikely to result in progress toward the 
recovery of the listed fishes and could 
lend a measure of uncertainty to water 
development in the Upper Basin. As a 
result, in August 1984 the Service formed 
the Upper Colorado River Basin Coordi- 
nating Committee to provide a forum for 
discussion and negotiation. Members of 
the Coordinating Committee included the 
Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and 
States of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. 
In addition, private water development 
interests actively participated in the proc- 
ess. 

The Coordinating Committee's formal 
charge was a narrow one. Recognizing 
that earlier inter-agency consultations 
under Section 7 of the Endangered Spe- 
cies Act had found that new water proj- 
ects would be likely to jeopardize the 
listed fish species, this committee was to 
identify reasonable and prudent alterna- 
tives that would conserve the species 
while permitting new water development 
to proceed. However, during their discus- 
sions the parties concluded that both the 
biological requirements of the four spe- 
cies and the hydrology and management 
of the Upper Colorado River Basin were 
exceedingly complex. As a consequence, 
they agreed that a comprehensive pro- 




tracking radio-tagged Colorado squawfish 

gram for implementing a broad range of 
conservation measures was needed. 

After nearly 4 years of intense discus- 
sions, data analysis, and negotiations, the 
Coordinating Committee produced "The 
Recovery Implementation Program for 
Endangered Fish Species in the Upper 
Colorado River Basin." The Recovery 
Program agreement, which was signed in 
January 1988, also created a 10-member 
Recovery Implementation Committee that 
will oversee the program's implementation 
by the Service. The Recovery Program 
established five basic recovery elements: 

1. Provision of instream flows. In- 
stream flow needs for the four rare fishes 
will be identified for all the major rivers in 
the Upper Basin. The Recovery Program 
anticipates that the needs of the fish in 
major portions of the Colorado and Green 
Rivers can be provided through refine- 
ment and protection of releases from Fed- 
eral reservoirs, such as Flaming Gorge 
and Blue Mesa. In addition, in unregu- 



lated systems like the Yampa and White 
Rivers, the program calls for water rights 
to be acquired, converted into instream 
flows, and administered pursuant to State 
water law. The program further recom- 
mends funding of $10 million for water 
rights acquisition. In Fiscal Year 1988, $1 
million were appropriated by Congress to 
initiate the acquisition of water for 
instream flows. 

2. Habitat development and mainte- 
nance. Fish habitat will be developed or 
maintained through potential habitat man- 
agement techniques, such as the creation 
of backwaters for nursery and feeding 
habitat and the construction of jetties to 
provide over-wintering habitat. 

3. Native fish stocking. A hatchery 
rearing and stocking program will be eval- 
uated as a means to augment the endan- 
gered fish populations, although the 
Recovery Program recognizes that this 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



(continued from previous page) 

will not be a complete solution to the 
problem. Manmade areas, such as gravel 
pits along the Colorado River, can be 
used as rearing areas for native fishes. 

4. Management of non-native spe- 
cies and sportfishing. Certain intro- 
duced fish species are suspected to prey 
on, or compete with, the endangered 
fishes. In addition, anglers have been 
known to capture endangered fishes fre- 
quently in some areas. These potential 
problem areas will be monitored and con- 
trolled where necessary and feasible 
through a cooperative effort between 
State wildlife agencies and the Service. 

5. Research, monitoring, and data 
management. Detailed study plans will 
identify criteria needed for recovery, test 
the effectiveness of management and 
recovery strategies, and evaluate the life 
history and habitat of each of the four 
species. Monitoring will track population 
status and trends and evaluate the overall 
success of the program. Timely analysis 
and reporting of monitoring and research 
data will be accomplished by a cost-effec- 
tive data management system. This cen- 
tralized system will serve as an informa- 
tion resource for directing management 
strategies and recovery activities. 

The program's recovery goals for the 
Colorado squawfish and humpback chub 
are to maintain and protect self-sustaining 
populations and sufficient natural habitat 
to support these populations. Due to the 
particularly critical status of the bonytail 
chub, the immediate goal is to prevent its 
extinction, while the ultimate goal is to 
protect self-sustaining populations and 
natural habitat. Although the razorback 
sucker is not currently listed as Endan- 
gered or Threatened, its precarious status 
makes it desirable to provide for its future 
using the same goals established for the 
Colorado squawfish and humpback chub. 

Funding of the Recovery Program is a 
cooperative responsibility. Expenditures 
are divided into two areas, the annual 
operating budget and capital funds. The 
projected annual budget for the recovery 
program is $2,300,000. Sources for both 
funds will include Federal and State gov- 
ernments, power and water users, and 
private' donations. (The Fish and Wildlife 
Service is currently contributing approx- 
imately $600,000 per year toward this 
annual cost.) Two capital funds are 
needed through congressional appropria- 
tions. One of the funds (approximately 
$10 million) will be for the purchase of 
water rights to establish instream flows. In 
addition to the flow acquisition fund, $5 
million will be needed to initiate other 
recovery construction elements, such as 
hatcheries, additional fish passages, hab- 
itat modification, and other projects. Con- 
tributions by proponents of non-Federal 
water projects will provide an additional 
source of funding, offsetting depletion 
impacts by contributing $10 per acre-foot 
(adjusted annually for inflation) based on 




razorback sucker 




humpback chub 




bonytail chub 




Colorado squawfish 



drawings by Dr. Robert J Behnke 



the average annual depletion of the proj- 
ect. 

This Recovery Agreement represents a 
major effort to satisfy a group of highly 
divergent interests. If successful, it will 



demonstrate that, with cooperation and 
careful planning, development and the 
needs of native fishes in the Upper Colo- 
rado River Basin can be compatible. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

dangered cactus occurs within a 75-mile 
area in Colorado and Utah. Threats to the 
species include collecting and potential 
habitat disturbance. The plan calls for pro- 
tection of existing populations and research 
on the plant's taxonomic status, as well as 
an inventory of potential habitat. 

Both plans are available for purchase 
by writing to the Fish and Wildlife Refer- 
ence Service, 6011 Executive Boulevard, 
Rockville, Maryland 20852; or call toll-free 
at 800 582-3421. (In Maryland, call 301/ 
776-3000.) 



Region 8 (Research)— The Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center reports that nine 
volunteer nest watchers began working 
on the Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vit- 
tata) research project in mid-February to 
watch, guard, and collect data during 
daylight hours on the active Puerto Rican 
parrot nests in the wild. The volunteer 
nest watcher program is a cooperative 
venture between the Service, the National 
Audubon Society, and the Student Con- 
servation Association. This is the second 
year that the nest watcher program has 
been conducted. Volunteers will remain 
on the project until early June. 



A radio telemetry study on the 'oma'o or 
Hawaiian thrush (Myadestes obscurus), a 
surrogate test species for the Endangered 
palila (Loxioides bailleui), is proceeding 
on schedule at Patuxent's Hawaii 
Research Station. Transmitter attachment 
techniques have been refined, receiving 
systems tested under operational condi- 
tions, and personnel trained in tracking 
methodology. Since December 28, four 
Hawaii thrush have been captured in mist 



BOX SCORE OF U.S. LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 







ENDANGERED 






THREATENED 






SPECIES 


Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


SPECIES* 


WITH 




Only 


Foreign 


Only i 


Only 


Foreign 


Only 


TOTAL 


PLANS 


Mammals 


28 


19 


240 


3 


3 


23 


316 


23 


Birds 


61 


15 


145 i 


7 


3 





231 


55 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 ' 


14 


4 


14 


106 


21 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 








17 


6 


Fishes 


41 


2 


11 


25 


6 





85 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 








9 


7 


Clams 


29 





2 











31 


21 


Crustaceans 


5 








1 








6 


1 


Insects 


8 








i 7 








15 


12 


Plants 


139 


6 


1 


I 31 


3 


2 


183 


56 


TOTAL 


327 


49 


467 


! 97 


19 


39 


i 998 


263" 



Total U.S. Endangered 376 
Total U.S. Threatened 116 



Total U.S. Listed 



492 



Recovery Plans approved: 223 
Species currently proposed for listing: 17 animals 

31 plants 



•Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened are 
tallied twice. Those species are: the leopard, gray wolf, bald eagle, piping plover, roseate 
tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive Ridley sea turtle. For the purposes of the 
Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, subspecies, or distinct 
vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera or even families. 

"More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 



March 31, 1988 



36 plants 



nets in the Hawaii Volcanoes National 
Park, fitted with radio transmitters, and 
tracked daily. 



The National Fisheries Research Cen- 
ter-Seattle has recently completed a 
3-year study on the life history and habitat 
requirements of the Moapa dace (Moapa 



coriacea) so that suitable habitat can be 
provided at Moapa National Wildlife Ref- 
uge in southern Nevada, the first refuge 
ever created for a fish. Research in sup- 
port of the goal of species recovery has 
been completed, and results and recom- 
mendations have been passed on to 
Region 1, which has management re- 
sponsibility. 



March 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 3 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO. G-77 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3 (1988) 



Wr77>' v/y 






April 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 4 



W hi \m - 






Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20204 



California Sea Otter Translocation: A Status Report 



Robert L. Brownell, Jr., and 

Galen B. Rathbun 

National Ecology Research Center 

San Simeon, California 93452 

As late as the 19th century, sea otters 
{Enhydra lutris) were found from northern 
Baja California to Alaska. By the early 
20th century, however, they had been 
extirpated from Baja California and most 
of California by fur hunters. Because of 
isolation and protection, a small popula- 
tion in the Big Sur area of central Califor- 
nia survived and sfowly expanded its 
range to about 200 miles of coastline 
along the center of the State. Because 
this small, restricted population is vulner- 
able to a single catastrophic event, such 
as an oil spill from a tanker accident, the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the 
California sea otter on January 14, 1977, 
as Threatened. 

On August 11, 1987, the Service pub- 
lished a final rule to establish an experi- 
mental population of California sea otters 
at San Nicolas Island, one of southern 
California's Channel Islands, about 70 
miles west of Los Angeles. The purposes 
of this reintroduction were to: 1) imple- 
ment a primary recovery action for this 
animal; 2) obtain background information 
for assessing sea otter reintroduction and 
containment techniques; 3) gather data 
on population dynamics and ecological 
relationships of sea otters with their near- 
shore community; and 4) evaluate effects 
on the donor population of removing 
otters for the reintroduction. Related to 
the reintroduction project was the desig- 
nation of a "no otter" management zone 
in southern California south of Point Con- 
ception and including all the Channel 
Islands except San Nicolas. (See BUL- 
LETIN Vol. XI Nos. 8-9 and 10-11 for 
details leading up to the reintroduction.) 

Personnel from the Service and the 
California Department of Fish and Game 
worked during periods of good weather 
between late August 1987 and the end of 
March 1988 to capture the sea otters. 
Three techniques were used: dip netting, 
underwater traps operated by SCUBA 
divers, and floating tangle nets. By March 
1988, 113 otters had been caught along 
the central California coast. Nearly half of 
these were immediately released at their 




California sea otter 

capture site because of sex and size lim- 
itations. Sixty-eight of the otters were 
transported by truck to the Monterey Bay 
Aquarium, tagged on the rear flippers, 
screened for health abnormalities, and 
prepared for shipment to San Nicolas 
Island. Four died while at the Aquarium, 
and a fifth animal was returned to its origi- 
nal capture site and released. The re- 
maining 63 sea otters (14 males and 49 
females) were flown to San Nicolas Island 
in eight groups of one to 24 animals. 

Censusing the otters at the island has 
been difficult because of poor weather 
and sea conditions, access limitations, 
and the difficulty of seeing the color- 
coded flipper tags. Censuses have not 
only been hampered by winter storms, 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



including one of the worst on record for 
southern California, but also by closures 
of the island during weapons tests. (The 
island is part of the U.S. Navy's Pacific 
Missile Test Center at Pt. Mugu.) When 
surveys are possible, each animal is ob- 
served until the unique color combination 
and position of the flipper tags is deter- 
mined. This can take up to 2 hours if sea 
conditions are poor or if the animal is fur- 
ther than about a half mile from shore. 
Some otters have gone unidentified for 
extended periods of time. For example, 
one animal observed in October was not 
seen again until January, despite inten- 
sive efforts to individually identify otters at 
the island. 

(continued on page 6) 



1 




Regional endangered species biolo- 
gists have reported the following news 
and activities for March: 

Region 1 — Fourteen woodland car- 
ibou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) were 



released in the panhandle of Idaho. The 
animals were captured from a herd near 
Williams Lake in British Columbia, Can- 
ada. A total of 24 animals have been 
moved from Canada this year to join 24 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ronald E. Lambertson 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

Robert P. Smith, Acting Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Acting Chief, 

Office of Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1. Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom, Regional Director; David F. 
Riley, Assistant Regional Director; 
Wayne S. White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear, Regional Director; Conrad A. 
Fjetland, Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities. MN 55111 (612-725-3500); 



James C. Gritman, Regional Director; 
John S. Popowski, Assistant Regional 
Director; James M. Engel, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; Tom Olds, Assistant 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director 
and acting Endangered Species Spe- 
cialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Howard Larson, Regional Direc- 
tor; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant Regional 
Director; Paul Nickerson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; Robert E. Jacobsen, Assistant 
Regional Director; Larry Shanks, 
Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Rowan 
Gould, Assistant Regional Director; 
Ron Garrett, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 8, (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, D.C. 20240; Rich- 
ard N. Smith, Regional Director; Bet- 
tina Sparrowe (202-653-8762), 
Endangered Species Specialist. 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 
Region 1: California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Trust Territories' 
Region 2: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Flor- 
ida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, District of 
Columbia, Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts. New Hampshire. New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Region 6: Colorado! 
Kansas. Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: 
Alaska. Region 8: Research and Development nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C. 20240. 



animals translocated to Idaho in 1987 to 
supplement the Endangered southern 
Selkirk Mountain herd of woodland car- 
ibou. The State of Idaho considers this 
year's translocation to be a success. Most 
animals have stayed in the vicinity of the 
release site. One caribou died during the 
capture effort this year for a total of only 
three known mortalities in 2 years. A final 
translocation of animals is planned for 
1989. 



At the request of the Hawaii State 
Board of Land and Natural Resources, 
the Fish and Wildlife Service's Honolulu 
Field Office prepared a detailed list of 
high quality streams in Hawaii that de- 
serve special protection from flow and 
channel alteration. Selection criteria 
included habitat for Endangered water- 
bircte and migratory waterfowl, riparian 
wetlands, anadromous fish habitat, Na- 
tional and State parks, wilderness areas 
and natural area reserves, and streams 
listed on the Nationwide Rivers inventory. 

* * # 

Biologists recently discovered a new 
population of the California jewelflower 
(Caulanthus californicus) on the southern 
Carrizo Plain, California. This plant is a 
Category 2 candidate for a future listing 
proposal. The discovery doubles the num- 
ber of known natural populations of this 
species. One introduced stand of the Cal- 
ifornia jewelflower occurs on The Nature 
Conservancy's Paine Wildflower Memorial 
Preserve. 



Staff from the Service's Laguna Niguel, 
California, Field Station accompanied 
U.S. Navy and California Fish and Game 
personnel to San Clemente Island for a 
San Clemente sage sparrow (Amphispiza 
belli clementeae) survey. Results of the 
survey indicate that the population of this 
Threatened bird appears to be stable. 

Region 2 — In early March, two ocelots 
(Felis pardalis), a male and a female, 
were translocated within the Laguna 
Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge on the 
southern coast of Texas. The female has 
remained in the relocation area but the 
male has moved about 5 miles north of 
the release site (still on the refuge). These 
Endangered cats were moved from areas 
where their risk of being hit by motor vehi- 
cles was high to an area of suitable hab- 
itat on the refuge that was unoccupied by 
ocelots. Five ocelots have been killed by 
motor vehicles on or near the refuge in 
recent years. 

* * * 

As part of a 1988 joint special project 
with the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife 
Conservation, the Service's Tulsa Field 
Office will implement recovery measures 
for the interior population of the least tern 
(Sterna antillarum). This population of the 

(continued on page 7) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



Approved Recovery Plans 



Carla W. Corin 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

Washington, D.C. 

Tobusch Fishhook Cactus 

The Tobusch fishhook cactus (Ancistro- 
cactus tobuschii), listed as Endangered, 
was first described in 1952 from a speci- 
men collected a year earlier on the G. W. 
Henri Ranch east of Vanderpool, Texas. 
At the time of listing (1979), fewer than 
200 plants were known. 

This cactus grows as solitary stems up 
to 3.5 inches (9 centimeters) in diameter 
and nearly as tall. It is named for its dis- 
coverer, Herman Tobusch, and for the 
reddish-tipped fishhooked spine that 
extends laterally from the three to five 
central spines arrayed on each areole, 
which is surrounded by seven to nine 
radial spines. Yellow flowers 1.2 to 1.5 
inches (3.0 to 3.8 cm) in diameter, each 
lasting nearly a week, appear from mid- 
February to mid-March. Most flowering is 
over by early April, and the green fruits 
ripen during the last half of May. 

Historically, the Tobusch fishhook cac- 
tus has been recorded in the Edwards 
Plateau area of south-central Texas in 
Kerr, Bandera, Real, Kimble, and Uvalde 
Counties. Surveys in 1985 found a total of 
six populations in all but Kerr County. The 
Henri Ranch population originally dis- 
covered in 1951 has been extirpated, 
probably during land clearing in the 
1960's. Most of the sites are on private 
land, but one is on a State highway right- 
of-way and another is on State land 
administered by Texas Tech University. 

The Tobusch fishhook cactus grows in 
gravelly soils on streambanks where dom- 
inant vegetation is juniper, oak, and syc- 
amore. In this habitat, the plants are 
subject to flooding, which may destroy the 
plants and their habitat. Many specific 
details of the habitat requirements of this 
cactus are unknown. Threats to its sur- 
vival include real estate development, 
trampling by livestock, flooding and ero- 
sion of its habitat, and collection by cactus 
fanciers. Cacti are generally prized by col- 
lectors, and when the rarity of a species is 
known, it becomes even more of an at- 
traction. Many of the locales inhabited by 
this species are well known to collectors 
through earlier literature. 

The prime objective of the Tobusch 
Fishhook Cactus Recovery Plan (ap- 
proved by the Fish and Wildlife Service on 
March 18, 1987) is to establish 4 safe 
populations of 3,000 plants each. At this 
level, which is expected to take at least 5 
years, there would be sufficient genetic 
diversity and a buffer against catastrophic 
reduction or loss of one or more of the 
populations, and the Tobusch fishhook 
cactus could be considered for reclassifi- 
cation from Endangered to Threatened. 




Tobusch fishhook cactus (Ancistrocactus 
tobusch!) 

When reclassification is accomplished, 
the plan will be reevaluated and criteria 
for attaining full recovery can be deter- 
mined. Specific steps in the recovery plan 
are to: 

1 . remove immediate human threats by 
protecting known populations from 
collecting and habitat destruction; 

2. establish a permanent living collec- 
tion at a botanical garden or univer- 
sity; 

3. minimize long-range threats by de- 
velopment of biological information 
relevant to recovery; 

4. establish a 5-year survey program to 
more precisely determine the dis- 
tribution of the species; 

5. develop a comprehensive trade 
management plan for all cacti; 

6. develop a program to provide propa- 
gated plants and seeds to commer- 
cial markets; and 

7. develop public awareness, apprecia- 
tion, and support for the preservation 
of this species. 

These recovery steps will require the 
cooperation of the private landowners and 
government land managing agencies on 
whose land the cactus is found. Working 
together, all parties can help save this 
unique plant. 



Three Florida Mints 

The Recovery Plan for Three Florida 
Mints was approved by the Fish and Wild- 
life Service on July 1, 1987. These 
Endangered plants, all inhabitants of 
sandy scrub communities, are threatened 
by ever-expanding development in penin- 
sular Florida. 

These congeneric mints are perennials 
with a woody base and non-woody flower- 
ing shoots. They are aromatic, with a 
strong minty odor, and all three inhabit 
bare sand exposed to sunlight. Lakelas 
mint (Dicerandra immaculata) grows to 
1.3 feet (40 cm) in height and has lav- 
ender-rose to purplish flowers which 
bloom from September to November. It is 
endemic to a narrow strip of the Atlantic 
Coastal Ridge between Vero Beach and 
Fort Pierce. All known sites are on private 
land, mostly in residential lots, where it 
grows in well-drained sand at the margins 
of sand pine scrub. 

Scrub mint (D. frutescens), with white 
or pale pink flowers spotted with dark red- 
dish-purple, grows up to 1 .6 feet (49 cm) 
high and blooms in September and Octo- 
ber. It inhabits a limited area of the Lake 
Wales Ridge in Highlands County. One of 
its four known sites is the Archbold Bio- 
logical Station, where it has been able to 
persist indefinitely in fire lanes through the 
sand pine scrub. Two other localities have 
recently been sold or partially destroyed. 
A remaining locality is in a subdivision 
and is susceptible to development. 

The longspurred mint (D. cornutissima) 
also grows to 1.6 feet (49 cm), and its 
purple-rose flowers also are spotted with 
reddish-purple. It is found southwest of 
Ocala on the Sumter Upland in Marion 
County, and formerly occurred also in 
Sumter County. This species inhabits the 
margins of scrub vegetation. Its largest 
populations are in residential subdivi- 
sions, frequently along street rights-of- 
way, where it tends to be eliminated as 
homes are built. None of its known popu- 
lations are in protected areas, although 
the Cross-Florida National Conservation 
Area (in the planning stages) will include 
suitable habitat for the mint. 

The major threats to the survival of 
these species have been loss of habitat 
due to development (commercial, residen- 
tial, and sand mining) and depletion of the 
gene pool because of small population 
sizes. 

According to the recovery plan, any of 
the three species can be considered for 
reclassification to Threatened when 10 
separate, self-sustaining populations are 
established at secure sites in peninsular 
Florida. Delisting can be considered when 
a species reaches 20 separate, self-sus- 
taining populations. These goals are sub- 
ject to change depending on any new 
information discovered during the recov- 
(continued on page 4) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



Approved Plans 

(continued from page 3) 



ery process, including new interpretations 
of the systematics of this genus. 

To attain these recovery goals, it will be 
necessary to protect and manage existing 
populations through means such as con- 
servation easements, lease agreements, 
or acquisition of sites by Federal, State, or 
local agencies. Protection may require 
emergency actions where habitat destruc- 
tion is imminent, possibly including re- 
moval of plants from such sites if they can 
be used elsewhere to aid in the recovery 
effort. Protected habitats will need to be 
managed to prevent excessive vegeta- 
tional succession. Prescribed burning 
may be the best tool in some instances to 
prevent encroachment of trees and 
shrubs into the open sites needed by the 
three mint species. 

Conservation of germ plasm is another 
important part of the recovery process. 
Research on seed storage and plant 
propagation is needed, and collections 
need to be established. One commercial 
nursery, Woodlander, Inc., in South Car- 
olina, has successfully propagated all 
three species from cuttings. Work on 
propagation by seed is proceeding at 
other institutions. 

Establishment and management of new 
populations in protected sites with suita- 
ble habitat is necessary. Preferred areas 
are where the plants are native: Sumter 
Upland for longspurred mint, Lake Wales 
Ridge for scrub mint, and the Atlantic 
Coastal Ridge from Vero Beach to Stuart 
for Lakela's mint. 

Nashville Crayfish 

The Nashville crayfish (Orconectes 
shoupi), listed in 1986 as Endangered, is 
found only in the Mill Creek drainage in 
Davidson and Williamson Counties, Ten- 
nessee. There are also records from 
Richland Creek in Davidson County, but 
none have been recaptured there and O. 
shoupi may have been displaced at that 
site by a related species of crayfish. 

This 7-inch (18-cm) crustacean has 
been found in a wide range of environ- 
ments in Mill Creek, including gravel-cob- 
ble runs, pools with up to 4 inches (10 
cm) of settled sediment, and under lime- 
stone slabs and other,cover. Molting indi- 
viduals and females carrying eggs or 
young tend to seek out large slabrocks for 
protection. 

The Nashville crayfish has probably 
never been widespread. The most urgent 
threat to its survival is water quality degra- 
dation. The lower portion of Mill Creek 
runs through metropolitan Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, and the upper reaches are af- 
fected by runoff from agricultural areas. 
Studies have found that water quality has 
already been affected by pollution from 
these sources. The presence of a high 
proportion of its population in an urban 




Lakela's mint (Dicerandra immaculata) 

area makes the crayfish vulnerable to a 
single catastrophic event, such as a 
chemical spill. Another threat is compe- 
tition from the related, more abundant, 
and apparently more adaptable crayfish 
Orconectes placidus, which is suspected 
to have displaced O. shoupi from the 
Richland Creek drainage. 

The Nashville Crayfish Recovery Plan 
was approved on August 27, 1987. To 
consider this crayfish for reclassification 
from Endangered to Threatened status, 
three goals should be accomplished. 
First, there should be two viable popula- 
tions: the existing population and another 
that is either reintroduced or discovered 
during further surveys. The second re- 
classification step is for the reintroduced 
or discovered population to: a) be self- 



sustaining for at least 10 years without 
augmentation; b) represent a significant 
portion of the crayfish fauna of the creek; 
and c) be stable or increasing in range. 
(This would help preclude displacement 
by more competitive species.) The third 
part of the goal is to sufficiently protect 
the species and its habitat from both 
human-related and natural threats likely to 
cause extinction in the foreseeable future. 
Ways to achieve these goals include 
protecting the existing Mill Creek popula- 
tion through strict enforcement of State 
and Federal laws regarding Endangered 
species, water quality, and stream modi- 
fication. There is also a need to identify 
current and foreseeable impacts on the 
Mill Creek habitat and to implement pro- 
(continued on page 5) 




Nashville crayfish (Orconectes shoupi) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



Status Reviews Initiated for Chimpanzees 



The chimpanzee {Pan troglodytes) and 
pygmy chimpanzee (P. paniscus) are 
listed by the Fish and Wildlife Service as 
Threatened species. Pursuant to a peti- 
tion filed by three wildlife conservation 
organizations, the Service has initiated a 
status review for both species to deter- 
mine whether or not they should be pro- 
posed for reclassification as Endangered. 

The petition, submitted jointly by the 
Jane Goodall Institute, World Wildlife 
Fund, and Humane Society of the United 
States, was received by the Service on 
November 4, 1987. It contained informa- 
tion indicating that the status of P. trog- 
lodytes has deteriorated substantially 
since it was originally listed as Threat- 
ened in 1976. Among the threats this pri- 
mate is said to face are massive habitat 
destruction, fragmentation of populations 
(and associated vulnerability to disease), 
excessive hunting and capture by people, 
and inadequate national and international 
controls. International trade in chim- 
panzee infants for the biomedical re- 
search market is also considered to have 
a significant impact on the species in the 
wild. 

After examining the petition, the Service 
concluded that it contains "substantial 
information indicating that the requested 
action may be warranted." Accordingly, a 
status review was begun. Because the 
related pygmy chimpanzee also inhabits 
the tropical forests of Africa, it may face 
the same increased threats; therefore, the 
Service is including this species in the 
review. Comments, information, and 
questions should be sent to the Office of 
Scientific Authority, Mail Stop 527, Ma- 
tomic Building, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240, by July 
21, 1988. After considering the informa- 
tion received by that time, the Service will 



m 

i 



jf' -*« 



r 

A 




Chimpanzees are thought to be in greater danger than ever before because of widespread 
habitat loss, excessive take by people, and other threats. 



decide whether or not to propose reclassi- 
fication of both species from Threatened 
to Endangered. 

A decision to reclassify the chimpanzee 
and/or the pygmy chimpanzee as Endan- 
gered would remove the applicability of 
the special rule for primates [50 CFR 
17.40(c)] to these chimpanzee species. 
Therefore, the Service is interested in 



comments as to what, if any, effect the 
removal of current trade exemptions 
might indirectly have on the wild popula- 
tions of these chimpanzees. If the reclas- 
sification were warranted but removal of 
the special rule might impact the wild pop- 
ulation, the Service would consider alter- 
native procedures to alleviate restrictions 
adversely affecting the wild populations. 



Riparian Systems Conference 



On September 22-24, 1988, University 
Extension at the University of California — 
Davis will host the second "California 
Riparian Systems Conference." This 
event will report on issues surrounding 
the destruction of streamside lands and 
on progress made in learning to manage 



these resources since the first conference Thursday and Friday and seminars to 



in 1981. Also discussed will be new con- 
cerns for restoration of riparian habitats 
along disturbed river and creek banks 
throughout the State. 

The conference schedule includes pro- 
fessionally-oriented daytime programs for 



bring professionals, activists, and the gen- 
eral public closer together on riparian 
issues for the evenings and Saturday. For 
more information, contact Dana Abell at 
(916)752-3098. 



Approved Plans 

(continued from page 4) 

tective measures. Research into the life 
history of the Nashville crayfish must be 
conducted to efficiently plan any reintro- 
duction activities. Public education is in 
progress with the development of a slide- 
tape program for distribution to schools in 
the Nashville area. This program empha- 
sizes the need to protect environmental 
quality in Mill Creek, the only known hab- 
itat of the Nashville crayfish. Development 
of this program was a cooperative venture 



among the Tennessee Department of 
Conservation; the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, Nashville District; Tennessee 
Wildlife Resources Agency; and the Serv- 
ice. In any public education program, it is 
imperative not to identify specific locations 
inhabited by these animals in order to pro- 
tect them from take for food and for use 
as fishing bait. 

The goals of the plan may be reevalu- 
ated as data are generated during the 
recovery effort. At present, it is consid- 
ered that complete removal from the pro- 
tection of the Endangered Species Act is 
not likely because of the limited popula- 



tion and the threats to the habitat. It is 
hoped, however, that through these re- 
covery efforts reclassification to Threat- 
ened status may be feasible in the future. 



Copies of these and all other recovery 
plans are available for purchase about 6 
months after they are approved. Requests 
should be sent to the Fish and Wildlife 
Reference Service, 6011 Executive Bou- 
levard, Rockville, Maryland 20852, or call 
toll-free 800/582-3421. (In Maryland, dial 
301/770-3000.) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



Sea Otter 

(continued from 1) 



As of March 31, we know that 18 sea 
otters are no longer at San Nicolas Island. 
Eight of them left the island and returned 
to the donor population. When another 
was found in the "no otter" management 
zone in late December 1987, she was 
caught and moved back to her original 
capture site in central California. All nine 
of these otters are doing fine along the 
mainland. On the other hand, three males 
died at San Nicolas from stress related to 
their capture and transportation. Two 
females were found dead on beaches in 
southern California. (One of these had 
been shot by someone and the other died 
of undetermined causes.) At least one 
other translocated otter drowned after 
becoming entangled in fishing gear, and it 
is suspected that another three met the 
same fate. This leaves a theoretical popu- 
lation of 45 animals at the island. Be- 
tween February 28 and March 28, 1988, 
21 of these 45 sea otters were identified 
at the island. 

The other twenty-four animals are con- 
sidered "missing", including six that were 
never sighted after their release at the 
island. The eight that returned to the par- 
ent population also were considered miss- 
ing for periods of time between 26 and 
208 days until they were sighted on the 
mainland. These eight otters represent 25 
percent of the 32 otters that at one point 
or another have been considered missing. 
We had anticipated that more of the sea 
otters would stay around San Nicolas 
Island. It is, however, premature to 
assume that the 24 animals that are still 
missing are dead. We are continuing to 
search for these otters and are optimistic 
that we will find some of them back in the 
parent population. However, some may 
have lost their flipper tags, thus making it 
impossible to identify them. 

By comparing the weights of animals 
that have remained at San Nicolas Island 
with those of the otters that have returned 
to the mainland, we found that small 
(juvenile) otters are more likely to remain 
at the island than large (adult) animals. 
Based on this information, we will be even 
more selective when choosing otters for 
transport to San Nicolas Island in the 
future. 

Now (late March), more than 7 months 
after the new colony of sea otters was 
created, about a third of the reintroduced 
animals are routinely sighted around the 
island. It is still too early to say anything 
about the success of the translocation; 
however, as a comparison, it is useful to 
review the history of another reintroduc- 
tion effort. Fifty-nine sea otters from 
Alaska were released during 1969 and 
1970 along the State of Washington's 
coastline. At least 16 of the 29 released in 
1969 died within 2 weeks. No data are 
available on deaths after the second re- 




Dip nets (above) and underwater traps operated by SCUBA divers (below) were two of the 
methods used to capture California sea otters for translocation. 



lease of 30 sea otters in 1970. Very few 
data on the reintroduced animals were 
recorded until 1977, when Service biolo- 
gists conducted the first intensive survey. 
At that time, only 19 otters, including 4 
pups, were observed. Population surveys 
during the 1980's suggest that the Wash- 
ington population has been slowly in- 
creasing. Total counts in 1981, 1983, 
1985, and 1987 were 36, 52, 65, and 94, 
respectively. Thus, barring any disasters, 
it appears that the sea otter population off 
Washington is established and should 
continue to grow. 



If the Washington reintroduction can be 
used as an example, it could take at least 
5 years before the new colony at San Nic- 
olas Island shows evidence of growth. 
However, for the San Nicolas Island 
reintroduction, the Service has the option 
to move up to 250 otters from the parent 
population to assist in this effort. By mov- 
ing additional smaller sea otters to San 
Nicolas Island, we hope to establish a 
self-sustaining colony there in less than 5 
years. If the reintroduction is a long-term 
success, it will be a giant step toward the 
recovery of the California sea otter. 



6 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



Marine Mammal Report Available 



The Fish and Wildlife Service has is- 
sued its annual report for calendar year 
1986 on administration of marine mam- 
mals under its jurisdiction, as required by 
section 103(f) of the Marine Mammal Pro- 
tection Act of 1972. The report contains 
accounts on eight mammals: the polar 
bear (Ursus maritimus), walrus (Odobe- 
nus rosmarus), dugong (Dugong dugon), 
West Indian manatee (Trichechus man- 



atus), Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis), 
West African manatee (T. senegalensis), 
marine otter (Lutra felina), and sea otter 
(Enhydra lutris). [The southern sea otter 
(£. /. nereis), marine otter, dugong, and all 
three manatees also are listed under the 
Endangered Species Act.] 

Administrative actions discussed in the 
report include Endangered and Threat- 
ened species (particularly the West Indian 



manatee and the southern sea otter in 
California), marine mammals in Alaska, 
law enforcement, scientific and public dis- 
play permits, research, Outer Continental 
Shelf environmental studies, international 
activities, and appropriations. 

Copies of the report are available by 
writing to the Publications Unit, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, 148 Matomic Build- 
ing, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



Regulations Proposed for Incidental Take of Marine Mammals 



In the March 15, 1988, Federal Regis- 
ter, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(Department of the Interior) and the Na- 
tional Marine Fisheries Service (Depart- 
ment of Commerce) jointly published 
regulations to implement recent amend- 
ments to the Endangered Species Act 
and the Marine Mammal Protection Act 
(MMPA). These amendments provide a 



legal mechanism for allowing certain inci- 
dental takings of Endangered, Threat- 
ened, or "Depleted" marine mammals. 
Previously, incidental take of marine 
mammals designated as Depleted was 
not allowed under the MMPA. The 
amendments were designed to make the 
two laws more consistent, and the pro- 
posed changes in the regulations would 



implement these amendments. 

A discussion providing background and 
details on this issue was published with 
the proposal. Comments on the proposed 
changes should be sent to the Director, 
Office of Protected Resources and Hab- 
itat Programs, National Marine Fisheries 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20235, by May 
16, 1988. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 



tern was listed by the Service in 1985 as 
Endangered due to declining numbers. 
River modification resulting from such 
activities as dam construction, channeli- 
zation, navigation and hydropower proj- 
ects, and water withdrawals for irrigation, 
has caused loss and degradation of tern 
breeding habitat. Least terns nest on bar- 
ren to sparsely vegetated beaches, in- 
cluding salt flats, sand and gravel bars, 
spits, and islands. High quality breeding 
areas with adequate food available are in 
short supply, and terns frequently must 
compete with people who use the remain- 
ing beach space for recreation. Human- 
related disturbances at tern colonies can 
be devastating. Unattended eggs and 
chicks overheat in the sun or are crushed 
by people, their vehicles, pets, and live- 
stock. 

The joint recovery project will focus on 
increasing public awareness of least 
terns. In addition to encouraging televi- 
sion and newspaper coverage of terns 
during the breeding season, and enlisting 
the help of Scout Troops in building and 
placing chick shelters at tern colonies, 
recovery project members will develop a 
pamphlet and narrated videotape on the 
tern. The pamphlet and video should be 
available for distribution by the end of Fis- 
cal Year 1988. Anyone wishing to receive 
copies of the pamphlet and a loan of the 
video should contact Laura Hill at the 
Tulsa Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, 222 S. Houston Avenue, Suite A, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74127; telephone 918/ 
581-7458 or FTS 745-7458. 

The Dawson and Nebraska Public 
Power Districts, both located in central 
Nebraska, have agreed to cooperate in 
evaluating powerline markers that might 



reduce bird collisions. Twelve-inch, bright 
yellow aeronautical balls were installed on 
company lines with which sandhill cranes 
(Grus canadensis) frequently collided 
along the Platte River, Nebraska. The 
Service's Wyoming Cooperative Fishery 
and Wildlife Research Unit will monitor 
crane collisions on marked and unmarked 
lines for the next 2 to 3 years to see if 
markers reduce collision frequency. The 
resulting data will have application to the 
recovery of whooping cranes (Grus amer- 
icana) because collisions with powerlines 
are the number one known cause of 
death of free-flying whoopers. This re- 
search will complement a study in Colo- 
rado that is testing another marker in 
differing habitat conditions where the line 
collisions are predominantly by geese and 
ducks. 



Whooping cranes occurred in the 
southeast and wintered on portions of the 
Atlantic coast in the 19th century. The 
U.S. Whooping Crane Recovery Plan has 
a goal of establishing three wild, self-sus- 
taining populations, including one in 
eastern North America, so that the spe- 
cies may be reclassified from the Endan- 
gered category to Threatened. In 1983, 
the recovery team recommended re- 
search at potential reintroduction areas in 
the upper peninsula of Michigan and adja- 
cent Ontario, Canada; Okefenokee 
Swamp in southern Georgia; and three 
sites in central Florida. Project leaders 
reported on their studies at the recovery 
team meeting in February. The recovery 
team has now narrowed the candidate 
release sites to Kissimmee Prairie in Flor- 
ida and the Okefenokee Swamp. Both 
sites would be suitable for attempting to 
establish a nonmigratory whooping crane 
population like that which survived in 
Louisiana into the 1940's. Captive-reared 
whoopers would be introduced using the 
"gentle release" technique that has been 



successful in supplementing the wild pop- 
ulation of the Endangered Mississippi 
sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) in 
Jackson County, Mississippi. Specific 
selection of a proposed release site will 
occur in summer 1989, and the first birds 
could be released as early as 1991. 

Region 6 — During the week of Febru- 
ary 22-26, 1988, approximately 300 peo- 
ple attended public meetings in Libby, 
Troy, Trout Creek, Thompson Falls, and 
Kalispell, Montana, on a proposal to test 
augmentation of the grizzly bear (Ursus 
arctos) population in the Cabinet-Yaak 
ecosystem by adding 4 to 8 grizzly bears 
to the estimated 15 bears that now live 
there. The proposal is intended to help 
meet the grizzly bear recovery goal for the 
Cabinet-Yaak ecosystem. The 60-day 
comment period closed on March 31, 
1988. After comments are organized and 
evaluated, a decision will be made on 
whether or not to proceed with the pro- 
posal. 



Region 6 recently assembled a group of 
four biologists in the Grand Island, 
Nebraska, Office to be known as the 
"Platte River Task Group." The Group is 
charged with conducting studies and 
other activities related to the recovery of 
four Threatened and Endangered bird 
species (whooping crane; bald eagle; 
interior least tern; and piping plover, Cha- 
radrius melodus) on the Platte River. 

* * * 

The second meeting of the Black- 
Footed Ferret Interstate Coordinating 
Committee was held in Northglenn, Colo- 
rado, March 8-9, 1988. Representatives 
of 9 of the 12 States within the potential 
range of the ferret (Mustela nigripes) 
were in attendance. The committee will be 
expanded to involve a national represent- 
(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 7) 

ative from Federal land management 
agencies. The Coordinating Committee 
serves as an advisor to the Regional 
Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service in 
Denver, who has lead responsibility to 
coordinate recovery of the black-footed 
ferret throughout its potential range. For 
now, captive breeding appears to be the 
best strategy for recovery of the species. 
There are no known ferrets in the wild at 
this time. The Committee met to discuss 
programs and problems involved in identi- 
fying, evaluating, and ranking ferret hab- 
itat (prairie dog ecosystems) for possible 
reintroduction of captive-reared black- 
footed ferrets in 1991. 

Region 7 — The recent listing of the 
Aleutian shield-fern (Polystichum aleu- 
ticum) as Endangered marks the first list- 
ing of a plant in Alaska. Despite surveys 
in each of the past 4 years, one popula- 
tion consisting of only 6 plants comprises 
the current known world population for the 
species. However, because this plant 
occurs at high elevations on remote Aleu- 
tian islands, the Service is optimistic that 
additional specimens will be found. 
Toward this end, three teams of botanists 
will be conducting surveys this July and 
August on several of the Aleutian Islands, 
including Attu, Unalaska, Atka, and Adak. 
The shield-fern is without close relatives 
in North America and appears to be a 
relict of preglacial times. 

* * * 

Region 8 (Research) — This year to 
date (March 25), three captive pairs of 
Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) at 
the Puerto Rico Research Station aviary 
have produced fertile eggs. This includes 
two of the four fertile pairs from 1987 and 
an additional captive pair. The production 
of fertile eggs from this additional pair is 
very important from a genetic standpoint. 



BOX SCORE OF U.S. LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 





ENDANGERED 






THREATENED 




SPECIES 


Category 


U.S. 


U.S. & 


Foreign 


U.S. 


U.S. & Foreign 


SPECIES* 


WITH 




Only 


Foreign 


Only 


Only 


Foreign Only 


TOTAL 


PLANS 


Mammals 


28 


19 


240 





3 23 


316 


23 


Birds 


61 


15 


145 


7 


3 


231 


55 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 


14 


4 14 


106 


21 


Amphibians 5 





8 


4 





17 


6 


Fishes 


41 


2 


11 


25 


6 


85 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 





9 


7 


Clams 


29 





2 








31 


21 


Crustaceans 5 








1 





6 


1 


Insects 


8 








7 





15 


12 


Plants 


139 


6 


1 


31 


3 2 


183 


56 


TOTAL 


327 


49 


467 


97 


19 39 


998 


263" 


Total U.S. 


Endangered 


376 


Recovery Plans approved: 223 






Total U.S. 


Threatened 


116 


Species currently proposed for listing: 17 


animals 


Total U.S. 


Listed 


492 








31 


plants 



"Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened are 
tallied twice. Those species are: the leopard, gray wolf, bald eagle, piping plover, roseate 
tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive Ridley sea turtle. For the purposes of the 
Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, subspecies, or distinct 
vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera or even families. 

**More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 
April 30, 1988 36 plants 



The male was caught in the wild in the 
early 1970's and is thought to be the only 
representative of his family line in the cap- 
tive flock. 



In February, 10 palilas {Loxioides bail- 
leui) were captured and fitted with minia- 
ture radio transmitters prior to release. 



The birds will be tracked at the Mauna 
Kea study area on the island of Hawai'i 
daily for up to 28 days, which is the 
expected life of the transmitter batteries. 
This study will provide researchers with 
information on home-range and move- 
ment patterns of individual birds during 
the pre-breeding period. 



April 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 4 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, DC. 20240 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 4 (1988) 



V 



May 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 5 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



California Condor Population Grows by One 



The first California condor (Gymnogyps 
californianus) chick ever conceived in 
captivity hatched in an incubation cham- 
ber at San Diego Wild Animal Park-on 
April 29, marking a turning point in efforts 
to save the critically endangered species. 
This event brings the cooperative recov- 
ery program one step closer to the day 
when California condors can be released 
back into their native habitat. 

The chick, which was given the name 
"Molloko" (a Maidu Indian word for con- 
dor), hatched after a 57-day incubation at 
the zoological park. Veterinarians said the 
chick's condition was good and it ap- 
peared strong. Attendants helped the 
chick emerge from the shell and removed 
the last fragments 61 V2 hours after it first 
started to hatch. Four days later, zoo- 
keepers introduced the chick to its surro- 
gate parent, a hand puppet designed to 
look like the head of an adult condor. 
Using the puppet, keepers feed the chick 
minced mice and regurgitated vulture 
food. When the chick is about one month 
old, it will be transferred to outdoor facili- 
ties where the other condors are housed. 
At that time, veterinarians will decide 
whether or not it is an appropriate time for 
blood tests to determine its sex. 

After the egg was laid on March 3, it 
was removed from the cage housing its 
parents in order to stimulate them to pro- 
duce another egg. Although the pair re- 
sumed mating activities the next day, no 
additional eggs have been produced. Biol- 
ogists are hoping for greater success next 
year. California condors in the wild have 
shown the ability to produce up to three 
eggs in a season to replace ones that are 
lost. 

Four of the last five known California 
condor breeding pairs in the wild disap- 
peared over the winter of 1984- 1985. 
The Fish and Wildlife Service then de- 
cided that bringing the few remaining 
birds into a captive breeding program, 
thereby increasing their numbers, was 
the best chance to avert the species' 
extinction while investigations continue 
into the mortality of condors in the wild. 
The last free-flying condor was captured 
on the Bitter Creek National Wildlife Ref- 
uge in 1987. In addition to the new chick, 
there are now 27 California condors in 




DOCUMENTS. 

Tepos^v item 

JUN30 1988 
CLEMSON 











1 



California condor chick Molloko receives a meal of minced mice from its "puppet parent" at 
San Diego Wild Animal Park. 



existence; 14 are housed in breeding 
facilities at the San Diego Wild Animal 
Park and 13 are similarly cared for at the 



Los Angeles Zoo. The combined popula- 
tion is composed of 13 males and 14 
females. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 




Regional endangered species biolo- 
gists have reported the following re- 
cent news and activities: 

Region 1 - An Environmental Assess- 
ment evaluating a temporary, experimen- 



tal release of same-sex, captive-bred 
Andean condors {Vultur gryphus) in the 
southern California range of the California 
condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was 
distributed recently to 260 State, Federal, 
and private reviewers for a 30-day com- 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ralph O. Morgenweck 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Acting Chief, 

Office of Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1. Lloyd 500 Bldg . Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 
97232 (503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wal- 
lenstrom. Regional Director; David F 
Riley. Assistant Regional Director, 
Wayne S White, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. 
Spear. Regional Director; Conrad A 
Fjetland. Assistant Regional Director; 
James Johnson, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 3. Federal Bldg . Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities. MN 55111 (612-725-3500); 



James C. Gritman, Regional Director; 
John S. Popowski, Assistant Regional 
Director; James M. Engel, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg.. 
75 Spring St., S.W. Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; Tom Olds, Assistant 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director 
and acting Endangered Species Spe- 
cialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02168 (617-965- 
5100), Ronald E. Lambertson, Regional 
Director; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant Regional 
Director; Paul Nickerson, Endangered 
Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center. Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; Robert E. Jacobsen, Assistant 
Regional Director; Larry Shanks, 
Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Rowan 
Gould, Assistant Regional Director; 
Ron Garrett, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 8. (FWS Research and Develop- 
ment), Washington, DC. 20240; Rich- 
ard N. Smith, Regional Director; Bet- 
tina Sparrowe (202-653-8762), 
Endangered Species Specialist. 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 
Region 1: California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Trust Territories. 
Region 2 Arizona. New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas Region 3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Michigan. Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Flor- 
ida. Georgia. Kentucky, Louisiana. Mississippi. North Carolina. South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, District of 
Columbia. Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts. New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
Pennsylvania. Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Region 6 Colorado, 
Kansas. Montana. Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota. Utah, and Wyoming. Region 7: 
Alaska. Region 8 Research and Development nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior. Washington. DC. 20240. 



ment period. The proposed research task 
is designed to test release techniques, 
evaluate and select suitable release sites, 
and train personnel. Released birds will 
be equipped with radio tags to allow track- 
ing and gathering of behavioral data. The 
information gained will be used when cap- 
tive-bred California condors are even- 
tually released to the wild. 

Regional staff members attended the 
annual Desert Tortoise Council meetings 
in Laughlin, Nevada, March 26-29, 1988. 
The major issues of interest covered at 
the meeting included conservation biology 
theory applied to the desert tortoise (Xero- 
bates agassizii), the Bureau of Land Man- 
agement's (BLM) new plan to manage the 
tortoise's habitat on BLM lands, some 
specific planned projects that will have a 
significant impact on the tortoise, discus- 
sion on the genetic and morphometric dif- 
ferences of the three apparently distinct 
populations, and status reports. 

Senior Staff Biologist John Ford of the 
Honolulu, Hawaii, Field Office was nomi- 
nated by Hawaii Governor John Waihee 
to a 4-year term as a member of the Natu- 
ral Area Reserves System Commission. 
State Senate confirmation is expected 
shortly. 

Region 2 - CBS Evening News gave 
coverage to the avian cholera outbreak 
among waterfowl in the San Luis Valley, 
Colorado, in February and the possible 
threat to whooping cranes (Grus amer- 
icana). An estimated 6,000 ducks and 
geese died. Over 20 sandhill crane (Grus 
canadensis) carcasses were recovered 
but no whooping cranes were known to 
be affected. Knowledge of the problem in 
the San Luis Valley allowed Bosque del 
Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New 
Mexico to provide supplemental grain to 
whooping cranes, holding them in New 
Mexico for about 2 weeks longer than nor- 
mal. The disease outbreak was over in 
late March when mild weather allowed the 
birds to disperse to many roost sites and 
made food more accessible. 

The Canadian Whooping Crane Recov- 
ery Plan was published recently by the 
Canadian Wildlife Service. This plan com- 
plements the U.S. recovery plan and em- 
phasizes actions within the boundaries of 
Canada. The Canadian Whooping Crane 
Recovery Team is the first recovery team 
organized in Canada and the plan is the 
first prepared for recovery of an endan- 
gered species in Canada. Copies are 
available from Dr. James Lewis, Whoop- 
ing Crane Coordinator, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1306, Albu- 
querque, New Mexico 87103. 

Seventy-six seedlings of Kearney's 

blue-star (Amsonia kearneyana) were 

planted on a private ranch in a remote 

canyon of the Baboquivari Mountains 

(continued on page 10) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



Endangered Species Act Protection is 
Proposed for Nine Species 



During April 1988, three species of 
plants and six species of invertebrate ani- 
mals were proposed by the Fish and Wild- 
life Service for Federal listing as Endan- 
gered or Threatened. If the proposals are 
made final, Endangered Species Act pro- 
tection will be extended to the following: 

Alabama Canebrake Pitcher- 
plant (Sarracenia rubra ssp. 
alabamensis) 

Some of the rarest and most unusual 
plants of the southeast are the pitcher 
plants, carnivorous species that trap and 
digest insects within hollow leaves or 
"pitchers." These plants grow only in 
open, boggy sites, a limited type of habitat 
that is rapidly being modified for agricul- 
ture and other purposes. Threats to 
pitcher plants also come from collectors, 
who are attracted to these species by 
their scarcity and distinctive feeding 
habits. As a result, the Service has taken 
action to give the most vulnerable taxa 
protection under the Endangered Species 
Act. The green pitcher plant (Sarracenia 
oreophila) is listed as Endangered, and 
the same status recently was proposed 
for the mountain sweet pitcher plant (Sar- 
racenia rubra ssp. jonesii). (See story in 
BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 3.) Now, the 
Service has proposed to list a related 
taxon, the Alabama canebrake pitcher 
plant (Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamen- 
sis) as Endangered (F.R. 4/21/88). 

The Alabama canebrake pitcher-plant 
occurs in sandhill seeps, swamps, and 
bogs along the fall-line of central Ala- 
bama. It requires sunny areas with little 
competition from woody vegetation. His- 
torically, this subspecies was reported 
from 27 sites, but 16 of them have been 
destroyed through habitat alteration (e.g., 
drainage and conversion to cropland or 
pasture), herbicide application, over- 
collecting, and/or vegetational succession 
(due to suppression of naturally-occurring 
wildfires). 

Extensive searches of potential habitat 
over the past 20 years indicate that only 
11 populations remain — 5 in Chilton 
County, 4 in Autauga County, and 2 in 
Elmore County. All are on private lands. 
Only 3 of the remaining 11 populations 
are of significant size (50 or more plants). 
Two of these three sites face imminent 
threats, one from gravel mining and the 
other from drainage. 

Taking is another well-documented 
threat to the Alabama canebrake pitcher 
plant. Collecting by commercial plant 
dealers and hobbyists has contributed to 
the destruction of several historical popu- 
lations and significantly depleted many 
others. In 1975, one collector even ran an 
advertisement in a local newspaper offer- 




Alabama canebrake pitcher-plant (Sar- 
racenia rubra var. alabamensis) 

ing a reward for pitcher plant locations 
and specimens. Listing S. r. ssp. ala- 
bamensis as Endangered would not pro- 
hibit taking of this plant on State or private 
lands, but it would restrict interstate trade. 

Major landowners have been contacted 
about the presence of the Alabama cane- 
brake pitcher plant on their property and 
informed about land uses compatible with 
its survival. Several owners have been 
very receptive to protection, and efforts 
are under way to enlist the support of oth- 
ers. Suggested habitat management tech- 
niques include the use of prescribed burn- 
ing or manual clearing in order to maintain 
the open sites needed by the pitcher 
plant. 

Comments on the proposal to list the 
Alabama canebrake pitcher plant as En- 
dangered are welcome and should be 
sent to the Jackson Field Office, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Jackson Mall Office 
Center, Suite 316, 300 Woodrow Wilson 
Avenue, Jackson, Mississippi 39213, by 
June 20, 1988. 

Cooley's Meadowrue 
(Thalictrium cooleyi) 

As its common name indicates, Cooley's 
meadowrue is a plant found in open sites. 



This small herb in the buttercup family 
(Ranunculaceae) is endemic to a few 
areas of the southeastern coastal plain, 
where it inhabits wet savannas, bogs, and 
other sunny, moist locations. Habitat mod- 
ification and the direct application of her- 
bicides threaten this plant's survival, and 
the Service has proposed to list it as an 
Endangered species (F.R. 4/21/88). 

T. cooleyi is a rhizomatous perennial 
with narrow, lance-shaped leaves. Its 
stems, which seldom reach more than 40 
inches (one meter) in height, are erect in 
the full sun but sometime sprawling when 
in shade. A dioecious species, Cooley's 
meadowrue bears separate male and 
female flowers. Both types of flowers are 
very small and lack petals, but the stami- 
nate (male) blossoms have yellowish to 
white sepals with lavender filaments and 
the pistillate (female) ones have greenish 
sepals. The dioecious nature of T. cooleyi 
further increases the vulnerability of very 
small populations in which plants of only 
one sex may remain. 

Historically, 15 populations of Cooley's 
meadowrue were reported from 7 coun- 
ties in North Carolina, Georgia, and Flor- 
ida. Only 10 are known to survive, one in 
Florida (Walton County) and the rest in 
North Carolina (Columbus, Onslow, and 
Pender Counties). All 10 are on privately 
owned land, although The Nature Conser- 
vancy owns part of one site in Pender 
County. The extirpated populations are 
believed to have succumbed as a result of 
fire suppression and silvicultural/agri- 
cultural activities. These and other threats, 
such as mining, drainage, road construc- 
tion, and herbicide use, pose danger to 
the remaining populations. 

Because T. cooleyi is shade-intolerant, 
it depends on wildfires or certain other 
kinds of disturbance to maintain the open, 
sunny areas upon which the species de- 
pends. It is no accident that seven of the 
current populations are along roadsides 
or in powerline rights-of-way. Fire sup- 
pression has allowed shrubs and trees to 
encroach on some T. cooleyi sites, mak- 
ing the habitat too shady for this species. 
As a substitute for fire, certain other kinds 
of disturbance, such as mowing and log- 
ging, can open up habitat for the mead- 
owrue if properly done; however T. 
cooleyi cannot survive bulldozing, drai- 
nage, conversion of habitat to pine planta- 
tions, or the direct application of herbi- 
cides. 

North Carolina already lists Cooley's 
meadowrue under State law as endan- 
gered, a classification that prohibits take 
without landowner permission and intra- 
state trade without a permit. A Federal 
listing would complement this protection 
(continued on page 4) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



Nine Species 

(continued from page 3) 

and further encourage conservation of the 

species. 

Comments on the Service's proposal to list 
Cooley's Meadowrue as a Threatened spe- 
cies are welcome and should be sent to the 
Asheville Field Office, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, 100 Otis Street, 
Room 224, Asheville, North Carolina, by 
June 20, 1988. 

Dwarf-flowered Heartleaf 
{Hexastylis naniflora) 

A herbaceous plant in the birthwort 
family (Aristolochiaceae), H. naniflora is 
known from only 24 populations in an 
8-county area of the upper piedmont of 
North Carolina and adjacent South Car- 
olina. The dark green, leathery, heart- 
shaped leaves are supported by long thin 
petioles arising from a subsurface rhi- 
zome. Its maximum height rarely exceeds 
6 inches (15 centimeters). The usually 
beige to dark brown jug-shaped flowers, 
which appear from mid-March to early 
June, are small and inconspicuous. The 
dwarf-flowered heartleaf differs from other 
members of the genus Hexastylis by its 
small flowers and its habitat in acidic soils 
along bluffs and adjacent slopes, in boggy 
areas next to streams and creekheads, 
and along the slopes of nearby hillsides 
and ravines. 

Three of the 24 populations currently 
receive some form of protection. Most of 
the largest South Carolina population, 
which contained over 4,000 plants until 64 
percent were destroyed by construction of 
a reservoir, is now being protected by the 
City of Spartanburg. Two of the larger 
North Carolina populations are registered 
natural areas receiving short-term protec- 
tion under that State's Natural Heritage 
Program. However, since these registry 
agreements are nonbinding, both sites 
remain vulnerable in the long term. The 
remaining populations of dwarf-flowered 
heartleaf are threatened by alteration or 
loss of habitat from conversion to pasture, 
grazing, intensive timber harvesting, 
residential construction, and construction 
of small ponds at former creekheads. 

A natural factor affecting the vigor of 
some populations is the fact that their pre- 
ferred habitat is often shared by dense 
stands of mountain laurel (Kalmia latiflora) 
or Rhododendron spp., which reduce the 
amount of light reaching the low-growing 
H. naniflora. In such situations, selective 
logging could benefit these heartleaf pop- 
ulations by opening them up to more light, 
provided that increased siltation from the 
intensive soil disturbances associated 
with forest clear-cutting is avoided. 

In North Carolina, H. naniflora is listed 
under State law as endangered. Such 
plants are protected from intrastate trade 
without a permit, and the State statute 
also provides for monitoring and manage- 
ment. South Carolina currently offers no 




dwarf-flowered heartleaf fHexastylus naniflora) 

official protection, although the dwarf- 
flowered heartleaf is unofficially recog- 
nized as an endangered component of 
the State's flora. The Service's April 21, 
1988 proposal to list H. naniflora at the 
Federal level as a Threatened species, if 
finalized, will provide for additional protec- 
tion and recovery activities. 

Comments on this listing proposal are 
welcome, and should be sent to the Ash- 
eville Field Office by June 20, 1988. 

Little-wing Pearlymussel 
{Pegias fabula) 

The little-wing pearlymussel, the sole 
member of its genus, is a small freshwa- 
ter mollusk whose size does not exceed 
1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in length and 0.5 inch 
(1.3 cm) in width. The shell's outer sur- 
face is often eroded, giving it a chalky or 
ashy white appearance. Like other fresh- 
water mussels, this species feeds by fil- 
tering food particles from the water. Its 
reproductive cycle includes an early larval 
stage when the mussel larvae (glochidia) 
probably attach to the gills or fins of a fish 
and transform into juvenile mussels. The 
young mussels then drop off to the stream 
substrate where, if conditions are favor- 
able, they grow to maturity. The specific 
host fish for P. fabula and many other 
aspects of this mussel's life history are 
unknown. 

Pegias fabula inhabits clear, cool, free- 
flowing streams and is usually found in 
the transitional zone between riffles and 
pools. The species has been recorded 
historically from 27 stream reaches in Ala- 
bama, North Carolina, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Virginia, all of them within 
the Tennessee and Cumberland River 
drainages. Based on extensive surveys of 
historical and potential habitat, however, it 
has been reduced in range to only six 



short reaches — three in southeastern 
Kentucky, two in southwestern Virginia, 
and one in central Tennessee. On April 
21, 1988, the Service proposed listing P. 
fabula as an Endangered species. 

Habitat loss and water quality deteriora- 
tion are the primary reasons for the sharp 
decline of the little-wing pearlymussel. 
Some sites were flooded by impound- 
ments. Others were degraded by indus- 
trial and municipal pollution, siltation from 
certain mining or agricultural practices, or 
other land disturbances within the drai- 
nage. Most of these factors threaten the 
remaining six P. fabula populations. The 
Service has no evidence that further min- 
ing, if conducted in accordance with Fed- 
eral and State regulations, is a threat to 
the mussel. Unregulated mining opera- 
tions in the past, however, did contribute 
to the decline, and current activities not in 
compliance with appropriate regulations 
may be a threat. 

Comments on the listing proposal are 
welcome, and should be sent to the Ash- 
eville Field Office by June 20, 1988. 

Five Texas Cave 
Invertebrates 

Five species of small, cave-dwelling in- 
vertebrate animals in Texas are believed 
to be vulnerable to extinction due to the 
projected impacts of development on their 
limited habitat. Each is restricted to six or 
fewer small, shallow, dry caves near the 
city of Austin. To help prevent the loss of 
these species, the Service has proposed 
listing the following as Endangered (F.R. 
4/19/88): 

• Tooth Cave pseudoscorpion (Micro- 

creagris texana) — Resembling a tiny, 

tailless scorpion, this species reaches a 

maximum length of only 4 millimeters 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



(approximately 3 Ae inch). It lacks both eyes 
and a stinger, and is harmless to humans, 
though it uses its pincers to prey on small 
insects and other arthropods. The only 
known sites for this animal are Tooth and 
Amber Caves, both in Travis County. 

• Tooth Cave spider (Leptoneta 
myopica) — An even smaller creature, 
the Tooth Cave spider is 1.6 mm (about 
Vie inch) in body length. This spider is 
sedentary, spinning webs from the ceiling 
and walls of Tooth Cave, its only habitat. 
Although it is never found outside the 
cave, it does have rudimentary eyes. 

• Bee Creek Cave harvestman (Tex- 
ella reddelli) — This light yellowish- 
brown harvestman has relatively long legs 
that extend from a small body (2 mm, or 
less than Ve inch, in length). It is eyeless 
and probably predatory on small insects. 
T. reddelli is known from Tooth, Bee 
Creek, McDonald, Weldon, and Bone 
Caves in Travis and Williamson Counties. 

• Tooth Cave ground beetle (Rha- 
dine persephone) — Only marginally 
larger than the other invertebrates in the 
listing proposal, this species has a red- 
dish-brown body 7-8 mm (about 5 /i6 inch) 
long. Like the spider above, the Tooth 
Cave ground beetle has rudimentary 
eyes. It probably feeds on the eggs of 
cave crickets. R. persephone is known 
only from Tooth and Kretschmarr Caves 
in Travis County. 

• Kretschmarr Cave mold beetle 
(Texamaurops reddelli) — This eyeless, 
dark-colored beetle with elongated legs 
measures less than 3 mm (approximately 
Vb inch) in length. It is known from 
Kretschmarr, Tooth, Amber, and Coffin 
Caves in Travis and Williamson Counties. 

The caves inhabited by all five of these 
invertebrates are small. McDonald Cave, 
the largest, consists of less than 60 
meters (about 200 feet) of passage, and 
most of the others are considerably 
smaller. They occur as "islands" of cave 
habitat within the Edwards Limestone for- 
mation. Their isolation has resulted in the 
evolution of highly localized and distinct 
cave faunas. In addition to the five spe- 




Harvestmen, sometimes referred to as 
"daddy longlegs," have a small, roundish 
body and eight long, thin legs. 

cies proposed for listing, these caves and 
others in the area support a number of 
other uncommon and scientifically signifi- 
cant species. 

The proximity of the caves to the city of 
Austin makes them vulnerable to the con- 
tinued expansion of the metropolitan area. 
The main threat to the five cave inverte- 
brates is the potential loss or degradation 
of their habitat from anticipated road con- 
struction, residential and commercial de- 
velopment, and industrial projects. With- 
out proper safeguards, such activities 
could fill or collapse the shallow caves; 
alter drainage patterns that affect cave 
habitat; introduce exotic competitive and 
predatory organisms (e.g., cockroaches, 
sowbugs); and pollute the cave systems 
with pesticides, fertilizers, oils, and other 
harmful runoff. Development may already 
have claimed at least one site; Coffin 
Cave was not even found during recent 
survey attempts. 

Comments on the listing proposal are 
welcome and should be sent to the Re- 
gional Director, Region 2 (address on 
BULLETIN page 2), by June 20, 1988. 




Pseudoscorpions are tiny, harmless arach- 
nids that somewhat resemble the larger true 
scorpions but lack the elongate tail, poison 
bulb, and stinger. 



Conservation Measures 
Authorized by the 
Endangered Species Act 

Among the conservation benefits pro- 
vided to a species if its listing under the 
Endangered Species Act is approved are: 
protection from adverse effects of Federal 
activities; restrictions on take and traffick- 
ing; the requirement for the Service to 
develop and implement recovery plans; 
the authorization to seek land purchases 
or exchanges for important habitat; and 
the possibility of Federal aid to State or 
Commonwealth conservation depart- 
ments that have signed Endangered Spe- 
cies Cooperative Agreements with the 
Service. Listing also lends greater recog- 
nition to a species' precarious status, 
which encourages further conservation 
efforts by State and local agencies, inde- 
pendent organizations, and individuals. 

Section 7 of the Act directs Federal 
agencies to use their legal authorities to 
further the purposes of the Act by carrying 
out conservation programs for listed spe- 
cies. It also requires these agencies to 
ensure that any actions they authorize, 
fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopard- 
ize the survival of a listed species. If an 
agency finds that one of its activities may 
affect a listed species, it is required to 
consult with the Service on ways to avoid 
jeopardy. For species that are proposed 
for listing and for which jeopardy is found, 
Federal agencies are required to "confer" 
with the Service, although the results of 
such a conference are non-binding. 

Further protection is authorized by Sec- 
tion 9 of the Act, which makes it illegal to 
take, possess, transport, or engage in in- 
terstate or international trafficking in listed 
animals except by permit for certain con- 
servation purposes. For plants, the rule 
on take is different; the prohibition against 
collecting applies only to listed plants 
found on lands under Federal jurisdiction. 
Some States, however, have their own 
more restrictive laws against take of listed 
plants. 



Listings Approved for Three Plants 



Final listing rules were published re- 
cently for three species of plants, bringing 
Endangered Species Act protection to the 
following: 

• Relict trillium (Trillium reliquum) — 
This herbaceous member of the lily family 
produces early spring flowers that are 
usually greenish to brownish-purple. Only 
10 populations are known to exist — 2 in 
Alabama, 3 in South Carolina, and 5 in 
Georgia. Habitat disturbance resulting 
from logging, urbanization and other de- 
velopment, and fire is the main threat to 
the relict trillium's survival. It was pro- 
posed in the January 14, 1987, Federal 
Register for listing as an Endangered 
species (see story in BULLETIN Vol. XII 



No. 2), and the final rule was published 
April 4, 1988. 

• Palo de Nigua (Cornutia obovata) 

— An evergreen tree endemic to Puerto 
Rico, C. obovata declined with the wide- 
spread deforestation of the island. Only 
seven individuals of this species currently 
are known to survive at two widely sepa- 
rated sites. Any further losses could lead 
to its extinction. The Service proposed on 
April 24, 1987, to list C. obovata as En- 
dangered (see BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 5), 
and the final rule was published April 7, 
1988. 

• White-haired goldenrod (Solidago 
albopilosa) — This herbaceous perennial 
is known only from the Red River Gorge 
area of Daniel Boone National Forest in 



eastern Kentucky. It is usually found in 
rockhouses (natural, shallow, cave-like 
formations) and beneath overhanging 
ledges. Because these same features are 
very popular for recreation, the goldenrod 
is subject to intensive disturbance. Man- 
agement efforts to divert recreation to 
other areas of the gorge are needed. To 
help prevent the species' extinction, the 
Service proposed on April 24, 1987, to list 
it as Endangered (see BULLETIN Vol. XII 
No. 5). Information gaineo since then indi- 
cates that the species' status, though still 
vulnerable, is not as critical as once 
thought. Accordingly, the Service gave it 
the classification of Threatened in the 
April 7, 1988, final rule. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



Saving the 
Masked Bobwhite 

Robert R. Gabel 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 

and 

Steven J. Dobrott 

Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge 

The masked bobwhite (Colinus virgin- 
ianus ridgwayi) is one of 21 subspecies of 
bobwhites in North America. It once 
ranged from southern Arizona to south- 
central Sonora, Mexico, but was extir- 
pated from the United States by about 
1900. Although some ornithologists be- 
lieved it to be extinct during the 1950s 
and early 1960's, the masked bobwhite 
survived in small, isolated populations in 
Sonora. 

The masked bobwhite tolerates only 
light grazing pressure on its arid grass- 
land habitat, and its decline is directly 
attributable to the rapid expansion of the 
cattle industry in Arizona from 1870 to 
1890. In many areas, little vegetation 
remained after grazing, particularly during 
the drought-stricken years of 1891-1893. 
With its habitat severely reduced, the 
masked bobwhite retreated. Livestock 
grazing persists today as a threat to the 
survival of masked bobwhites in Mexico. 

A recovery program for the masked 
bobwhite began in 1966 when the Patux- 
ent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, 
Maryland, established a captive breeding 
colony and began developing the ability to 
produce large quantities of healthy birds 
for release into the wild. Biologists at 
Patuxent's Arizona Field Station con- 
ducted studies of the bird's habitat re- 
quirements and distribution, and devel- 
oped release techniques, from 1967 to 
1978. In 1985, the Buenos Aires National 
Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Arizona 
was established to restore and preserve 
habitat for the masked bobwhite. Captive- 
produced birds have been released at the 
refuge annually since then. 

Captive Propagation 

The captive breeding program at Patux- 
ent started with the acquisition of four 
captive-bred pairs from private breeders. 
These birds had low fertility and hatch 
rates, along with high chick mortality, pre- 
sumably because they were from inbred 
stock that was several generations re- 
moved from the wild. To improve the 
genetic quality of the captive flock, 57 
additional wild birds were caught in Mex- 
ico and shipped to Patuxent in 1968 and 
1970. Successful reproduction soon fol- 
lowed, and approximately 3,000 chicks 
are now produced annually. 

The captive management program for 
masked bobwhites combines basic game- 
bird husbandry with research findings. 
Early research was conducted with 




release of a Texas bobwhite male foster parent with a covey of 4-week-old 
masked bobwhite chicks 



masked bobwhites and non-endangered 
northern bobwhite (C. v. virginianus) sur- 
rogates. Findings on nutritional require- 
ments of the quail led to the development 
of optimal diets. Automatic light timers are 
used to simulate natural daylength and 
thereby stimulate egg production at ap- 
propriate times of the year. Medications 
are incorporated into the feed to prevent 
bacterial and parasitic infections. One of 
the most important aspects of the captive 
propagation program, however, is genetic 
management. 

Because the masked bobwhite has a 
relatively short lifespan and generation 
interval, and because the captive popula- 
tion is derived from relatively few birds, 
the genetic integrity of the captive flock 
must be strictly maintained to prevent the 
loss of genetic diversity over time. To 
accomplish this, a computer-assisted ped- 
igree and mate-selection program was 
established in 1982. Using this program, 
inbreeding is minimized and representa- 
tion of the original founding animals is 
carried through from one generation to 
the next. This system has restricted in- 
breeding per generation to well below the 
one-percent level recommended by many 




An adult masked bobwhite male in the wild 
exhibiting the solid breast coloration and 
nearly all black head present in this sub- 
species. 



population geneticists. In addition, bio- 
chemical analyses have demonstrated 
that the captive population of masked 
bobwhites has retained a level of genetic 
diversity comparable to that of other bob- 
white subspecies. Reproductive charac- 
teristics (fertility, hatch rates, and chick 
mortality) also show no apparent effects 
of inbreeding. 

In 1986, to further improve the genetic 
quality of the captive flock, 18 additional 
masked bobwhites were caught in Mexico 
and brought to Patuxent. This was the 
first influx of "new blood" since 1970. 
Most of these birds produced young that 
same year, thus adding additional founder 
animals and greater genetic diversity 
among the captive birds. 

Reintroductions in Arizona 

From 1937 to 1950, numerous attempts 
were made to establish masked bob- 
whites in Arizona and New Mexico by 
releasing either pen-reared birds or wild 
bobwhites captured in Mexico. Unfor- 
tunately, most of these releases were 
made outside of the masked bobwhite's 
historical range, and none resulted in 
establishment of a viable wild population. 

Searches for suitable release sites 
within the masked bobwhite's historical 
range, including Arizona's Altar Valley, 
began in 1969. Experimental releases 
made by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
from 1975 to 1979 led to the reestablish- 
ment of a sizeable population on the then 
privately owned Buenos Aires Ranch. In 
1977, natural reproduction of reintroduced 
masked bobwhites was confirmed at this 
location. At its peak in 1979, this popula- 
tion included at least 74 calling males. 
However, two dry summers, coupled with 
commercial cattle grazing, subsequently 
caused a drastic population reduction. 
Cursory investigations in 1982 and 1983 
confirmed that only a few birds remained. 
In 1985, additional summer surveys failed 
to reveal evidence of masked bobwhites 
on the Buenos Aires Ranch. 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 




'H 



'4,0k 



masked bobwhite release box at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge at a site that now 
has excellent habitat 




Masked Bobwhite 

(continued from previous page) 

In August 1985, the Service purchased 
the Buenos Aires Ranch for inclusion in 
the National Wildlife Refuge System. 
Three months later, a wild adult male 
masked bobwhite was seen at the refuge 
headquarters, indicating that some birds 
had indeed survived. 



Biologists at the Buenos Aires Refuge 
are once again reintroducing the masked 
bobwhite into its former habitat using a 
release technique developed by the Ari- 
zona Field Station in 1977. The method 
includes the use of sterilized wild-caught 
males of a non-endangered subspecies, 
the Texas bobwhite (C. v. texanus), as 
foster parents for captive-bred masked 
bobwhite chicks. After a brief adoption 



and conditioning period, these family units 
are released in areas believed to be good 
habitat for masked bobwhites. From 1985 
to 1987, over 4,500 quail were released 
on the new refuge using this method. 
Tentative plans call for 5 consecutive 
years of releases, followed by a 2-year 
evaluation to determine if release proce- 
dures or habitat management practices 
should be modified and if additional re- 
leases are needed. 

Breeding by released birds on the ref- 
uge has been documented. Although the 
summer rainfall that stimulates the quail 
to breed has been scant, one nest, two 
broods of hatchlings, and a subadult bird 
hatched in the wild have been observed. 
Several coveys are being monitored by 
radio-telemetry. Because little is known 
about the habitat requirements of the 
masked bobwhite, studying these birds 
will help direct future habitat manage- 
ment. 

Today, the lush grasslands of the Altar 
Valley hold a brighter future for this En- 
dangered quail, but the success of the 
release effort still depends on habitat 
recovery, weather cycles, and the ability 
of the released birds to survive and re- 
produce. The Service's goal is to estab- 
lish a self-sustaining masked bobwhite 
population on the refuge within 10 years. 
If the reintroductions are successful, a 
unique wildlife component that has been 
missing from the Southwest for 80 years 
will be restored to its native habitat in Ari- 
zona. 



APPROVED RECOVERY PLANS 



Carla W. Corin 

Division of Endangered Species and Habitat Conservation 

Washington, D.C. 



Black Lace Cactus 
Recovery Plan 

The recovery plan for the black lace 
cactus (Echinocereus reichenbachii var. 
albertii) was approved on March 18, 
1987. The plant was federally listed as 
Endangered on October 26, 1979, and is 
also listed by Texas under State law as 
Endangered. One of the five other vari- 
eties of E. reichenbachii is proposed for 
listing as Threatened (E. r. var. chi- 
soensis; see BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 8), 
and another is under review for a possible 
listing proposal. Six other species in this 
genus are already listed as Endangered. 

The black lace cactus is a particularly 
attractive plant, usually with a very dark 
purple central spine 0.08 to 0.1 1 inches (2 
to 3 millimeters) long surrounded by 14 to 
16 radial spines, white with dark purple 
tips, on each areole. Its pink to light pur- 
ple flowers are 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 cen- 
timeters) in diameter. The resulting green 
fruits have conspicuous long wool on the 
areoles. This variety grows either as soli- 
tary stems or in clumps of 5 to 12. Stems 
are green, 2.9 to 5.9 inches (7.4 to 15 cm) 



tall and 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) in 
diameter. Some morphological variation is 
found among the three known populations 
of black lace cactus, one having plants 
somewhat larger with well-developed cen- 
tral spines, which are sometimes absent 
on some plants in the other populations. 

Echinocereus reichenbachii, the lace 
cactus, ranges from western Kansas to 
northern Mexico. Its large colorful flowers 
make it popular among cactus fanciers, 
and it is widely collected. The black lace 
cactus, E. r. var. albertii, has been found 
only in three Texas Gulf Coast counties 
(Refugio, Jim Wells, and Kleberg), where 
it grows in sandy-loam brush tracts. Other 
varieties of the species are usually found 
among rocks in limestone areas. 

The greatest threat to the survival of the 
black lace cactus is habitat destruction. 
Many sites formerly home to this plant 
have been cleared and replanted to pas- 
ture or cropland. Grazing presents a dan- 
ger, as the plants grow in openings 
among the brushy areas and are thus 
susceptible to trampling by cattle. Collect- 
ing is another threat to this and many 
other cacti. This plant has been especially 



popular because of its large, showy 
flowers. There has been some collecting 
of the black lace cactus, but apparently 
collectors have closely guarded their 
knowledge of its locations, and there is 
currently no evidence of collecting pres- 
sure. 

All three known populations of the black 
lace cactus are on private land. The 
Endangered Species Act does not prohibit 
take on private land, although it does reg- 
ulate interstate trade in Endangered 
plants. One of the Jim Wells County pop- 
ulations has been nearly destroyed by 
clearing. Another group found in that area 
is quite vigorous and thus far has 
escaped damage, although some clearing 
has occurred nearby and the landowner's 
plans are unknown. In Kleberg County, 
the earliest known collection was made 
on a high bank above a creek. This popu- 
lation was later destroyed by brush clear- 
ing, as was a second population found 
later. A surviving population (4 stands) 
was found in a broad band of brush along 
both sides of the creek, mostly in small 
openings among the brush. This also has 
(continued on page 8) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



Recovery Plans 

(continued from page 7) 

been probably saved from clearing by 
being on sloped drainage areas along a 
creek bed. In Refugio County, there is a 
large, patchy population over about 42 
acres (17 hectares) adjacent to the Ara- 
nsas River. During 1986 field surveys, 
individuals here appeared less robust 
than at other sites. There were fewer 
juveniles and some dead plants. Again, 
this is private land, leased for cattle graz- 
ing and petroleum activities. 

The objectives of the Black Lace Cac- 
tus Recovery Plan include obtaining per- 
manent protection of two or more of the 
known populations in order to consider 
reclassification to Threatened status. Full 
recovery criteria are to be established 
after the success of management at pro- 
tected locations can be evaluated and 
searches for more populations are carried 
out. An important step has already been 
taken towards protection of the cactus. 
Landowners have been identified and are 
being contacted by The Texas Nature 
Conservancy. These people are given 
information about the black lace cactus 



and are being encouraged to protect 
plants on their property. One family has 
already joined The Nature Conservancy's 
Land Steward Society, thus indicating a 
voluntary willingness to protect their black 
lace cacti. It is hoped that other land- 
owners will follow suit and will consider 
steps leading to permanent land pro- 
tection by the Service, The Nature Con- 
servancy, or other conservation agencies. 

Research needs to be conducted on 
various aspects of the black lace cactus' 
life history. Various attempts to transplant 
it have not met with long term success. 
Population dynamics, pollinators, and the 
restricting soil, climate, and microhabitat 
requirements must be studied. Searches 
will be conducted for undiscovered popu- 
lations, and potential safe habitat for 
establishment of new populations needs 
to be found once more specific life re- 
quirements are known. Several agencies 
have land within the range of the black 
lace cactus where it may be possible to 
introduce the plant. Also, propagation 
studies are under way, and if they are 
successful, a botanical garden population 
will be established for use in research and 
public education. 

Another important part of the recovery 




black lace cactus (Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertij 
8 



plan is to curtail any collecting activity that 
might be discovered. People need to be 
reminded of trade restrictions pertaining 
to Endangered species, and any convic- 
tions should be publicized as a deterrent. 
A comprehensive trade management plan 
for all cacti should be developed to 
reduce collecting pressure, and thus im- 
prove chances of recovery for all Threat- 
ened and Endangered cacti. 



Atlantic Coast Piping Plover 
Recovery Plan 

The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) 
is a small Nearctic shorebird found only in 
three geographical regions. It nests on 
sandy beaches along the Atlantic coast 
from Newfoundland to South Carolina; on 
sandy beaches in the Great Lakes area 
(now only at a few sites on the upper 
lakes); and along major river systems, 
alkali lakes, and wetlands in the northern 
Great Plains. On January 10, 1986, the 
Great Lakes population was designated 
as Endangered and the other two as 
Threatened. Two recovery regions have 
been designated, one for the Atlantic 
Coast population and the other for the 
inland areas. The Atlantic Coast Piping 
Plover Recovery Plan was approved by 
the Fish and Wildlife Service on March 
31, 1988. (The plan for the inland recov- 
ery areas was approved May 12, 1988, 
and will be summarized in a future edition 
of the BULLETIN.) 

The piping plover is about 7 inches (17 
centimeters) long, with a 15-inch (38-cm) 
wingspan. In breeding plumage, it has a 
light beige back and crown, white rump 
and underpays, and black upper tail with 
white edging. The spread wings have a 
single white stripe, and black wrist marks 
and trailing edges. The single black 
breastband and black bar across the fore- 
head are absent from the winter plumage. 
Breeding birds have orange legs and a bill 
with a black tip; the legs fade to yellow 
and the bill becomes mostly black in win- 
ter. Although two subspecies (Atlantic, C. 
m. melodus, and Northern Great Plains, 
C. m. circumcinctus) were officially recog- 
nized by the American Ornithologists' 
Union, recent electrophoretic and other 
studies have not detected any differences 
across the bird's range. 

The Atlantic Coast population nests on 
coastal beaches, sand spits, barrier 
islands, and dunes. Piping plovers have 
also been found nesting on dredge spoil 
sites of suitable material. The nest is a 
shallow depression or scrape, often lined 
with pebbles or bits of shell. Nests are 
seldom closer than 100 feet (30 meters) 
apart; the usual interval is over 200 feet 
(60 m). Incubation of the normally 4 eggs 
takes 27 to 30 days, and is shared 
equally by the parents. The well-camou- 

(continued on next page) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 




Piping plovers use a variety of methods to distract intruders from the nest site, including this "broken wing" display. 



flaged chicks are precocial, leaving the 
nest as soon as their down is dry. Fam- 
ilies remain together until the chicks 
fledge in 28 to 35 days. At that time, the 
birds leave the nesting territories for more 
communal feeding areas. Reported fledg- 
ing success rates vary depending on how 
data are reported, but it appears that pro- 
ductivity in recent years has been below 
that needed to maintain the current popu- 
lation. Little is known about the winter dis- 
tribution and ecology of the piping plover. 
It is believed, based on band recoveries 
and sightings, that the majority of birds 
that nest on the Atlantic Coast winter 
between North Carolina and Key West. 

Piping plovers suffered, as did many 
other shorebirds, from shooting for the 
millinery trade around the turn of the cen- 
tury. With the passage of the Migratory 
Bird Treaty Act in 1918 they made a 
recovery, only to be impacted by habitat 
loss from dune stabilization and beach- 
front construction. Some recovery of pop- 
ulations occurred after the major hurri- 
canes of 1938 and 1954, which flattened 
dunes and destroyed construction, 
rejuvenating nesting habitat. Since at 
least 1955 there has been a steady de- 



crease. The 1986 breeding census found 
550 pairs in the United States from Maine 
to North Carolina, and 240 pairs in 
eastern Canada. Over 80 percent of the 
known breeding is in Massachusetts, New 
York, New Jersey, and Virginia. 

Major factors in the decline of the piping 
plover include habitat loss, human dis- 
turbance, and predation. Studies have 
found that nesting success is lower on 
recreational beaches than on undisturbed 
ones in the same area. Crushing of eggs 
and young by pedestrian and vehicular 
traffic and predation by cats and dogs are 
factors. Biologists suspect that subtle dis- 
turbances may cause disruption of terri- 
tory establishment, leading to nest site 
abandonment. Disturbance also can re- 
sult in increased chick mortality due to fre- 
quent interruption of their feeding activity. 
Debris and garbage left by humans may 
attract predators such as red foxes, dogs, 
cats, raccoons, opossums, striped skunks, 
and rats. Predation by opossums has 
increased as they have spread northward. 
Avian predators, including the northern 
raven, black-crowned night heron, fish 
crow, American crow, and certain gulls, 
are also a threat. Herring and great black- 



backed gulls have both expanded their 
breeding range southward in recent 
years, resulting both in increased preda- 
tion and in displacement of plovers from 
historical nesting areas. 

The primary objective of the recovery 
plan is to increase the Atlantic Coast pop- 
ulation to 1,200 self-sustaining breeding 
pairs, while maintaining the current dis- 
tribution for 5 consecutive years. This 
population could then be considered for 
delisting. Conservation efforts to date 
have involved many Federal, State, and 
local groups. Censusing and research 
studies have been ongoing for many 
years. Fencing and posting to divert rec- 
reational users, while generally used to 
protect tern nesting areas, have also been 
somewhat beneficial for piping plovers. 
There is a continuing need to direct more 
of this effort towards the plovers, since 
their nesting precedes that of terns by 4 to 
6 weeks. There has been complete clo- 
sure of some beach portions on National 
Wildlife Refuges in Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Vir- 
ginia. 

The highest priority tasks in the recov- 
(continued on page 10) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



Virginia Co-op Unit Assists Virginia and North Carolina 

with Spiny Mussel Recovery 



Richard Neves 

Leader, Virginia Cooperative Fish and 

Wildlife Research Unit 

Only three species of freshwater mus- 
sels in the world bear processes (spines) 
on their valves, and each is endemic to a 
river system in the Southern Atlantic 
Slope of the eastern United States. Al- 
though considerable disagreement exists 
on the proper bionomials and taxonomic 
relationships among these species, their 
scientific and common names, according 
to the American Malacological Union, are 
the Altamaha spiny mussel (Elliptio spin- 
osa), Altamaha River, Georgia; Tar River 
spiny mussel (Elliptio steinstansana), Tar 
River, North Carolina; and James River 
spiny mussel (Pleurobema collina), 
James River, Virginia. The Tar River 
spiny mussel was Federally listed as 
Endangered in July 1985, and the James 
River spiny mussel was proposed for 



Endangered status in September 1987. 
The status of both species was reviewed 
in previous issues of the BULLETIN (Vol. 
X No. 7 and Vol. XII No. 10, respectively). 
Because the biology of all three species 
is essentially unknown, and the Tar River 
species is critically endangered, the North 
Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission 
initiated a study with funds granted by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service under Section 6 
of the Endangered Species Act to search 
for remnant populations in the Tar River 
and to conduct a life history study. Until 
enough specimens are located to initiate 
the proposed biological research, the 
Commission has contracted with the Vir- 
ginia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Re- 
search Unit to conduct a life history study 
on the related James River spiny mussel, 
which still occurs in sufficient enough 
numbers to be sampled and studied. Ob- 
jectives of this research project are to 
describe the reproductive cycle (period of 



spawning, gravidity, release of glochidia) 
and to determine the fish hosts needed by 
the glochidia to attach and metamorphose 
to free-living juvenile mussels. 

Sampling for P. collina began in sum- 
mer 1987 in the Craig Creek drainage, 
Craig County, Virginia. Subpopulations 
were located and will be monitored in 
1988 for reproductive traits. The second 
objective of the study will combine sam- 
pling of fishes in streams to identify likely 
hosts and the collection of gravid female 
mussels to obtain glochidia for infesting 
suspected hosts in the laboratory. This 
work will begin in spring 1988 and con- 
tinue through summer 1989. If or when 
sufficient specimens of the Tar River 
spiny mussel are located, research results 
on the James River species should expe- 
dite the planned life history investigation. 
Information on the reproductive cycles of 
these species will be critical elements in 
any efforts to implement recovery actions. 



Recovery Plans 

(continued from page 9) 
ery plan, those necessary to maintain cur- 
rent population status, are: 

1. Monitor population trends through 
annual surveys in each State and prov- 
ince. This will assist in assessing the 
effectiveness of various management 
strategies and identify sites requiring 
more effort or different techniques. Exist- 
ing survey methods are constantly being 
refined. 

2. Establish management programs 
to improve productivity. These programs 
will identify landowners on whose prop- 
erty piping plovers nest, and provide them 
with protection and management recom- 
mendations. 

3. Reduce disturbance by pedes- 
trians and off-road vehicles. This task 
may involve fencing and posting of nest- 



ing areas; using permits, closures, or 
other restrictions to limit recreational use 
and access; enforcing pet restrictions; 
and rerouting off-road vehicle traffic. 

4. Development and employment of 
predator control techniques, including 
investigation of the long-term impacts of 
predation and other disturbance on the 
plovers. Some indirect predator control 
may be accomplished by removing litter 
and garbage, which attract predators to 
beaches. More direct methods of predator 
removal will be studied. Limited trials of 
predator exclosures placed around plover 
nests in 1987 produced encouraging re- 
sults. Testing of this technique will be 
expanded in 1988. 

5. Gain a better understanding of 
piping plover wintering ecology Addi- 
tional surveys to determine migration and 
wintering areas will assist in documenting 
that part of the plover's life cycle and 



determine vital habitat characteristics, 
particularly on the wintering grounds. This 
habitat could then be protected. 

6. Develop public information The 
piping plover recovery effort has already 
benefitted from national news stories and 
magazine articles that have made more 
people aware of the bird's plight. Informa- 
tional brochures, posters, slide/tape pres- 
entations, and other tools geared to 
various categories of beach users also 
are needed to educate the public and gain 
more support for the recovery effort. 

Other actions needed to provide for full 
recovery of the Atlantic Coast population 
of the piping plover include creation of 
additional habitat by controlling vegetation 
encroachment, discouraging dune stabil- 
ization activities and construction in nest- 
ing areas, and encouraging well-timed 
use of dredge spoil to enhance or create 
additional nesting habitat. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

southwest of Tucson, Arizona, in late 
March. In the wild, the species is known 
from only one locality consisting of eight 
individuals. The species' native popula- 
tion, located on the Tohono O'odham 
Indian Reservation, dropped from 25 
plants in 1982 to only 8 plants in 1988. 
The transplanted seedlings were propa- 
gated from seed at the Arizona-Sonora 
Desert Museum and are being carefully 
monitored. As of May 1, 61 of the 76 
transplanted individuals were flourishing 
in their new habitat. Fifteen of the seed- 
lings died from what appears to have 
been fertilizer burn. Another lot of 76 
seedlings will be transplanted in late 



10 



October. The Service hopes to establish a 
second population of this species to 
ensure its survival in case the remaining 
eight wild plants fail. 

Peebles Navajo cactus (Pediocactus 
peeblesianus var. peeblesianus) is a nar- 
rowly endemic plant restricted to spe- 
cialized soils in central Arizona. Jeanette 
Milne, Transition Zone Horticultural Insti- 
tute, and Dr. Barbara Phillips and Dr. Art 
Phillips, Museum of Northern Arizona, 
Flagstaff, under contract with the Service, 
have conducted trace element and my- 
corrhizal analyses on the soils at two 
Peebles Navajo cactus sites. (Some seed 
plants develop symbiotic relationships 
with soil fungi so that root structures com- 
posed of both fungal and seed plant tis- 



sues are formed; these are known as 
mycorrhizae.) 

The most striking microelement values 
were low levels of manganese, iron, and 
zinc. These low levels might prevent 
some potential plant competitors from 
establishing themselves in Pediocactus 
habitat. Low phosphorus levels, also char- 
acteristic of the sites, are probably impor- 
tant for the growth of the endomycorrhizae 
(in which fungal tissue actually grows 
within the roots of the higher plant) that 
characterize the roots of P. peeblesianus. 
It is typical to find mycorrhizae in very 
rocky, droughty soil conditions in which 
non-mycorrhizal plants have difficulty sur- 
viving. Mycorrhizae could provide a com- 
petitive edge for the cactus in these soils 
(continued on next page) 

ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from previous page) 

by greatly facilitating the absorption of the 
available water and nutrients by the 
cactus. Other plants might more easily 
compete with the cacti in other areas 
because of more favorable moisture con- 
ditions. 

* * * 

The Kemps ridley sea turtle (Lep- 
idochelys kempii) nesting season started 
late at Rancho Nuevo, Mexico, again this 
year, probably due to cool spring tem- 
peratures. The first turtle did not nest until 
April 21 and an additional 24 turtles 
nested the next day. Richard Byles, proj- 
ect officer for the ridley project, placed 
satellite transmitters on the first two turtles 
encountered and he has been collecting 
data on dive durations, surface durations, 
water temperatures, and locations from 
the turtles since the transmitters were 
deployed. Plans call for an additional 16 
transmitters to be attached to adult ridleys 
by June of this year as part of a year-long 
movement and behavior study. An addi- 
tional study was initiated this year with 
Kemp's ridleys in order to address tag 
loss with the Monel flipper tags currently 
in use. A new tag, the Passive Integrated 
Transponder (PIT) tag, is being implanted 
in the muscle of the left foreflipper of each 
turtle also tagged with a Monel tag. The 
PIT tags are the size of a grain of rice and 
are imbedded in a glass capsule. When 
interrogated by a hand-held reader, they 
emit a unique 10-digit ID code. The 
expected life of a PIT tag is 25 years or 

more. 

* * * 

Region 4 - A cooperative project to 
mark cavity trees of the Endangered red- 
cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) 
on private lands continues to benefit the 
species. Initiated last year, the project is 
being conducted in the towns of Pinehurst 
and Southern Pines, North Carolina. 
These communities contain the largest 
known red-cockaded woodpecker popula- 
tion on private lands, estimated at about 
130 birds. Approximately 600 cavity trees 
have been marked with 5x5-inch alumi- 
num signs portraying the species and 
stating that the trees should not be cut. 
Each sign includes instructions to contact 
the North Carolina Wildlife Resources 
Commission or the local building inspec- 
tor for information. Town planners in Pine- 
hurst and Southern Pines have condi- 
tioned permits to prevent the destruction 
of marked trees. Contacts with land- 
owners have provided a significant public 
relations benefit. Only one landowner did 
not want the trees on his property marked, 
and he was already aware cf the trees 
and did not indicate any adverse feeling 
toward the species. As a result of this 
project's success, the Service hopes to 
secure funding to prepare generic signs 
that could be used on cavity trees through 
the Southeast. Cooperators in the North 



Carolina project include the Service's 
Asheville, North Carolina, Field Office, the 
North Carolina Wildlife Resources Com- 
mission, North Carolina State University, 
and the town planners of Pinehurst and 
Southern Pines. 

The Asheville Field Office and the U.S. 
Forest Service are continuing to monitor 
the Bachman's warbler (Vermivora bach- 
manii) population in Francis Marion Na- 
tional Forest, South Carolina. This area is 
one of the last documented nesting sites 
for the species, which has a 150-year his- 
tory of disappearing from its known hab- 
itat for years at a time. The monitoring, 
which was agreed upon by the two agen- 
cies as part of an earlier formal consulta- 
tion on the species, involves the experi- 
mental cutting and regeneration of a vari- 
ety of different stands within the swamp 
forest. It is hoped that these habitat 
alterations will provide suitable nesting 
conditions for this bird, which was last 
sighted in 1980 in Cuba. The bird is now 
considered by many to be the rarest war- 
bler in North America. 

An overlook and trail facility on the Blue 
Ridge Parkway in North Carolina has 
been designed to avoid a recently located 
population of Heller's blazing star (Liatris 
helleri). Park resource management staff 
and landscape architects cooperated with 
the Fish and Wildlife Service and the 
National Park Service to complete the 
project. Also, permanent monitoring plots 
were established to measure the effects 
of trampling and increased visitor use on 
this species. New trails and visitor facili- 
ties have just been constructed as a result 
of the completion of the last section of the 
Parkway near Grandfather Mountain. 

Region 6 - Both the Service and the 
Wyoming Department of Fish and Game 
are looking optimistically toward a strong 
comeback by the black-footed ferret 
(Mustela nigripes). Last year, the captive 
breeding program at Sybille, Wyoming, 
produced seven kits. The births brought to 
25 the number of ferrets in captivity, but 
one died of cancer in January. Most of the 
15 females have bred this spring, and up 
to 50 kits may be born in captivity in late 
May or early June. Dr. Tom Thorne, 
Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 
cannot provide guarantees, but there is 
great hope based on experience gained 
from last year's success. 

Plans are under way to establish a sec- 
ond captive breeding population this sum- 
mer. Wyoming and the Service advertised 
for different zoos to express an interest in 
providing facilities to house the second 
ferret population. It has been decided that 
establishing a second captive population 
would avoid having "all of our eggs in one 
basket" and would safeguard the species 
from extinction due to disease, fire, or 
some other unexpected catastrophe. Sev- 
eral proposals have been received in 
response to the advertisement, and a 



decision on the site of the second captive 
breeding facility should be made soon. 

With optimism for success of the cap- 
tive breeding effort, the Service, in coop- 
eration with other State and Federal 
agencies, is beginning to identify major 
prairie dog complexes that may be suita- 
ble for reintroduction sites. Through the 
Interstate Working Group, which currently 
represents 9 of the 14 States in the fer- 
ret's historic range, groups are mapping 
prairie dog complexes. Once they are 
mapped, they will be prioritized from a 
biological standpoint as to their suitability 
for ferrets. With good captive reproduc- 
tion, establishment of a wild population 
could be attempted as early as 1991. 
Other reintroductions would follow in suc- 
ceeding years. The Recovery Plan identi- 
fies the need for 10 widely distributed 
populations. 

The final recovery plan for the North 
Park phacelia (Phacelia formosula) has 
been printed and distributed. There are 
nine known locations of this plant, which 
is only found in Jackson County, Colo- 
rado. Threats to its survival include off- 
road vehicle activity; livestock grazing, 
trampling, and trailing; and coal, oil, and 
gas development. The plan calls for 
protection of existing populations and re- 
search on the species' habitat and biol- 
ogy. Recovery plans can be purchased 
from the Fisn and Wildlife Reference 
Service, 601 1 Executive Boulevard, Rock- 
ville, Maryland 20852 (telephone toll-free 
at 800/582-3421). 

A study of the Uncompahgre fritillary 
butterfly (Boloria acrocnema) was con- 
ducted in 1987, but a second year of stud- 
ies must be conducted before the status 
of the species can be determined. The 
study will be jointly funded by the Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, and 
Bureau of Land Management. After the 
results of the second year of study are 
known, these agencies will work together 
to develop conservation measures for the 
species. It is currently known to inhabit a 
small number of alpine meadows in Colo- 
rado. 

Region 8 - The Florida Cooperative 
Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the 
National Ecology Research Center are 
involved in an interagency study of the 
ecology of West Indian manatees (7/7- 
chechus manatus) in the Cumberland 
Sound region of Georgia. One purpose of 
this study is to determine the potential 
effects on manatees of dredging in the 
Sound. This information is needed to miti- 
gate human-caused manatee deaths 
throughout the manatee's summer range. 
Through radio telemetry, manatees are 
studied during the spring and summer 
when they are present in the Cumberland 
Sound region. Time spent in the region by 
tagged manatees, areas of greatest use, 
(continued on page 12) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



11 



Regional News 

(continued from page 1 1) 

and manatee behavior (particularly feed- 
ing behavior) are being noted. 

In 1987, four radio-tagged manatees 
were studied in Cumberland Sound. Two 
had been tagged in March at Fernandina 
Beach in Nassau County, Florida, and two 
that were radio-tagged in Brevard County, 
Florida, migrated to Cumberland Sound in 
May. Tagged manatees were present in 
the region throughout the spring and sum- 
mer at various times. Several areas were 
repeatedly used by tagged as well as 
untagged manatees. They were observed 
to feed at high tide on Spartina growing at 
the water's edge. As part of the study, 
another manatee was radio-tagged Feb- 
ruary 25 at Fernandina Beach. 

Biologists from the Patuxent Wildlife 
Research Center's Hawaii Research Sta- 
tion assisted State personnel in a com- 
prehensive nonbreeding-season popula- 
tion survey of the Endangered palila (Lox- 
ioides bailleui) on February 2-4, 1988. 
The evaluation was conducted on the 
wooded slopes of Mauna Kea, the last 
remaining habitat of this bird. A total of 
219 palila were recorded at 65 of 150 sta- 
tions censused on 10 transects. The pop- 
ulation was estimated to be 4,350 birds 
(with a 95 percent confidence range of 
3,199 to 5,517 birds). This latest estimate 
reflects a 26 percent increase over the 
July 1987 count. The increasing trend 
since 1985 is encouraging; however, the 
palila is still restricted to only a small por- 
tion of the apparently suitable habitat on 
Mauna Kea. 

In February, Hawaii Research Station 
staff biologists completed an aviary study 
to quantify potential behavioral effects of 
radio telemetry transmitters on the palila. 
Results indicated that the behavior of pal- 
ilas with "placebo" transmitters was not 



BOX SCORE OF U.S. LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 

ENDANGERED THREATENED SPECIES 

Category U.S. U.S. & Foreign U.S. U.S. & Foreign SPECIES* WITH 

Only Foreign Only Only Foreign Only TOTAL PLANS 



Mammals 


28 


19 


240 


3 


3 


23 


316 


25 


Birds 


61 


15 


145 


7 


3 





231 


59 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 


14 


4 


14 


106 


22 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 








17 


5 


Fishes 


41 


2 


11. 


25 


6 





85 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 








9 


7 


Clams 


29 





2 











31 


22 


Crustaceans 


5 








1 








6 


21 


Insects 


8 








7 








15 


12 


Plants 


140 


6 


1 


33 


3 


2 


185 


70 


TOTAL 


328 


49 


467 


99 


19 


39 


1001 


269** 



Total U.S. Endangered 377 
Total U.S. Threatened 118 



Total U.S. Listed 



495 



Recovery Plans approved: 229 
Species currently proposed for listing: 22 animals 

26 plants 



'Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened are 
tallied twice. Those species are: the leopard, gray wolf, grizzly bear, bald eagle, piping plover, 
roseate tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive Ridley sea turtle. For the purposes 
of the Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, subspecies, or 
distinct vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera or even families. 

"More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 
April 30, 1988 36 plants 



different from that of control birds without 
transmitters. Following the aviary study, a 
full-scale radio telemetry study on free- 
ranging palilas began on February 22 to 
determine palila habitat selection and use, 



range. Ten adult palilas (five males, three 
females, two of unknown sex) have since 
been mist-netted, weighed, measured, 
banded, and fitted with operational radio 
transmitters weighing approximately 1.3 



daily movement patterns, and home grams. 



May 1988 



Vol. XIII No. 5 



US 



FIRST CLASS 
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



12 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 5 (1988) 



June-July 1988 



Vol. XIII Nos. 6-7 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20240 



Protection Extended to Three Plants Listing Proposal is 



Carla W. Corin 

Division of Endangered Species and Habitat Conservation 
Washington, D.C. 



Withdrawn 



During June 1988, three plants were 
added to the Federal list of Endangered 
and Threatened species. Protection under 
the Endangered Species Act is now avail- 
able to the following: 

Daphnopsis hellerana 

This Puerto Rican plant, an evergreen 
shrub or small tree, is so rare that it has 
no common name. The species is found 
near the San Juan metropolitan area in 
only two populations of about seven 
plants each. Two other historical popula- 
tions have been lost to urbanization, lime- 
stone quarrying, land clearing, and other 
human activities. One of the known sites, 
although on Commonwealth (Land Au- 
thority) land, is subject to construction and 
quarrying activities. The other is on land 
leased from the National Institutes of 
Health by the University of Puerto Rico 
Medical School for a primate research 
center. Both the Land Authority and the 
primate research center have expressed 
a willingness to cooperate in the protec- 
tion of the plant. Daphnopsis hellerana 
was proposed for listing as an Endan- 
gered species in the July 6, 1987, Federal 
Register (see summary in BULLETIN Vol. 
XII No. 8), and the final rule was pub- 
lished June 23, 1988. 

Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys 
acaulis var. glabra) 

This herbaceous perennial with attrac- 
tive yellow flowers is known from only a 
few sites on Manitoulin Island and the 
Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada, and 
from scattered locations over 4 square 
miles of private land on the Marblehead 
Peninsula in Ottawa County, Ohio. The 
survival of the Ohio population is threat- 
ened by limestone quarrying and natural 
succession to woody growth over its open 
prairie habitat. Efforts are under way by 
the Ohio Department of Natural Re- 
sources to acquire one of the Marblehead 
Peninsula sites populations to provide 
protection against ongoing quarrying 
activities. The Lakeside daisy was pro- 
posed for listing as Threatened on August 
19, 1987 (summary in BULLETIN Vol. XII 
No. 9), and the final listing rule was pub- 
lished on June 23, 1988. 



Cumberland Sandwort 
(Arenaria cumberlandensis) 

Unlike most species of the genus 
Arenaria, which grow in hot, dry, sunny 
environments, this herbaceous perennial 
requires cool, moist, shady sites that are 
found on sandstone rock faces in Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. Its four Tennessee 
sites on public and private land are being 
affected by hikers and other recreation- 
ists, logging, and people excavating for 
Indian artifacts. The Kentucky site in 
Daniel Boone National Forest is subject to 
the same threats. 

The Cumberland sandwort is listed by 
the State of Tennessee as endangered, 
and as such is provided some protection. 
Although it is listed as endangered on 
Kentucky's unofficial list, it is provided no 
protection by that State. Federal listing as 
an Endangered species was proposed on 
July 6, 1987 (see BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 
8), and the final rule was published on 
June 23,1988. 



The Fish and Wildlife Service published 
a notice in the June 23, 1988, Federal 
Register withdrawing its November 4, 
1987, proposal to list the Miami palmetto 
(Sabal miamiensis), a small palm 
restricted to Dade County, Florida, as an 
Endangered species. Information re- 
ceived subsequent to the proposal indi- 
cates that the characteristics used to 
separate Sabal miamiensis as a distinct 
species fall within the range of variation 
found in populations of the scrub palmetto 
(Sabal etonia), a widespread species. 
The Service believes that this information 
is substantial enough to place the tax- 
onomic validity of Sabal miamiensis into 
doubt. 

Further publications on Sabal system- 
atics are expected. In the event that the 
taxonomic disagreement about Sabal 
miamiensis is resolved in favor of it being 
a distinct species or variety, the Service 
will consider proposing it again for listing. 




The population of black-tooted ferrets at Wyoming's breeding facility has grown to 
58 animals. Some of this year's largest litters were produced by ferret kits born just 
last year (above). For more news on these animals, see Regional News, page 6. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 




Regional endangered species 
staffers have reported the follow- 
ing news from May and June: 

Region 1 — Regional personnel partici- 
pated in two training sessions on endan- 



gered species issues in Oregon for the 
U.S. Forest Service. Section 7 consulta- 
tion and Oregon's listed species were two 
subjects presented to approximately 100 
Forest Service staffers (predominantly 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ralph O. Morgenweck 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Chief, 

Kenneth B. Stansell, Deputy Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshall P. Jones, Chief, 

Office of Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 

(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Region 1, Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 97232 
(503-231-6118); Rolf L. Wallenstrom, 
Regional Director; David F. Riley, Assist- 
ant Regional Director; Wayne S. White, 
Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
87103 (505-766-2321); Michael J. Spear, 
Regional Director; Conrad A. Fjetland, 
Assistant Regional Director; James 
Johnson, Endangered Species Special- 
ist. 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regions 

Region 1; California. Hawaii. Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern 
Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Trust Territories Region 2: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 
3: Illinois. Indiana, Iowa. Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, 
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin 
Islands Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware. District of Columbia. Maine. Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey. New York, Pennsylvania. Rhode Island, Vermont. Virginia and West Virginia Region 6: Colorado. Kansas, Mon- 
tana. Nebraska. North Dakota. South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research and Develop- 
ment nationwide. 

The ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



biologists, but also foresters and land 
managers). 

Fish and Wildlife Service representa- 
tives appeared before the California Fish 
and Game Commission in May to present 
the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) 
experimental release proposal and to 
address any concerns the Commissioners 
might have. No opposition was voiced by 
the public or the Commissioners. The 
Commission voted unanimously in favor 
of the project and amended the current 
Memorandum of Understanding on con- 
dors to include the experimental release. 

On May 20, 1988, the Service's Port- 
land Regional Director signed a Finding 
Of No Significant Impact and a decision 
document on the experimental Andean 
condor release. This represents the final 
go-ahead for the 2-year project that will 
involve the release, study, and recapture 
of up to 20 young Andean condors in 
Ventura County as a means of testing 
potential release sites and techniques that 
can be used in the eventual reestablish- 
ment of California condors (Gymnogyps 
californianus) in their native range. Up to 
10 young Andean condors are scheduled 
for release this August at the Hopper 
Mountain National Wildlife Refuge and 
Sespe Condor Sanctuary. 

Seventy five percent of the California 
least terns (Sterna antillarum browni) 
nesting in the three Orange County colo- 
nies were killed recently in a rash of pre- 
dation. The major culprit is the red fox 
(Vulpes vulpes). Trapping efforts on Seal 
Beach National Wildlife Refuge have not 
kept up with the influx of foxes, although 
140 had been trapped and removed as of 
mid-June. 

The Service's Great Basin Complex in 
Reno, Nevada, is participating in the 1988 
census of snowy plovers (Charadrius 
alexandrinus tenuirostrls) in the western 
States. The census is being coordinated 
by the Oregon Department of Fish and 
Wildlife. Volunteers are being used to sur- 
vey key nesting areas of this bird, which is 
a category 2 candidate for a future listing 
proposal. 

Dr. John Hafernik, an entomology pro- 
fessor at San Francisco State University, 
recently reported that Bay checkerspot 
butterflies (Euphydryas editha bayensis) 
have been rediscovered at a historical 
collection locality near Mt. Diablo in Con- 
tra Costa County, California. This popula- 
tion was thought to have been extirpated 
by the last severe drought. The County 
plans to construct a small water storage 
reservoir in the watershed within which 
these butterflies occur. 

A joint Federal/State/local government 
task force has been established to focus 
on Kern County (San Joaquin Valley), 
California, endangered species issues. 

(continued on page 3) 
ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); James 
C. Gritman, Regional Director; Gerald R. 
Lowry, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M. Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, Dep- 
uty Assistant Regional Director and Act- 
ing Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Ronald E. Lambertson, Regional 
Director; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant 
Regional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center, Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional 
Director; Robert E. Jacobsen, Assistant 
Regional Director; Larry Shanks, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, 
AK 99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. 
Stieglitz, Regional Director; Rowan 
Gould, Assistant Regional Director; Ron 
Garrett, Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Development 
nationwide), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; Bet- 
tina Sparrowe, Endangered Species 
Specialist (202- 653-8762). 



Regional News 

(continued from page 2) 

The task force met in Bakersfield, Califor- 
nia, on April 21, 1988, to define objec- 
tives. The primary objective is to develop 
a plan to conserve listed species (State 
and Federal) and high priority listing can- 
didates in conjunction with proposed 
development in the County. The mood of 
the task force members was optimistic, 
even though they realized the difficulty of 
the task. The planning area encompasses 
the known range of the blunt-nosed leop- 
ard lizard (Gambelia silus), San Joaquin 
kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), and giant 
kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). Listed 
species have been declining in Califor- 
nia's San Joaquin Valley due to agri- 
cultural development, urban expansion, 
and oil and gas production. The task force 
hopes to address these and other threats. 

The Service was informed by Dr. 
Michael Hadfield of the University of 
Hawaii's Department of Zoology that 80 
percent of one adult population of the 
Endangered Oahu tree snail (Achatinella 
sp.) was lost recently to rat (Rattus sp.) 
predation. This particular population had 
been studied for 5 years and had been 
considered relatively stable. The reasons 
for the increase in rat predation are not 
known. 

The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii 
closed escrow on the purchase of the 
400-acre Sutton parcel at Hakalau Forest 
National Wildlife Refuge on April 13, 
1988. Once subdivisions are completed 
next month, the Service will purchase 100 
percent interest in the parcel from The 
Nature Conservancy for the appraised 
value of $360,000. The refuge protects 
important habitat for some of Hawaii's 
endangered forest birds. 



A meeting was held among Regions 1 
and 2 of the Service, the California 
Department of Fish and Game, and the 
Bureau of Land Management concerning 
the potential listing of the flat-tailed 
horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcalli). It was 
decided that Region 1 would take the lead 
because the threats there are better docu- 
mented. A remaining question is the sta- 
tus of the animal in Mexico. The California 
Department of Fish and Game supports 
the listing, and the Bureau of Land Man- 
agement does not oppose it. 

Region 1 staffers assisted the California 
Departments of Transportation and Fish 
and Game in the design of a water deliv- 
ery system and management plan for 
improving habitat for the Endangered 
Santa Cruz long-toed salamander 
(Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum) at 
Valencia Lagoon in Santa Cruz County. A 
nearby well will provide a dependable 
water supply to the lagoon, especially 
important during drought years. This may 
help to attract salamanders away from an 
adjacent water channel that requires 
periodic sediment removal. 

As part of a compensation package for 
the destruction of valley elderberry long- 
horn beetle {Desmocerus californicus 
dimorphus) habitat by the Gold River 
housing project, 10 acres of land adjacent 
to the development in the American River 
Parkway near Sacramento, California, are 
being revegetated with elderberry trees. 
The revegetation effort, which consists of 
transplanting elderberry bushes to restor- 
able riparian sites within the Parkway, 
began in February 1988. A visit to the site 
on April 26 revealed that elderberry long- 
horn beetles had emerged recently from 
the transplanted trees. One beetle had 
been observed on the site earlier that day 
by the biological consultant monitoring the 
project. We hope to determine the extent 
to which it is possible to successfully 



transplant elderberry trees and have bee- 
tles survive inside the transplants. 
Although these preliminary observations 
are encouraging, it is too early to predict 
how many of the transplanted trees will 
ultimately survive and provide long-term 
habitat for the beetle. We also do not 
know the reproductive or emergence suc- 
cess of beetles inhabiting the transplanted 
trees. 

Region 2 — Seventeen members of the 
Arizona Native Plant Society helped Serv- 
ice biologists search for Agave parviflora 
ssp. parviflora, a category 1 listing candi- 
date, on the Buenos Aires National Wild- 
life Refuge in southern Arizona. Three 
previously unknown populations of this 
plant were found within the Refuge 
boundaries and another population was 
found on Coronado National Forest lands 
just outside the Refuge. The presence of 
this attractive agave on Refuge lands 
means that this species will be protected 
on the western edge of its range. 

Permanent monitoring plots were 
established this spring for the endangered 
Cochise pincushion cactus (Coryphantha 
robbinsorum) and two category 1 listing 
candidates, the sentry milk-vetch 
(Astragalus cremnophylax var. crem- 
nophylax) and acuna cactus (Neolloydia 
erectocentra var. acunensis). The 
Cochise pincushion cactus is threatened 
by collecting and habitat degradation. The 
single population of the sentry milk vetch 
numbers fewer than 500 plants and 
occurs on the South Rim of the Grand 
Canyon where it is threatened by tram- 
pling. The acuna cactus appears to be 
declining due to unknown causes, and 
two of the three known populations are 
now being monitored. 

(continued on page 4) 



Chinese River Dolphin Proposed for Listing Protection 



In response to a petition from the Cen- 
ter for Environmental Education, the 
National Marine Fisheries Service 
(NMFS) proposed May 18, 1988, to list 
the Chinese river dolphin (Lipotes 
vexillifer) as Endangered. According to 
the petition, this dolphin is found primarily 
in the lower and middle sections of the 
Chang Jiang (Yangzte) River in the east 
central region of mainland China. 

The NMFS, which has responsibility 
under the Endangered Species Act for 
most rare marine animals, had deter- 
mined that the petition presented substan- 
tial scientific information and had solicited 
comments concerning the status of the 
Chinese river dolphin. Comments were 



Gloria Thompson 
National Marine Fisheries Service 

received from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service (FWS) and Chen Peixun of the 
Institute of Hydrobiology in the People's 
Republic of China. Both favored listing the 
species as Endangered. A status review 
was also conducted by Robert L. 
Brownell, Jr., (FWS) and William Perrin 
and Doug DeMaster (NMFS). 

The status review indicates that the 
population size has declined drastically 
since the species was originally 
described. Between 1979 and 1981, it 
was determined that fewer than 400 
occurred in the middle and lower reaches 
of the Chang Jiang River. The total world 
population currently consists of an esti- 
mated 300 individuals, of which about 100 



occur in the lower reaches of the river. 
The species is listed on Appendix I of the 
Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and 
Flora (CITES) and is classified as endan- 
gered on the International Union for the 
Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources (IUCN) 1986 Red List of 
Threatened Animals. Factors relevant to 
the dolphin's population decline are (1) 
reduction in prey availability resulting from 
overfishing, pollution, and loss of nursery 
areas for migratory fish species and (2) 
explosions associated with river con- 
struction projects and illegal fishing. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 3) 

Arizona supports a unique desert popu- 
lation of nesting bald eagles (Haliaeetus 
leucocephalus), and the Service coordi- 
nates the equally unique Arizona Bald 
Eagle Nest Watch Program to monitor the 
birds during their breeding season. This 
year, 19 nest watchers monitored 20 
active nests from February to June for 
both human and natural disturbances that 
threatened successful fledging of the 
nestlings. Fortunately, the season was a 
big success with a record 24 fledglings, 2 
more than the previous high. Nest 
watchers played a vital role in establishing 
this new high by rescuing three nestlings 
that fell from their nests before they were 
ready to fly. In each case, nest watchers 
were able to place the young eagles back 
into their nests unharmed. 

The U.S. recovery team for the whoop- 
ing crane (Grus americana) approved 
draft criteria for establishing a captive 
whooping crane flock within Canada. All 
birds and eggs will remain the property of 
the Canadian and U.S. Governments, 
which will be responsible for use or dis- 
position of the birds. The site must be 
funded by non-Federal money. Groups 
that might be interested in housing the 
flock will be canvassed and invited to 
apply. 

Objectives of the facility will be to 
increase the numbers of birds and eggs 
for release into the wild, reduce the 
chance of an epizootic destroying the 
captive breeding program, afford Cana- 
dians an opportunity to view whooping 
cranes, and allow Canada to participate 
more actively in the captive propagation 
program. The goal is to have the first 
whooping crane on site by 1990. 

Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in 
Texas has completed a study of whooping 
crane habitat losses along the Gulf Intra- 
coastal Waterway. The study was initiated 
because of concern about steady erosion 
of marshes along the Waterway. The ero- 
sion is a consequence of: (1) wave action 
caused by boat wakes; (2) wave action 
due to wind; (3) sloughing from the banks 
due to underwater suction after barges 
pass; and (4) sloughing due to mainte- 
nance dredging, which steepens the bot- 
tom gradient. 

Measurements from aerial photographs 
taken since 1930 documented the 
changes caused by construction and 
maintenance of the Waterway. In the 1 1 .9 
miles of the Waterway within the Aransas 
Refuge, 1,485 acres of whooping crane 
habitat have been degraded or destroyed. 
An estimated 335 acres of crane habitat 
have been created or enhanced by the 
placement of dredged material, resulting 
in a net loss of 1,150 acres. Measure- 
ments along fixed land points indicate an 
annual loss of 3 feet of tidal marsh adja- 



cent to the Waterway. This problem is 
being discussed with the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers. 

Surveys by Canadian Wildlife Service 
biologists in May located 30 whooping 
crane nests within Wood Buffalo National 
Park, Northwest Territories, Canada. 
Twenty-seven eggs were picked up in late 
May and a single viable egg was left in 
each visited nest. The 27 transferred eggs 
are a new record. Dr. Rod Drewien was 
given 12 viable eggs for cross-fostering in 
sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) nests at 
Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge in 
Idaho because he believed the habitat 
would support that number despite the 
drought. Ten of the 12 hatched, one was 
eaten by a predator, and the embryo in 
the other egg died. Fifteen of the Wood 
Buffalo Park eggs, nine of them viable 
and six either infertile or containing dead 
embryos, were transferred to the Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Mary- 
land, where the nine good eggs hatched. 
The six unhatched eggs will be tested for 
environmental contaminants. 

Welder Flats, which provides coastal 
habitat for 11 to 13 wintering whooping 
cranes, is one of the first areas protected 
under the new Texas Coastal Preserve 
System. The system is designed to pro- 
tect fragile biological communities. The 
1,500-acre Welder Flats Unit contains 
mud flats and shallow-water feeding hab- 
itat across San Antonio Bay from Aransas 
National Wildlife Refuge. The Welder 
Flats property is owned by the Texas 
General Land Office and leased to the 
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department for 
management within the system. 

A report on the status of the Mexican 
garter snake (Thamnophis eques mega- 
lops) and the narrow-headed garter snake 
(Thamnophis rufipunctatus rufipunctatus) 
in Arizona was completed recently for the 
Service by the Arizona Game and Fish 
Department. The report documents 
declines in both species and points out 
threats from bullfrog and exotic fish pre- 
dation; human killing of snakes; and hab- 
itat damage resulting from overgrazing, 
water diversion, and general watershed 
degradation. Of 79 localities sampled, the 
Mexican garter snake was found in 21 
and the narrow-headed garter snake was 
found in only 10. 

Neither subspecies is restricted to Ari- 
zona; T. r. rufipunctatus also occurs in 
southwestern New Mexico, while T. e. 
megalops has one known locality in 
southwestern New Mexico and others in 
Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. Because 
more information is needed on the status 
and distribution of both snakes, they will 
be retained as category 2 listing candi- 
dates. 

An attempt at captive propagation of 
Gila trout (Salmo gilae) began recently 



with the transfer of 36 adult fish and 1 ,800 
eggs from the wild to Mescalero National 
Fish Hatchery in New Mexico. The fish 
came from Main Diamond Creek in the 
Aldo Leopold Wilderness and the eggs 
came from McKnight Creek in the Gila 
National Forest. Hatchery Manager Dean 
Chase developed a unique "cookie jar" 
egg incubation system which has proven 
very successful in hatching the eggs and 
starting the fry on feed. From approx- 
imately 2,300 eggs he expects to obtain 
at least 1,500 "swim-up" fry. The goals of 
the Gila trout program are to (1) develop 
hatchery culture techniques for the spe- 
cies, (2) build a captive brood stock, and 
(3) produce enough offspring for 
reintroduction in native habitat. 

Region 3 — Peregrine falcon (Falco 
peregrinus) reintroduction efforts in the 
midwest are progressing toward estab- 
lishment of a wild, self-sustaining popula- 
tion. Four pairs of peregrines in 
Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota; 
Toledo, Ohio; and Chicago, Illinois, are 
known to have hatched at least 10 chicks. 
Another two pairs are nesting on the 
Wisconsin cliffs along the Mississippi 
River and are believed to be incubating 
eggs. Four additional pairs, all judged too 
young to successfully nest this year, are 
defending territories. Two of these pairs 
are at urban sites and the others are at 
natural cliff sites. Prospects are good for 
some of these four pairs to produce 
chicks next year. Meanwhile, hacking 
efforts are continuing; there are plans to 
release 80 to 100 young peregrines in 
Region 3 this year. A mix of urban and 
"natural" hack sites will be used, as well 
as one site on the wall of an abandoned 
iron mine pit in northern Minnesota. 

The peregrine reintroduction program in 
Region 3 is a highly coordinated effort 
currently involving six States, three Fed- 
eral agencies, the University of Min- 
nesota, The Nature Conservancy, the 
Chicago Peregrine Release, and the St. 
Louis Peregrine Restoration Project. Drs. 
Patrick Redig and Harrison Tordoff have 
taken the lead in keeping the program 
running smoothly. 

As of June 1 , the Service knew of eight 
populations of an Endangered plant, the 
running buffalo clover (Trifolium 
stoloniferum). Three are in Indiana, one is 
in Kentucky, three are in Ohio, and one is 
in West Virginia. Historically, this plant 
was known to occupy a range extending 
from Kansas into West Virginia. A recently 
completed survey funded by the Service 
in Indiana revealed the three populations 
there. Additional Service-funded surveys 
are proceeding in Ohio and Illinois, and a 
fourth will soon commence in Missouri. 
The draft recovery plan calls for consider- 
ing the species for reclassification to 
Threatened status when 30 secure, self- 
sustaining populations are known. When 

(continued on page 5) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 



The West Indian (Florida) manatee 
(Trichechus manatus) was in the spotlight 
recently as two of these critically endan- 
gered marine mammals were set free on 
the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge 
and another pair was featured in a new 
exhibit at Walt Disney World's Living Seas 
in Epcot Center. 

Magoo and Hillary were released on the 
Merritt Island Refuge on June 7 after 
being rehabilitated at Sea World of 
Orlando. Magoo, a 722-pound male man- 
atee, had spent more than 5 years 
recuperating from what appeared to be 
chemical burns received in a drainage 
canal, and Hillary, an 880-pound female, 
was rescued in February 1988 after 
becoming entangled in a shrimp net. At 



Manatees on the Move 

Glenn Carowan, Manatee Coordinator 
Jacksonville, Florida, Field Office 

their release site in the Banana River, 
both manatees were equipped with radio 
transmitters to assist Fish and Wildlife 
Service researchers in tracking their 
movements and in determining their reac- 
climation to the natural environment. As of 
June 18, both manatees were still doing 
well, and had joined other wild manatees. 
At Disney World's Epcot Center, Jean 
Pierre and Lorelei were relocated on June 
1 to a 200,000-gallon undersea environ- 
ment at the Living Seas exhibit. The 
exhibit was designed to recreate condi- 
tions identical to the underwater world at 
Homosassa Springs, Florida, where the 
two manatees had been held since 1986 
following their relocation from Miami Sea- 
quarium. Lorelei, the 13-year-old, 815- 



pound female, was the first manatee con- 
ceived and born in captivity. Jean Pierre 
was rescued as an orphaned calf in 1980. 
Since neither manatee could be released 
to the wild after such extended periods of 
captivity, the Service and the Florida 
Department of Natural Resources en- 
dorsed placing them in the exhibit at Liv- 
ing Seas. This exhibition will provide an 
opportunity for in-depth behavioral and life 
history studies, and will significantly bene- 
fit public awareness efforts. It is hoped 
that exposing the manatees to the 8 to 10 
million international tourists who annually 
visit the attraction will promote a greater 
desire to protect manatees in the United 
States and other parts of the world. 




Walt Disney World guests view West Indian manatees close-up at Epcot Center in a 200,000-gallon saltwater enclosure 
constructed specially for the rare mammals. Two manatees have a new home at the Living Seas as part of a research 
facility that will also provide visitors information about these endangered animals. 



Regional News 

(continued from page 4) 



the species was listed in June 1987 as 
Endangered, it was known to survive at 
only one site in the wild, and the popula- 
tion contained only 18 plants. The new 
findings on the running buffalo clover are 
a fine example of the importance of Fed- 
eral listing in spurring survey and protec- 
tion efforts for little-known species. 



Region 4 — The southern Appalachian 
Mountains are experiencing better than 
expected success in peregrine falcon res- 
toration efforts. Peregrine releases in the 
region began in 1984. A model based on 
past data had predicted that first pair 
establishment would take place in 1988 
and first reproduction would occur in 
1989. However, results ran 2 years ahead 
of predictions, with first pair establishment 
in 1986 and first reproduction in 1987. 

Five pairs of birds, all in North Carolina, 
have already been confirmed this year; 
reports of two additional pairs and several 



single birds also have been received. 
Since the model predicted only one pair in 
1988, the results are five to seven times 
what had been expected by this point. 
The model predicted 20 breeding pairs by 
1994 and 26 breeding pairs by 1996. It 
seems likely that these goals also will be 
achieved sooner than expected. This suc- 
cess is probably attributed to greater sur- 
vival of peregrines from fledging to one 
year of age; the model had assumed only 
45 percent survival the first year. The 
greater survival is believed to be at least 
(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 5) 

partially the result of benefits gained from 
experiences in other Regions. 

Tennessee Valley Authority biologists 
found a freshly-dead, 4-year-old speci- 
men of the Endangered tan riffle shell 
mussel (Epioblasma walkeri) in an area of 
the Duck River in west central Tennessee 
that is being considered for impoundment 
by the Columbia Dam. This mussel, one 
of the most endangered of the federally 
listed mussels, is known to survive in only 
two other rivers — the Middle Fork 
Holston River and the Clinch River, both 
in southwestern Virginia. Both rivers con- 
tain only small populations. The Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority will conduct 
further surveys of the Duck River. 

The Asheville, North Carolina, Field 
Office has negotiated a cooperative 
agreement with the Arkansas Game and 
Fish Commission for the production of a 
booklet on the bats of the eastern United 
States. The booklet will follow the format 
of "The Bats of Arkansas: A Valuable 
Resource," written by Dr. M. J. Harvey, 
which is produced and distributed by the 
Commission. The new booklet will expand 
on the earlier publication, covering all bats 
found in the eastern United States. The 
four federally listed endangered bats 
found in the east and the four eastern 
bats that are currently candidates for 
addition to the Federal list will be given 
special emphasis. The booklet will include 
color photographs of most of the eastern 
bats and brief summaries of their life his- 
tories. The status, natural values, and 
ecological roles of these unique flying 
mammals also will be discussed. 

Human misunderstanding and fear of 
bats have been a significant factor in their 
decline in the United States. Informational 
publications such as this will assist in 
alleviating this fear and misunderstanding. 
Funds for this publication are being 
provided from Region 4s prelisting recov- 
ery program. Region 3 is also contributing 
funds to purchase copies of this publica- 
tion, which is scheduled for distribution by 
July 1989. 

The small-anthered bittercress (Car- 
damine micranthera), a plant historically 
known from only 2 counties in North Car- 
olina and presumed extinct for 3 decades, 
was recently rediscovered in Stokes 
County, North Carolina. Subsequent 
searches of remaining suitable habitat by 
personnel of the Asheville Office and the 
North Carolina Natural Heritage Program 
resulted in the location of two additional 
sites. All three of the existing populations 
are small (one consists of three plants) 
and are vulnerable to disruption of the 
fragile streamside seepage habitat they 
occupy. The Asheville Office is preparing 



a proposal to list the species as Endan- 
gered. 

Region 5 — In early May, non-game 
biologists with the West Virginia Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources checking 
squirrel boxes in West Virginia found 
seven Endangered northern flying squir- 
rels (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in a 
single nest box. The animals were appar- 
ently all adults of both sexes. The reasons 
for their aggregation at this time of year 
are unknown. 

A study is being conducted in West Vir- 
ginia this summer to determine the 
impacts of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) 
control on Endangered Virginia big-eared 
bats (Plecotus towndsendii virginianus). 
The concern is not that the control 
methods would affect the bats directly, but 
that they could decrease the bats' food 
supply (primarily moths) at a time of max- 
imum energy demand for the bats, such 
as when females are nursing their young. 
Researchers from West Virginia Univer- 
sity are collecting guano samples from the 
bats and are sampling insects from 
treated and untreated areas to determine 
which "non-target" moth species, if any, 
are decreasing in association with gypsy 
moth control efforts, and whether these 
moths figure importantly in the bats' diet. 

Recent observations of two pairs of 
Threatened piping plovers (Charadrius 
melodus) and their chicks on the Dela- 
ware coast revealed that these birds do 
not remain in the immediate vicinity of 
their nests after hatching. Chicks are 
capable of rapid movement and were 
seen feeding in dune areas more than 
900 feet north and south of their original 
nest location within 2 days of hatching. 
Unfortunately, chick mortality was high. 
Within 10 days of hatching, only one of 
seven chicks remained alive. Some 
chicks disappeared overnight and likely 
were victims of predation. The deaths of 
others could be directly or indirectly 
attributed to the impacts of heavy human 
and vehicular use of the birds' preferred 
feeding areas. 

A recovery meeting was held this spring 
at Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife 
Refuge to begin development of a recov- 
ery plan for the Threatened Dismal 
Swamp southeastern shrew {Sorex long- 
irostris fisheri). The plan will be written to 
be consistent with refuge management 
objectives. It is expected that refuge man- 
agement practices will be of key impor- 
tance in recovering this shrew. 

Another recovery planning session was 
held this spring at Blacksburg, Virginia, for 
the Endangered Peter's Mountain mallow 
{lliamna corei). Some recovery work has 
already been carried out by the State of 
Virginia, in cooperation with researchers 
at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State 



University, using funds provided by the 
Service under Section 6 of the Endan- 
gered Species Act. Most of this work con- 
centrated on keeping the small handful of 
plants alive through last year's drought 
and determining the conditions needed for 
seed production and germination. 

The Maryland Heritage Program will 
conduct studies this summer, also using 
Section 6 funds, on the status and habitat 
requirements of the harperella (Ptilimnium 
nodosum), which was proposed in Febru- 
ary 1988 for listing as Endangered (see 
proposal summary in BULLETIN Vol. XIII 
No. 3). In another project, the Maryland 
Heritage Program will study management 
and transplant feasibility for Canby's drop- 
wort (Oxy polls canbyi), a plant listed in 
1986 as Endangered. 

A study will be conducted this summer 
to review the taxonomy of two listing can- 
didates in the genus Bacopa that grow in 
freshwater tidal habitats in Virginia. This 
research, which is being conducted with 
prelisting recovery funds, will determine 
whether or not the plants are distinct taxa. 
If they are, these plants will very likely 
warrant listing proposals. 

Region 6 — As of June 28, 13 of the 15 
female black-footed ferrets (Mustela 
nigripes) at Wyoming's captive breeding 
facility had produced litters. Some of the 
largest litters were produced by ferrets 
born just last year. There are now 34 kits 
at the facility, giving us a total population 
of 58 ferrets. As mentioned in last month's 
BULLETIN (Vol. XIII No. 5), there is con- 
siderable concern about having all of the 
known ferrets in one location. Region 6's 
Chief of Endangered Species and 
Environmental Contaminants, along with 
two people from the Wyoming Game and 
Fish Department, recently toured three 
zoos (in Minneapolis, Minnesota; Omaha, 
Nebraska; and Washington, D.C.) that 
had submitted proposals to provide facili- 
ties for housing and breeding the ferret. A 
determination will be made soon as to the 
location of the new facility. 

The people of Chevron Corporation 
recently donated $10,000 to the Univer- 
sity of Wyoming to support research 
related to reintroduction of the black- 
footed ferret. Chevron also contributed 
$5,000 last year to assist in the captive 
breeding effort. 

The Service's Grand Island, Nebraska, 
Field Office has been involved in an 
active public information program regard- 
ing the interior populations of the least 
tern (Sterna antillarum) and piping plover. 
It is working with the Service's Law 
Enforcement Division, Nebraska Game 
and Park Commission's Law Enforcement 
Division, National Audubon Society, 
Sierra Club, and Platte River Whooping 
Crane Trust to protect these species dur- 



(continued on page 7) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 






Piloting a New Course 



Michael Sweet 
Missouri Department of Conservation 



In September 1986, two teenage boys 
decided to explore an inactive iron ore 
mine at Pilot Knob Hill near Arcadia, 
Missouri. While others had passed 
through this dangerous rite of boyhood 
without serious injury, these youths were 
not as lucky and they suffered a nearly 
fatal accident. The episode, however, had 
one positive result: the ultimate protection 
of a major hibernaculum for an Endan- 
gered bat. 

As they headed out toward one of the 
13 entrances, called the "Devil's Icebox," 
a wall collapsed and trapped one of the 
boys, crushing both of his legs. After 19 
hours, rescue workers extracted him from 
the rubble using hydraulic jacks and air 
bags. The potential for another collapse 
was so great that the workers left behind 
the equipment, which was worth more 
than $50,000. Another boy was appre- 
hended attempting to liberate the equip- 
ment the following week. 

The injury and obvious potential for 
future accidents led many local citizens to 
demand the closure of all of the mine 
entrances. This sentiment increased as 
residents remembered that the hilltop was 
an attractive vantage point for viewing a 
Civil War battle reenactment in the valley 
below Pilot Knob. However, closing the 
entrances would also seal the fate of one- 
fourth of the world's Indiana bat {Myotis 
sodalis) population. Although Missouri 
abounds in caves, only a few caves and 
mines have the temperature and moisture 




characteristics, along with the lack of 
human disturbance, that this Endangered 
bat needs to survive the winter. Approx- 
imately 140,000 Indiana bats hibernate in 
Pilot Knob Mine, which has not operated 
since 1890. 

These factors brought together an 
unusual group of interests in an effort to 
prevent future accidents and, at the same 
time, save the Indiana bat population. The 
property owner, Pilot Knob Ore Company, 
was involved, as were representatives of 
the Fish and Wildlife Service, Missouri 
Departments of Conservation and Labor 
Standards (Mine Safety), Commissioners 
of Iron County, several private conserva- 
tion organizations, and many interested 
individuals. 

After all was said and done, the owner 
decided to donate the peak of Pilot Knob 
(90 acres) to the Service for protection of 
the bat population. The area is now man- 
aged as a satellite of the Mingo National 
Wildlife Refuge. To prevent future acci- 
dents, the Missouri Department of Con- 
servation is spending $43,000 to con- 
struct a barbed wire-topped chain link 
fence around the area containing the 
entrances. Ninety percent of this cost will 
be reimbursed by the Service from funds 
appropriated by Congress under Section 
6 of the Endangered Species Act. Entry to 
this dangerous inactive mine is now 
prohibited, and violations can result in a 
fine of up to $20,000 and/or a year 
imprisonment. 

These Indiana bats must cluster 
densely in a cold cave to maintain 
proper temperatures with minimum 
energy expenditure. Of all available 
caves, only a few are suitable for their 
hibernation. Pilot Knob Mine for- 
tunately has the particular characteris- 
tics that duplicate the cave habitat 
needed by this endangered species. 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 



© 1984 Merlin D Tuttle, 
provided courtesy of Bat 
Conservation International 



Regional News 

(continued from page 6) 

ing their nesting season. News releases, 
posters, and public service announce- 
ments and interviews on Nebraska televi- 
sion and radio stations have been used to 
encourage the public to avoid disturbing 
nesting colonies along the Platte River 
wherever possible. Local businesses that 
could directly disturb the species (such as 
sand and gravel companies) have been 
asked to display posters in conspicuous 
areas to remind people of the birds' pres- 
ence. Businesses and organizations that 
could have indirect impacts on the spe- 
cies (such as those that sell recreation 
equipment or four-wheel drive and all-ter- 
rain vehicles) also are displaying the pos- 
ters. Volunteers are participating in a 
"Tern Corps" that watches nesting colo- 
nies during times of heavy human use. 

Research funded by the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation and the Colorado Division of 
Wildlife, and conducted by researchers 
from the Larval Fish Laboratory at Colo- 
rado State University in Fort Collins, Colo- 
rado, recently led to the capture of two 
humpback chubs (Gila cypha) and a Col- 
orado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius) in 
a canyon of the lower Little Snake River in 
Colorado. The Little Snake River is a trib- 
utary of the Yampa River in northwest 
Colorado. The discoveries were made as 
part of a radio-tracking study of adult Col- 
orado squawfish that were originally tag- 
ged in the Yampa River. 

There have been scattered reports of 
Colorado squawfish and humpback chub 
in the Little Snake River, but very little 
sampling had been done to confirm those 
reports. Because of its widely fluctuating 
flows, it was previously assumed that the 
Little Snake River was important only for 
input of seasonal flows and sediments to 
the Yampa River. Followup studies will 
seek to determine if Colorado squawfish 
and humpback chub use the Little Snake 
River for spawning. 

Fishery surveys of the San Juan River, 
which originates in southwestern Colo- 
rado and flows through the northwestern 
corner of New Mexico into southeastern 
Utah, indicate that the San Juan River 
may be more important to the recovery of 
the Colorado squawfish than previously 
believed. In 1987, 6 adult and 20 young- 
of-the-year Colorado squawfish were cap- 
tured in the San Juan. So far in 1988, 
three adult squawfish and one razorback 
sucker have been captured. Past studies 
of the San Juan have resulted in only inci- 
dental capture of Colorado squawfish. 
Studies to be conducted in fiscal years 
1988 and 1989 will attempt to determine 
the abundance and distribution of rare 
fishes in the San Juan River in Utah and 
New Mexico, assess habitat potential and 
possible limiting factors, and describe cur- 
rent and likely future hydrologic conditions 
(continued on page 8) 



Regional News 

(continued from page 7) 

of the river. Results of these studies are 
needed to develop a draft recovery man- 
agement plan for the San Juan River. 

Region 8 — Two whooping cranes from 
the captive flock maintained at the Patux- 
ent Wildlife Research Center died in late 
May. Twenty-seven other whooping 
cranes were examined and found to be 
very thin. They were administered sup- 
portive care consisting of fluid therapy, 
intestinal protectants, vitamin supple- 
ments, antibiotics, and anabolic steroids 
for 5 to 17 days. The cause of the prob- 
lem is still being investigated. A possible 
food-borne toxin causing food aversion is 
considered the most likely explanation 
and is supported by necropsy findings by 
the National Wildlife Health Research 
Center in Madison, Wisconsin. Feed sam- 
ples have been sent to six laboratories for 
nutrient, bacteriologic, environmental con- 
taminant, and mycotoxin analyses. The 
remaining whooping cranes are still being 
monitored but no longer require medical 
care. 

A captive-produced Puerto Rican parrot 
(Amazona vittata) chick that hatched on 
May 14 died 6 days later. In addition, a 
new wild Puerto Rican parrot pair at Caci- 
que exhibited abnormal behavior near its 
nest on May 14; when inspected on May 
15, the nest was empty. On May 17, the 
South Fork 1 pair behaved in an unusual 
manner, and a nest inspection on May 18 
revealed two dead chicks and a pipped 
egg that had failed to hatch. The pair did 
not accept a replacement chick. Both 



BOX SCORE OF U.S. LISTINGS AND 
RECOVERY PLANS 

ENDANGERED THREATENED SPECIES 

Category U.S. U.S. & Foreign U.S. U.S. & Foreign SPECIES* WITH 

Only Foreign Only Only Foreign Only TOTAL PLANS 



Mammals 


28 


19 


240 


3 


3 


23 


316 


25 


Birds 


61 


15 


145 


7 


3 


o 


231 


59 


Reptiles 


8 


7 


59 


14 


4 


14 


106 


22 


Amphibians 


5 





8 


4 





° 


17 


5 


Fishes 


41 


2 


11 


25 


6 


o 


85 


45 


Snails 


3 





1 


5 





o 


9 


7 


Clams 


29 





2 











31 


22 


Crustaceans 


5 








1 








6 


21 


Insects 


8 








7 





o 


15 


12 


Plants 


142 


6 


1 


34 


3 


2 


188 


70 


TOTAL 


330 


49 


467 


100 


19 


39 


1004 


269** 



Total U.S. Endangered 379 
Total U.S. Threatened 1J_9 
Total U.S. Listed 498 



Recovery Plans approved: 229 
Species currently proposed for 



isting: 22 animals 
23 plants 



'Separate populations of a species that are listed both as Endangered and Threatened 
are tallied twice. Those species are: the leopard, gray wolf, grizzly bear, bald eagle, pip- 
ing plover, roseate tern, Nile crocodile, green sea turtle, and olive Ridley sea turtle. For 
the purposes of the Endangered Species Act, the term "species" can mean a species, 
subspecies, or distinct vertebrate population. Several entries also represent entire genera 
or even families. 

**More than one species are covered by some recovery plans, and a few species have 
separate plans covering different parts of their ranges. 

Number of Cooperative Agreements signed with States and Territories: 51 fish & wildlife 
June 30, 1988 36 plants 



pairs have subsequently abandoned their 
nests. All three dead chicks were sent to 
the National Wildlife Health Research 



Center for necropsy; the diagnosis was 
aspiration pneumonia and bacterial 
pneumonia. 



June-July 1988 



Vol. XIII Nos. 6-7 





FIRST CLASS 




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 


US 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




PERMIT NO G-77 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, DC. 20240 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 6-7 (1988) 



£ 4? . 77: J3/ 



t 



«s 



\ \r. V 



-NTS 

! [_tf 



August 1988 



DEPOSIT 



Vol. XIII No. 8 




UBRAffi fc 



Technical Bulletin 



Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Washington, D.C. 20204 



Sea Turtle Conservation in the 
Southeastern Continental United States 



Earl Possardt 

Southeastern Sea Turtle Coordinator 

Jacksonville, Florida, Field Office 

Sea turtles, large air-breathing reptiles 
that spend almost their entire lives at sea, 
have existed for at least 100 million years. 
These remarkable animals swam the 
earth's oceans in countless numbers until 
recent times, when they have declined 
because of commercial exploitation, hab- 
itat alteration, incidental take by commer- 
cial fisheries, and other factors. Of the 
seven generally recognized species, six 
are listed by the United States as Endan- 
gered or Threatened. 

Nesting Habitat 

The southeastern United States coast, 
especially in Florida, provides nesting 
habitat for four listed species of sea tur- 
tles. About 15,000 female loggerhead tur- 
tles (Caretta caretta) nest annually on 
these beaches. This population is second 
in size only to the estimated 30,000 log- 
gerheads nesting each year in the Sulta- 
nate of Oman. These aggregations com- 
prise approximately 90 percent of the 
world's known population. Ninety percent 
of the loggerhead nesting in the United 
States occurs in Florida, 2 percent in 
Georgia, 6 percent in South Carolina, and 
the remaining 1 to 2 percent in North 
Carolina. In comparison, green turtle 
(Chelonia mydas) nesting in the conti- 
nental United States is much lower, with 
150 to 250 females nesting annually on 
east-central and southeast Florida 
beaches. Leatherbacks (Dermochelys 
coriacea) nest even less frequently in the 
continental United States, with fewer than 
20 to 25 females nesting in Florida each 
year. The hawksbill (Eretmochelys 
imbricata) rarely nests in the continental 
United States. 

The critical plight of the Kemp's ridley 
(Lepidochelys kempii), which only rarely 
nests in the United States (Texas), is well 
documented. An estimated 100,000 to 
300,000 clutches of eggs were deposited 
annually on its major nesting beach in 
Mexico prior to 1947. This plummeted to 
an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 nests by the 
1960s. Nesting has continued to decline, 
with 737 nests recorded in 1987. The 




Kemp's ridley sea turtle, the only listed species that normally nests in daylight, at 
Rancho Nuevo, Mexico 



decline of loggerheads is less dramatic, 
but recent evidence from nesting surveys 
in South Carolina and tagging studies in 
Georgia point to a 5 and 3 percent annual 
decline, respectively, on nesting beaches 
in these States. Recorded green turtle 
nesting in the southeastern United States 



has been recovering in recent years, from 
59 nests in 1979 to 746 in 1985. Although 
more thorough surveys partially account 
for these higher numbers, comparison of 
beaches monitored over this period indi- 
cates a true nesting increase. 

(continued on page 3) 



Listing Protection Proposed 
for Seven Species 



The Fish and Wildlife Service proposed 
during July to list seven taxa — two mam- 
mals, two mollusks, and three plants — 
as Endangered or Threatened species. If 
the proposals are later made final, full 
Endangered Species Act protection will 
be extended to the following: 

Two Florida Beach Mice 

Extensive development of beachfront 
habitat is threatening a number of beach 
mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) taxa in 
the southeastern United States. At least 
one subspecies on Florida's Atlantic 



Coast is already believed to be extinct, 
and three others found near the Florida/ 
Alabama border are listed by the Service 
as Endangered (see BULLETIN Vol. X 
No. 7). In July, the Service published a 
proposal (F.R. 7/5/88) to add another two 
subspecies, the Anastasia Island beach 
mouse (P. p. phasma) and the south- 
eastern beach mouse (P. p. nivei- 
ventris) to the Federal list of Endangered 
and Threatened wildlife. 

Beach mice are burrow-dwelling mam- 
mals that depend on natural coastal dune 
habitat. They cannot survive in areas that 
(continued on page 6) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 8 (1988) 




Regional endangered species staff- 
ers have reported the following news 
from June and July: 

Region 1 — Fish and Wildlife Service 
representatives attended the annual 



meeting of the Interagency Grizzly Bear 
Committee (a group of State and Federal 
agency directors and managers who 
advise and direct grizzly bear (Ursus 
arctos) recovery efforts in the conter- 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Frank Dunkle, Director 

(202-343-4717) 

Ralph O. Morgenweck 

Assistant Director for Fish 

and Wildlife Enhancement 

(202-343-4646) 

William E. Knapp, Chief, 

Kenneth B. Stansell, Deputy Chief, 

Division of Endangered Species and 

Habitat Conservation 

(703-235-2771) 

Marshal P. Jones, Chief, 

Office of Management Authority 

(202-343-4968) 

Clark R. Bavin, Chief, 

Division of Law Enforcement 

(202-343-9242) 

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 

Michael Bender, Editor 
(703-235-2407) 

Regional Offices 

Regional 1 , Lloyd 500 Bldg., Suite 1692, 500 
N.E. Multnomah St., Portland, OR 97232 
(503-231-61 18); Erwin "Wally" Steucke; 
Acting Regional Director; David F. Riley, 
Assistant Regional Director; Jay Watson, 
Chief, Division of Endangered Species and 
Habitat Conservation. 

Region 2, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 
871 f '3 (505-766-2321); Michael J. Spear, 
Rec.onal Director; Conrad A. Fjetland, 
Assistant Regional Director; Steve 
Chambers, Endangered Species 
Specialist. us pjsh and Wj|d|jfe Service Regions 

Region 1: California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, American Samoa, Commonwealth ot the Northern 
Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Trust Territories. Region 2: Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Region 
3: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Region 4: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, 
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina. South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin 
Islands. Region 5: Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia Region 6: Colorado, Kansas, 
Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota. South Dakota. Utah, and Wyoming Region 7: Alaska Region 8: Research and 
Development nationwide 

THE ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN is published monthly by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 



Region 3, Federal Bldg., Fort Snelling, Twin 
Cities, MN 55111 (612-725-3500); James 
C. Gritman, Regional Director; Gerald R. 
Lowry, Assistant Regional Director; 
James M. Engel, Endangered Species 
Specialist. 

Region 4, Richard B. Russell Federal Bldg., 
75 Spring St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 
(404-331-3580); James W. Pulliam, 
Regional Director; John I. Christian, 
Deputy Assistant Regional Director and 
Acting Endangered Species Specialist. 

Region 5, One Gateway Center, Suite 700, 
Newton Corner, MA 02158 (617-965- 
5100); Ronald E. Lambertson, Regional 
Director; Ralph Pisapia, Assistant 
Regional Director; Paul Nickerson, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 6, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Federal 
Center; Denver, CO 80225 (303-236- 
7920); Galen Buterbaugh, Regional Direc- 
tor; Robert E. Jacobsen, Assistant 
Regional Director; Larry Shanks, Endan- 
gered Species Specialist. 

Region 7, 101 1 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 
99503 (907-786-3542); Walter O. Stieglitz, 
Regional Director; Rowan Gould, Assis- 
tant Regional Director; Ron Garrett, En- 
dangered Species Specialist. 

Region 8 (FWS Research and Development 
nationwide), Washington, D.C. 20240; 
Richard N. Smith, Regional Director; Bet- 
tina Sparrow, Endangered Species 
Specialist (202-653-8762). 



minous United States). The meeting was 
hosted by the Committee's North Cas- 
cades Working Group, an organization of 
State and Federal biologists and land 
managers whose purpose is to oversee 
the evaluation of bear habitat and the sta- 
tus of the bear in the North Cascades 
ecosystem. 

Two public meetings were conducted, 
one on each side of the Cascade Moun- 
tains. The purpose of the meetings was to 
expose the public to concepts of grizzly 
bear management in the North Cascades 
and to gather public responses. Consider- 
able concern was voiced about transloca- 
tion of grizzly bears into the North 
Cascades ecosystem. The public was 
assured that the Service has no plans at 
this time for translocating grizzly bears 
into this ecosystem. 

Region 2 — A wild male sandhill crane 
(Grus canadensis) was captured at Grays 
Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho 
during August 1987, shipped to Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center in Maryland, 
and paired with a captive-reared female. 
A good pair bond seemed to be estab- 
lished and the pair was shipped to Grays 
Lake in May. They were held in an 
enclosure in the marsh for several weeks 
and then released. They continued to 
behave like a pair immediately after their 
release, but they later separated. This test 
of force-pairing was an effort to see how 
whooping cranes might respond in similar 
circumstances. 

* * * 

The 1988 breeding season in Arizona 
for the bald eagle {Haliaeetus leuc- 
ocephalus) was a record breaker. A total 
of 24 young fledged this year from 23 
occupied breeding areas. The previous 
high was in 1985 when 22 young were 
fledged from Arizona nests. Two new 
breeding areas were discovered this year, 
bringing the total of known breeding areas 
in Arizona to 27. This number is up signifi- 
cantly from 1971, when we knew of only 
one bald eagle breeding area in the State. 

The Arizona Nest Watch Program con- 
tinues to contribute to the recovery of this 
population by monitoring all active nests 
during the breeding season. This season, 
nestwatchers were directly responsible for 
saving four young eaglets — placing three 
stranded nestlings back into their nests 
and removing a large fishing lure from the 
beak of the fourth, thus saving it from 
starvation. 

The current Arizona bald eagle ecology 
study is in its second year. One of the 
more interesting findings is that all radi- 
oed juveniles disperse in June, fly north 
for the summer, then return to their desert 
natal areas in the fall of the same year. A 
male juvenile eagle that was banded and 
radio-tagged during the 1987 season 
migrated to Yellowstone Lake in Wyoming 
in June 1987 and returned to Arizona in 
September. He then returned to Yellow- 
(continued on page 7) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 8 (1988) 



Approved Listing Rules 



During July 1988, final listing rules were 
approved for two fishes, a mussel, a 
mammal, and two plants. Endangered 
Species Act protection is now available to 
the following: 

• shortnose sucker (Chasmistes 
brevirostris) and Lost River sucker 
(Deltistes luxatus) — These fishes are 
restricted to the Klamath Basin of south- 
central Oregon and north-central California. 
Dams, draining of marshes, diversion of 
rivers, and dredging of lakes have reduced 
the range and numbers of both species by 
more than 95 percent. Both are jeopardized 
by continued loss of habitat; hybridization 
with more common fishes; and competition 
with, and predation by, non-native species. 
No significant recruitment of young into the 
population has occurred for about 18 years. 
Both species were proposed for listing as 
Endangered on August 26, 1987 (see sum- 
mary in BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 9), and the 
final rule was published in the July 18, I988, 
Federal Register. 

• James spinymussel (Pleurobema 
collina) — This small freshwater clam, 
endemic to the James River drainage of 
Virginia and West Virginia, survives in only 
5 to 10 percent of its historical range. It is in 
danger of extinction from water quality deg- 
radation and invasion of its habitat by the 



exotic Asiatic clam (Corbiculata fluminea). 
The September 1 , 1987, proposal to list the 
James spinymussel as Endangered (see 
BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 10) was made final 
July 22, 1988. 

• Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys 
nitratoides nitratoides) — A small, hopping 
mammal with elongated hind legs, the Tip- 
ton kangaroo rat was distributed historically 
in dry, open scrub habitat in the Tulare 
Lake Basin of the San Joaquin Valley, Cal- 
ifornia. Conversion of native wildlands for 
agricultural production has eliminated the 
species from about 96 percent of its known 
former range. Much of the remaining hab- 
itat is highly fragmented and long-term sur- 
vival of the species in these areas is not 
ensured. The Service proposed listing the 
Tipton kangaroo rat on July 10, 1987, as 
Endangered (see BULLETIN Vol. XII No. 
8), and the final rule was published July 8, 
I988. 

• Houghton's goldenrod (Solidago 
houghtonii) — A perennial in the family 
Asteraceae, this plant grows to a height of 
about 30 inches (77 centimeters) and bears 
flat-topped clusters of relatively large yellow 
flowers. It is native to beach flats along the 
northern shores of Lakes Michigan and 
Huron. Currently, its range is reduced to 39 
sites in 8 Michigan counties and several 



sites in Ontario, Canada. The main threats 
to its survival are residential development 
of beachfront habitat, off-road vehicle use 
and certain other recreational activities, and 
rising lake levels. The August 19, 1987, 
proposal to list Houghton's goldenrod as a 
Threatened species (BULLETIN Vol. XII 
No. 9) was made final on July 18, 1988. 

• Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) — 
This plant, another member of Asteraceae, 
also grows to about 30 inches high. Among 
its distinguishing characteristics are the 
white-wooly, deeply divided leaves and 
cream-colored or yellowish flowers. 
Pitcher's thistle occurs along the sandy 
shores of the Great Lakes, primarily on sta- 
bilized, well developed dunes. Its range 
includes sites in Indiana, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin, and Ontario. Although there have been 
few documented losses of complete popu- 
lations, many colonies have been reduced 
in size and are therefore probably less able 
to reclaim disturbed areas. Because this 
plant grows along lakeshores, its habitat is 
likely to become increasingly vulnerable to 
development and recreation. The Service 
proposed on July 20, 1987, to list Pitcher's 
thistle as Threatened (see BULLETIN Vol. 
XII No. 8), and the final rule appeared in 
the July 18, 1988, Federal Register. 



Sea Turtles 

(continued from page 1) 

Aquatic Habitat 

The coastal marine environment of the 
southeastern United States provides 
equally important habitat for sea turtles. 
The bays, sounds, and nearshore waters 
from Chesapeake Bay to Laguna Madre 
in Texas are rich sources of benthic inver- 
tebrates, such as mollusks, sponges, and 
horseshoe crabs, which are the primary 
prey for juvenile and adult loggerheads. 
Green turtles, although greatly diminished 
from historical numbers, still graze on the 
coastal sea grass pastures of Florida's 
east coast and the Gulf of Mexico. 
Flotillas of leatherbacks are also occa- 
sionally sighted within several miles of 
shore feeding on concentrations of their 
principal food, jellyfish and other soft- 
bodied animals. Adult Kemp's ridleys, 
when away from their nesting beach in 
Mexico, are primarily associated with 
nearshore and inshore habitat in the Gulf 
of Mexico. Juveniles are found in these 
same habitats in the Gulf and along the 
South Atlantic coast. Both juvenile and 
adult Kemp's ridleys prey on the abun- 
dance of crabs found in these waters. 

Threats on Land and at Sea 

Sea turtles face serious danger 
throughout all life history stages. Threats 
on the nesting beaches include the de- 




green sea turtle digging its nest 

struction of nesting habitat from natural or 
human-accelerated beach erosion and 
the construction of sea walls, riprap, or 
other devices to protect oceanside prop- 
erty. Artificial lighting in developed areas 
disorients hatchlings when they emerge at 
night. Significant hatchling mortality can 
result as the young turtles crawl toward 
the lights. The same lights may deter 



some females from nesting, particularly 
green turtles, which appear to be more 
sensitive to this factor. High-rise con- 
dominiums and exotic Australian pines 
can shade nests and alter the natural sex 
ratio, since incubation temperature influ- 
ences the gender of the embryos as they 
develop. Beach nourishment projects can 
(continued on page 4) 



ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL BULLETIN Vol. XIII No. 8 (1988) 



Sea Turtles 

(continued from page 3) 

disrupt nesting turtles, destroy nests, and 
leave beach sand too compact for subse- 
quent nesting. Predators, such as rac- 
coons, feral hogs, ghost crabs, and in 
some cases man, take a heavy toll of 
eggs on many nesting beaches. 

Other dangers are encountered at sea. 
Probably the most serious threat to sea 
turtles in the South Atlantic and Gulf of 
Mexico is shrimp trawling. The National 
Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has 
estimated that nets from shrimp vessels 
drown over 11,000 sea turtles annually. 
Other commercial fisheries in these 
waters cause additional deaths but to an 
unknown degree. Marine pollution from oil 
and human refuse is another documented 
threat. Three percent of Florida's sea tur- 
tle strandings between 1980 and 1985 
were linked to the ingestion of tar balls or 
were otherwise related to petroleum. 
Leatherbacks die from impaction of their 
digestive systems after ingesting plastic 
bags which resemble jellyfish, their pri- 
mary food item. Boat strikes also take a 
toll; in Florida, for example, between 1980 
and 1985, 23 percent of stranded turtles 
had evidence of propeller wounds or 
cracked carapaces from boat collisions. It 
is unknown, however, what percentage of 
these wounds occurred pre- or post-mor- 
tem. 

Research, Conservation, and 
Protection 

Fortunately, sea turtle conservation is a 
truly cooperative effort, and many organi- 
zations, agencies, and universities are 
working together to improve the odds for 
these species. The NMFS, which is re- 
sponsible for sea turtle protection in the 
marine environment, has been working on 
regulations that require shrimp vessels 25 
feet or more in length to use turtle 
excluder devices (TEDs) in their trawls at 
certain times. This is probably the single 
most important action taken for sea turtle 
conservation since the 1970's, when the 
six listed sea turtle species were given 
Endangered Species Act protection. (The 
recent legislation reauthorizing the 
Endangered Species Act contained a 
provision to delay the implementation of 
the TEDS regulations.) A long-term tag- 
ging project at Cumberland Island 
National Seashore by the University of 
Georgia has provided not only the best 
data available on loggerhead nesting pop- 
ulation dynamics, but also a unique op- 
portunity to evaluate the effectiveness of 
TED regulations on a nesting population 
of loggerhead turtles. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) 
is acting to increase hatchling production 
for the 6 to 10 percent of the sea turtles in 
the Southeast that nest on national wild- 
life refuges each year. Predation is being 




Beachfront development can have serious impacts on sea turtle reproduction. 




This undeveloped beach may be protected as part of the Indian River acquisition pro- 
posal. 



reduced by screening nests and removing 
raccoons, and nests are being relocated 
on beaches that are experiencing severe 
erosion. The Air Force, Marine Corps, 
National Park Service, many Florida State 
Parks, South Carolina Wildlife and Marine 
Resources Department, some local com- 
munities (such as the City of Boca Raton, 
Florida), Greenpeac